An industrial robot is a robot system used for manufacturing. Industrial robots are automated and capable of movement on three or more axis. Typical applications of robots include welding, assembly, disassembly and place for printed circuit boards and labeling, palletizing,product inspection, testing, they can assist in material handling. In the year 2015, an estimated 1.64 million industrial robots were in operation worldwide according to International Federation of Robotics. The most used robot configurations are articulated robots, SCARA robots, delta robots and cartesian coordinate robots. In the context of general robotics, most types of robots would fall into the category of robotic arms. Robots exhibit varying degrees of autonomy: Some robots are programmed to faithfully carry out specific actions over and over again without variation and with a high degree of accuracy; these actions are determined by programmed routines that specify the direction, velocity and distance of a series of coordinated motions.
Other robots are much more flexible as to the orientation of the object on which they are operating or the task that has to be performed on the object itself, which the robot may need to identify. For example, for more precise guidance, robots contain machine vision sub-systems acting as their visual sensors, linked to powerful computers or controllers. Artificial intelligence, or what passes for it, is becoming an important factor in the modern industrial robot; the earliest known industrial robot, conforming to the ISO definition was completed by "Bill" Griffith P. Taylor in 1937 and published in Meccano Magazine, March 1938; the crane-like device was built entirely using Meccano parts, powered by a single electric motor. Five axes of movement were possible, including grab rotation. Automation was achieved using punched paper tape to energise solenoids, which would facilitate the movement of the crane's control levers; the robot could stack wooden blocks in pre-programmed patterns. The number of motor revolutions required for each desired movement was first plotted on graph paper.
This information was transferred to the paper tape, driven by the robot's single motor. Chris Shute built a complete replica of the robot in 1997. George Devol applied for the first robotics patents in 1954; the first company to produce a robot was Unimation, founded by Devol and Joseph F. Engelberger in 1956. Unimation robots were called programmable transfer machines since their main use at first was to transfer objects from one point to another, less than a dozen feet or so apart, they used hydraulic actuators and were programmed in joint coordinates, i.e. the angles of the various joints were stored during a teaching phase and replayed in operation. They were accurate to within 1/10,000 of an inch. Unimation licensed their technology to Kawasaki Heavy Industries and GKN, manufacturing Unimates in Japan and England respectively. For some time Unimation's only competitor was Cincinnati Milacron Inc. of Ohio. This changed radically in the late 1970s when several big Japanese conglomerates began producing similar industrial robots.
In 1969 Victor Scheinman at Stanford University invented the Stanford arm, an all-electric, 6-axis articulated robot designed to permit an arm solution. This allowed it to follow arbitrary paths in space and widened the potential use of the robot to more sophisticated applications such as assembly and welding. Scheinman designed a second arm for the MIT AI Lab, called the "MIT arm." Scheinman, after receiving a fellowship from Unimation to develop his designs, sold those designs to Unimation who further developed them with support from General Motors and marketed it as the Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly. Industrial robotics took off quite in Europe, with both ABB Robotics and KUKA Robotics bringing robots to the market in 1973. ABB Robotics introduced IRB 6, among the world's first commercially available all electric micro-processor controlled robot; the first two IRB 6 robots were sold to Magnusson in Sweden for grinding and polishing pipe bends and were installed in production in January 1974.
In 1973 KUKA Robotics built its first robot, known as FAMULUS one of the first articulated robots to have six electromechanically driven axes. Interest in robotics increased in the late 1970s and many US companies entered the field, including large firms like General Electric, General Motors. U. S. startup companies included Adept Technology, Inc.. At the height of the robot boom in 1984, Unimation was acquired by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for 107 million U. S. dollars. Westinghouse sold Unimation to Stäubli Faverges SCA of France in 1988, still making articulated robots for general industrial and cleanroom applications and bought the robotic division of Bosch in late 2004. Only a few non-Japanese companies managed to survive in this market, the major ones being: Adept Technology, Stäubli, the Swedish-Swiss company ABB Asea Brown Boveri, the German company KUKA Robotics and the Italian company Comau. Number of axes – two axes are required to reach any point in a plane. To control the orientation of the end of the arm three more ax
Pierre Michel Auger is a Canadian politician, a Member of the National Assembly for the electoral district of Champlain from 2007 to 2008 and again since 2014. Born in Shawinigan, Auger holds a bachelor's degree from the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières in business administration and did additional courses in a master's degree program in applied sciences and industrial safety and health. Prior to his election, Auger taught at Collège Laflèche in Trois-Rivières, was a coordinator at the same college in tourism and hotel management, he was the owner of a local snow removal company, a hockey coach for several local clubs in several divisions and a member of the Association des restaurateurs du Québec and the Association des hôteliers du Québec. Running for the Action démocratique du Québec, he was first elected to the National Assembly in the 2007 general election with 45% of the vote. Parti Québécois incumbent Noëlla Champagne finished second with 31% of the vote. On October 23, 2008, he and fellow ADQ MNA André Riedl crossed the floor to sit as members of the caucus of the governing Liberal Party.
In the 2008 general election, Auger lost re-election against PQ candidate Noëlla Champagne, following which the Liberal government appointed Auger as commissioner and vice-president of the Régie du bâtiment du Québec. Auger was elected again to the National Assembly in the 2014 general election. "Pierre Michel Auger - Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours. National Assembly of Quebec
WhoCares was a supergroup formed by Ian Gillan of Deep Purple and Tony Iommi of Black Sabbath in 2011 with the participation of a great number of rock artists as a charity project to raise money to rebuild a music school in Gyumri, Armenia after the destruction of the city in the 1988 earthquake in Armenia. The album sold more than 20,000 copies in Europe; the super group WhoCares was made up Ian Gillan and Tony Iommi. Many artists took part in the project, namely the late Jon Lord, Jason Newsted, Nicko McBrain and Mikko "Linde" Lindström The formation of the project WhoCares follows a two-decade continuous efforts by Gillan in helping Armenia after the devastating earthquake there in north of the country. Gillan had been involved in Rock Aid Armenia following the earthquake; the documentary Picture of Home shot by Bernie Zelvis and Christina Rowatt documented Gillan's involvement with David Gilmour, Brian May, Ritchie Blackmore and Bruce Dickinson in recording "Smoke on the Water" as a charity for Armenian relief efforts.
On a return visit to Armenia to receive honorary presidential medal for their efforts and Iommi learned about a derelict music school in Gyumri affected by the earthquake. The music school was in dire need of repairs and staff, lacked many musical instruments. Gillan and Iommi formed WhoCares to provide financing for the school and solicited help from other artists to make music as a charity for the school. WhoCares debut single in 2011 was the 2-track release "Out of My Mind / Holy Water", a charity release, made available digital download, on CD and as a limited 7" editionIn July–August 2012, WhoCares launched a 2-CD release Ian Gillan & Tony Iommi: WhoCares containing many classic songs, but rarities and special tracks for the album. Ian Gillan - vocals Tony Iommi - guitars Jon Lord - keyboards Jason Newsted - bass Nicko McBrain - drums Mikko "Linde" Lindström - guitars