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Industrial design

Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production. Its key characteristic is that design is separated from manufacture: the creative act of determining and defining a product's form and features takes place in advance of the physical act of making a product, which consists purely of repeated automated, replication; this distinguishes industrial design from craft-based design, where the form of the product is determined by the product's creator at the time of its creation. All manufactured products are the result of a design process, but the nature of this process can take many forms: it can be conducted by an individual or a large team; the role of an industrial designer is to create and execute design solutions for problems of form, usability, physical ergonomics, brand development and sales. For several millennia before the onset of industrialisation, technical expertise, manufacturing were done by individual craftsmen, who determined the form of a product at the point of its creation, according to their own manual skill, the requirements of their clients, experience accumulated through their own experimentation, knowledge passed on to them through training or apprenticeship.

The division of labour that underlies the practice of industrial design did have precedents in the pre-industrial era. The growth of trade in the medieval period led to the emergence of large workshops in cities such as Florence, Venice and Bruges, where groups of more specialized craftsmen made objects with common forms through the repetitive duplication of models which defined by their shared training and technique. Competitive pressures in the early 16th century led to the emergence in Italy and Germany of pattern books: collections of engravings illustrating decorative forms and motifs which could be applied to a wide range of products, whose creation took place in advance of their application; the use of drawing to specify how something was to be constructed was first developed by architects and shipwrights during the Italian Renaissance. In the 17th century, the growth of artistic patronage in centralized monarchical states such as France led to large government-operated manufacturing operations epitomised by the Gobelins Manufactory, opened in Paris in 1667 by Louis XIV.

Here teams of hundreds of craftsmen, including specialist artists and engravers, produced sumptuously decorated products ranging from tapestries and furniture to metalwork and coaches, all under the creative supervision of the King's leading artist Charles Le Brun. This pattern of large-scale royal patronage was repeated in the court porcelain factories of the early 18th century, such as the Meissen porcelain workshops established in 1709 by the Grand Duke of Saxony, where patterns from a range of sources, including court goldsmiths and engravers, were used as models for the vessels and figurines for which it became famous; as long as reproduction remained craft-based, the form and artistic quality of the product remained in the hands of the individual craftsman, tended to decline as the scale of production increased. The emergence of industrial design is linked to the growth of industrialisation and mechanisation that began with the industrial revolution in Great Britain in the mid 18th century.

The rise of industrial manufacture changed the way objects were made, urbanisation changed patterns of consumption, the growth of empires broadened tastes and diversified markets, the emergence of a wider middle class created demand for fashionable styles from a much larger and more heterogeneous population. The first use of the term "industrial design" is attributed to the industrial designer Joseph Claude Sinel in 1919, but the discipline predates 1919 by at least a decade. Christopher Dresser is considered among the first independent industrial designers. Industrial design's origins lie in the industrialization of consumer products. For instance the Deutscher Werkbund, founded in 1907 and a precursor to the Bauhaus, was a state-sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass-production techniques, to put Germany on a competitive footing with Great Britain and the United States; the earliest use of the term may have been in The Art Union, A monthly Journal of the Fine Arts, 1839.

Dyce's report to the Board of Trade on foreign schools of Design for Manufactures. Mr Dyces official visit to France and Bavaria for the purpose of examining the state of schools of design in those countries will be fresh in the recollection of our readers, his report on this subject was ordered to be printed some few months since, on the motion of Mr Hume. The school of St Peter, at Lyons was founded about 1750 for the instruction of draftsmen employed in preparing patterns for the silk manufacture, it has been much more successful than the Paris school and having been disorganized by the revolution, was restored by Napoleon and differently constituted, being erected into an Academy of Fine Art: to which the study of design for silk manufacture was attached as a subordinate branch. It appears that all the students who entered the school commence as if they were intended for artists in the higher sense of the word and are not expected to decide as to whether they will devote themselves to the Fine Arts or to Industrial Design, until they have completed their exercises in drawing and pai

French ship Mars

Several ships of the French Navy have borne the name Mars, after Mars, the Roman god of war: Mars, broken up in 1721. Mars, captured by HMS Nottingham off Cape Clear in 1746 and taken into service as HMS Mars, she was wrecked in 1755 near Nova Scotia. Mars, wrecked in 1765. Mars, burnt in 1773. Mars, laid down in 1835 as Sceptre, renamed Masséna in 1840, redesigned as a screw steamer in 1856, launched and completed in 1860. Stricken in 1881 and used as an accommodation hulk at Toulon, renamed Mars in 1892. Broken up for scrap in 1906. Several French privateers bore the name. Mars, involved in the Skirmish of Loch nan Uamh on 2 May 1746 during the Jacobite rising and was captured by HMS Dreadnought off Cape Clear in 1747. Mars, captured by HMS Amethyst on 31 March 1800 and taken into service as HMS Garland and served on the Jamaica Station, she was wrecked upon Caracole reef off Cap François. Mars

Selly Oak (ward)

The Selly Oak local council ward was one of the 40 electoral wards for the City of Birmingham, England prior to 2018. It was one of the four wards that make up the local council constituency of Selly Oak, the other three being the wards of Billesley and Brandwood; the Selly Oak ward covered an area of south Birmingham, includes not only the suburb of Selly Oak but the adjoining districts of Bournbrook, Selly Park and Ten Acres, together with a small part of the Stirchley area. It was replaced by Weoley and Selly Oak ward and Bournbrook and Selly Park ward both created in 2018; the 2001 Population Census recorded that 25,792 people were living in the Selly Oak ward, with a population density of 4,236 people per km² compared with 3,649 people per km² for Birmingham. The ward has a below-average percentage of ethnic minorities, with only 15.9% of the population consisting of ethnic minorities compared with 29.6% for Birmingham in general. The ward came into existence in 1911 when the boundaries of the City of Birmingham were extended as a result of the Greater Birmingham Act, when the number of electoral wards in the City was extended from 18 to 30.

At that stage three councillors were elected for the Ward, whereas in subsequent years there have been single elections. The area had been part of the Parish of Northfield, in north Worcestershire, it was created by the union of two former electoral wards of the King's Norton and Northfield urban district, namely the Selly Oak Ward, covering the districts of Bournbrook, Selly Park and Ten Acres, the Selly Oak Ward, covering Selly Oak itself and part of the district of Bournville). Under the Representation of the People Act 1918 the wards of Selly Oak and Northfield, together with that "part of King's Norton Ward, not included in the Moseley Division" were to form the Parliamentary constituency of King's Norton. Selly Oak ward remained within the King's Norton constituency until boundary alterations provided for in the 1948 Representation of the People Act placed it, the Northfield ward, in the newly constituted Parliamentary constituency of Northfield in 1950. Further boundary changes led to the creation of a distinct Selly Oak Parliamentary constituency in 1955, in which the ward of Selly Oak has since remained.

Birmingham electoral wards were changed in 2018, when the existing Selly Oak ward was be divided between new Bournbrook and Selly Park and Selly Oak and Weoley wards. The elected Birmingham City Council members prior to the wards dissolution were: Karen McCarthy, Brigid Jones and Changese Khan of the Labour Party. At the time Brigid Jones was Birmingham City Council's Cabinet Member for Children and Family Services. Birmingham City Council elections Birmingham City Council's Selly Oak Ward Birmingham City Council's Selly Oak Constituency