Industry Standard Architecture is the 16-bit internal bus of IBM PC/AT and similar computers based on the Intel 80286 and its immediate successors during the 1980s. The bus was backward compatible with the 8-bit bus of the 8088-based IBM PC, including the IBM PC/XT as well as IBM PC compatibles. Referred to as the PC/AT-bus, it was termed I/O Channel by IBM; the ISA term was coined as a retronym by competing PC-clone manufacturers in the late 1980s or early 1990s as a reaction to IBM attempts to replace the AT-bus with its new and incompatible Micro Channel architecture. The 16-bit ISA bus was used with 32-bit processors for several years. An attempt to extend it to 32 bits, called Extended Industry Standard Architecture, was not successful, however. Buses such as VESA Local Bus and PCI were used instead along with ISA slots on the same mainboard. Derivatives of the AT bus structure were and still are used in ATA/IDE, the PCMCIA standard, Compact Flash, the PC/104 bus, internally within Super I/O chips.
The ISA bus was developed by a team led by Mark Dean at IBM as part of the IBM PC project in 1981 Compaq created the term "Industry Standard Architecture" to replace "PC compatible". ISA originated as an 8-bit system. A 16-bit version, the IBM AT bus, was introduced with the release of the IBM PC/AT in 1984. In 1988, the 32-bit Extended Industry Standard Architecture standard was proposed by the "Gang of Nine" group of PC-compatible manufacturers that included Compaq. In the process, they retroactively renamed the AT bus to "ISA" to avoid infringing IBM's trademark on its PC/AT computer. IBM designed the 8-bit version as a buffered interface to the motherboard buses of the Intel 8088 CPU in the IBM PC and PC/XT; the 16-bit version was an upgrade for the motherboard buses of the Intel 80286 CPU used in the IBM AT. The ISA bus was therefore synchronous with the CPU clock, until sophisticated buffering methods were implemented by chipsets to interface ISA to much faster CPUs. ISA allows for bus mastering.
Only the first 16 MB of main memory is addressable. The original 8-bit bus ran from the 4.77 MHz clock of the 8088 CPU in the IBM PC and PC/XT. The original 16-bit bus ran from the CPU clock of the 80286 in IBM PC/AT computers, 6 MHz in the first models and 8 MHz in models; the IBM RT PC used the 16-bit bus. ISA was used in some non-IBM compatible machines such as Motorola 68k-based Apollo and Amiga 3000 workstations, the short-lived AT&T Hobbit and the PowerPC-based BeBox. Companies like Dell improved the AT bus's performance but in 1987, IBM replaced the AT bus with its proprietary Micro Channel Architecture. MCA overcame many of the limitations apparent in ISA but was an effort by IBM to regain control of the PC architecture and the PC market. MCA was far more advanced than ISA and had many features that would appear in PCI. However, MCA was a closed standard whereas IBM had released full specifications and circuit schematics for ISA. Computer manufacturers responded to MCA by developing the Extended Industry Standard Architecture and the VESA Local Bus.
VLB used some electronic parts intended for MCA because component manufacturers were equipped to manufacture them. Both EISA and VLB were backwards-compatible expansions of the AT bus. Users of ISA-based machines had to know special information about the hardware they were adding to the system. While a handful of devices were "plug-n-play", this was rare. Users had to configure parameters when adding a new device, such as the IRQ line, I/O address, or DMA channel. MCA had done away with this complication and PCI incorporated many of the ideas first explored with MCA, though it was more directly descended from EISA; this trouble with configuration led to the creation of ISA PnP, a plug-n-play system that used a combination of modifications to hardware, the system BIOS, operating system software to automatically manage resource allocations. In reality, ISA PnP could be troublesome and did not become well-supported until the architecture was in its final days. PCI slots were the first physically-incompatible expansion ports to directly squeeze ISA off the motherboard.
At first, motherboards were ISA, including a few PCI slots. By the mid-1990s, the two slot types were balanced, ISA slots soon were in the minority of consumer systems. Microsoft's PC 99 specification recommended that ISA slots be removed though the system architecture still required ISA to be present in some vestigial way internally to handle the floppy drive, serial ports, etc., why the software compatible LPC bus was created. ISA slots remained for a few more years, towards the turn of the century it was common to see systems with an Accelerated Graphics Port sitting near the central processing unit, an array of PCI slots, one or two ISA slots near the end. In late 2008 floppy disk drives and serial ports were disappearing, the extinction of vestigial ISA from chipsets was on the horizon. PCI slots are "rotated" compared to their ISA counterparts—PCI cards were inserted "upside-down," allowing ISA and PCI connectors to squeeze together on the motherboard. Only one of the two connectors can be used in each slot at a time, but this allowed for greater flexibility.
The AT Attachment hard disk interface is directly descended from the 16-bit ISA of the PC/AT. ATA has its origins in hardcards that integrated a hard disk drive and a hard disk controller onto one card; this was at best awkward and at worst damaging to the motherboard, as ISA slots were
CCPCH stands for Common Control Physical CHannel in UMTS and some other CDMA communications systems. It is a broadcast radio channel by which a mobile phone or user equipment can decode and determine important system parameters before establishing a dedicated communications link. In a FDD UMTS system, there are two CCPCH - Secondary. One Primary-CCPCH, which has a data rate of 27kbit/s and is always broadcast using Channelisation Code Cch,256,1; this channel can be detected by mobiles due to its fixed channelisation code, slot format and TTI, as well as being time aligned to the Synchronisation Channel which replaces the first 2 bits of P-CCPCH in every slot. The Broadcast Control Channel transport channel is mapped onto the P-CCPCH, allowing mobiles to decode important system parameters prior to establishing a dedicated connection. One or more Secondary-CCPCHs are provided to broadcast paging blocks and FACH messages; the P-CCPCH in a TDD-mode UMTS system carries pilot bits in. The pilot bits on the CCPCH can be used for measurements of the signal quality and for synchronisation and timing reference when decoding other channels from the same transmitter.
A definition for CCPCH in UMTS can be found in 3GPP 25.211 Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels and 25.221 Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels A definition for Ec/Io applicable to CCPCH can be found in 3GPP 25.133 Requirements for support of radio resource management and 25.123 Requirements for support of radio resource management Some information on CCPCH is given in 3GPP 25.104 Base Station radio transmission and reception and 25.105 Base Station radio transmission and reception Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
Black Comedy is an Australian television sketch comedy program produced by Scarlett Pictures which first screened on ABC on 5 November 2014. Black Comedy combines a mix of observational and physical sketches, historical sketches and parodies of TV, film and commercials and is a fast-paced look at Australian culture through the comedic prism of Indigenous Australians. A second series screened in 2016, a third goes to air in January 2020. Jon Bell Wayne Blair Adam Briggs Aaron Fa'aoso Nayuka Gorrie Maci-Grace Johnson Rarriwuy Hick Nakkiah Lui Steven Oliver Bjorn Stewart Dalara Williams Gabriel Willie David Woodhead Elizabeth Wymarra Ian Zaro Prior to the premiere of Black Comedy in November, ABC released a sketch, "Race Card Platinum" on the Friday Night Crack Up on 10 October 2014 as part of the ABC's "MentalAs" campaign to raise money and awareness for mental health issues; the sketch was introduced by series writer/actor Elizabeth Wymarra and series actor Aaron Fa'aoso and featured actor, Kyas Sherriff in a mock-advertising campaign for the fictitious "Race Card Platinum".
Official website Black Comedy on IMDb
Carole Facal, is a Canadian singer-songwriter from Quebec. She wrote and performed mainly in French but changed to English language Indie-Pop albums in 2012, all done under the stage name Caracol. Born to an Uruguayan father and a Swiss mother and raised in Sherbrooke, she was trained in classical violin. Always athletic, she left home at 17 to pursue a career as a snowboarder in British Columbia. There, she began to write her own music, she returned to Quebec and joined the reggae group Kaliroots forming a dreadlocked duet act called DobaCaracol with Dorianne Fabreg. DobaCaracol toured internationally; the group released two albums, Le Calme Son and SOLEY. SOLEY sold more than 100,000 copies worldwide, was certified Gold in Canada, won a Félix Award, their profile was raised in English Canada with their performance at the 2005 Live 8 Toronto concert. DobaCaracol broke up in 2007, after which Facal began work on her first solo album L'arbre aux parfums, released in September 2008; the album, an eclectic mix of reggae and numerous other musical influences, was released to acclaim and led to two cash awards and a Juno nomination for Francophone Album of the Year.
In December 2009 she was scheduled to play as the lead act for Serena Ryder on a brief tour of Atlantic Canada. A European tour followed in March 2010, her 2011 release was entitled Blanc mercredi, followed by the album Shiver in 2012m, the first one in English language. Caracol released a new album in November 2018 named "Symbolism"; the "Symbolism" adventure begins with an encounter with producer Joey Waronker during a creative trip to Los Angeles. After he fell in love with her demos, he decided to work with her, they went on to record 12 songs where Caracol reached a new height in authenticity and artistic expression. She continued the exploration at her headquarters of Studio de l'Est, with her long-time allies Seb Ruban & Toast Dawg, two of Montreal's most talented producers; as a teenager, always on the hunt for thrill, Caracol traveled the world as a semi-professional snowboarding athlete. Today, the self-taught artist keeps walking off the beaten paths as she tours around the world, in search of intense human experiences and artistic collaborations of all kinds.
Transformation, ecstasy, wisdom and conflict are among the themes that inspire her in her quest. Along the way, she performs a true introspection to come out in full possession of her art. More than just a musical project, "Symbolism" has allowed a fruitful collaboration with multidisciplinary artists The Doodys and artistic director Fred Caron in creating a peculiar universe touching upon various artistic and spiritual currents, while revealing the true nature of Caracol. Carole Facal is a younger sister of the Quebec politician Joseph Facal, a former Parti Québécois cabinet minister, she has a child with her boyfriend. Official website
Blood Contact is the fourth novel of the military science fiction StarFist Saga, written by David Sherman and Dan Cragg. This book in the series follows Gunnery Sergeant Bass and the rest of 3rd Platoon, Company L, 34th FIST as they investigate a missing scientific team on the planet Society 437. Expecting that pirates are to blame for the failure of the team to check in as scheduled, 3rd Platoon discovers something far more deadly and dangerous is behind the destruction of the station. What they find has serious implications for the entire human race; the Skinks, a race of bipedal, amphibian-like creatures who wield acid guns, conduct a campaign to wipe out the entire Scientific Society
François André Camoin, born in Nice, was an American short story writer. He came to the United States in 1952, he graduated from the University of Massachusetts with a Ph. D. in 1967. He taught at the University of Utah until 2011 when he retired due to illness, his students included authors Rob Roberge. He lived in Salt Lake City with his wife and dogs. According to his wife Shelley, he had a particular fondness for peppermint bark, his work appears in Mid-American Review, Missouri Review and Quarterly West. 1985 Flannery O'Connor Award for Short Fiction 1995 Salt Lake City Mayor's Artist Award 2004 Utah Humanities Council Grant April, So On. What Books Press. 2009. ISBN 978-0-9823542-4-7. Like Love But Not Exactly. University of Missouri Press. 1992. ISBN 978-0-8262-0845-3. Deadly Virtues. Arrowood Books. 1988. ISBN 978-0-934847-06-3. Why Men Are Afraid of Women. University of Georgia Press. January 1985. ISBN 978-0-8203-0722-0. Why Men Are Afraid of Women. University of Georgia Press. March 2013. ISBN 978-0820344621.
The End of the World Is Los Angeles. University of Missouri Press. April 1982. ISBN 978-0-8262-0365-6. Benbow and Paradise. Dutton. 1975. ISBN 978-0-525-06315-5; the Revenge Convention in Webster and Tourneur. Institut für Englische Sprache und Literatur, Universität Salzburg. 1972. Janice Eidus, John Kastan, eds.. It roll short stories. David R. Godine Publisher. ISBN 978-1-56792-089-5. CS1 maint: uses editors parameter Charles East, ed.. "Peacock Blue". The Flannery O'Connor Award: Selected Stories. University of Georgia Press. P. 40. ISBN 978-0-8203-1524-9