SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Inertia

Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its velocity. This includes changes to direction of motion. An aspect of this property is the tendency of objects to keep moving in a straight line at a constant speed, when no forces act upon them. Inertia comes from the Latin word, meaning idle, sluggish. Inertia is one of the primary manifestations of mass, a quantitative property of physical systems. Isaac Newton defined inertia as his first law in his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, which states: The vis insita, or innate force of matter, is a power of resisting by which every body, as much as in it lies, endeavours to preserve its present state, whether it be of rest or of moving uniformly forward in a straight line. In common usage, the term "inertia" may refer to an object's "amount of resistance to change in velocity" or for simpler terms, "resistance to a change in motion", or sometimes to its momentum, depending on the context; the term "inertia" is more properly understood as shorthand for "the principle of inertia" as described by Newton in his first law of motion: an object not subject to any net external force moves at a constant velocity.

Thus, an object will continue moving at its current velocity until some force causes its speed or direction to change. On the surface of the Earth, inertia is masked by gravity and the effects of friction and air resistance, both of which tend to decrease the speed of moving objects; this misled the philosopher Aristotle to believe that objects would move only as long as force was applied to them. The principle of inertia is one of the fundamental principles in classical physics that are still used today to describe the motion of objects and how they are affected by the applied forces on them. Prior to the Renaissance, the most accepted theory of motion in Western philosophy was based on Aristotle who around about 335 BC to 322 BC said that, in the absence of an external motive power, all objects would come to rest and that moving objects only continue to move so long as there is a power inducing them to do so. Aristotle explained the continued motion of projectiles, which are separated from their projector, by the action of the surrounding medium, which continues to move the projectile in some way.

Aristotle concluded. Despite its general acceptance, Aristotle's concept of motion was disputed on several occasions by notable philosophers over nearly two millennia. For example, Lucretius stated. In the 6th century, John Philoponus criticized the inconsistency between Aristotle's discussion of projectiles, where the medium keeps projectiles going, his discussion of the void, where the medium would hinder a body's motion. Philoponus proposed that motion was not maintained by the action of a surrounding medium, but by some property imparted to the object when it was set in motion. Although this was not the modern concept of inertia, for there was still the need for a power to keep a body in motion, it proved a fundamental step in that direction; this view was opposed by Averroes and by many scholastic philosophers who supported Aristotle. However, this view did not go unchallenged in the Islamic world, where Philoponus did have several supporters who further developed his ideas. In the 11th century, Persian polymath Ibn Sina claimed that a projectile in a vacuum would not stop unless acted upon.

In the 14th century, Jean Buridan rejected the notion that a motion-generating property, which he named impetus, dissipated spontaneously. Buridan's position was that a moving object would be arrested by the resistance of the air and the weight of the body which would oppose its impetus. Buridan maintained that impetus increased with speed. Despite the obvious similarities to more modern ideas of inertia, Buridan saw his theory as only a modification to Aristotle's basic philosophy, maintaining many other peripatetic views, including the belief that there was still a fundamental difference between an object in motion and an object at rest. Buridan believed that impetus could be not only linear, but circular in nature, causing objects to move in a circle. Buridan's thought was followed up by his pupil Albert of Saxony and the Oxford Calculators, who performed various experiments that further undermined the classical, Aristotelian view, their work in turn was elaborated by Nicole Oresme who pioneered the practice of demonstrating laws of motion in the form of graphs.

Shortly before Galileo's theory of inertia, Giambattista Benedetti modified the growing theory of impetus to involve linear motion alone: "… portion of corporeal matter which moves by itself when an impetus has been impressed on it by any external motive force has a natural tendency to move on a rectilinear, not a curved, path." Benedetti cites the motion of a rock in a sling as an example of the inherent linear motion of objects, forced into circular motion. According to historian of science Charles Coulston Gillispie, inertia "entered science as a physical consequence of Descartes' geometrization of space-matter, combined with the immutability of God." The principle of inertia, which originated with Aristotle for "motions in a void", states that an object tends to resist a change in motion. According to Newton, an object will stay at rest or stay in motion unless acted on by a net external force, whether it results from gravity, contact, or some other force; the Aristotelian

Norbert Hosnyánszky

Norbert Hosnyánszky is a Hungarian water polo player. He competed at the 2008, 2012 and 2016 Olympics and won a gold medal in 2008. Hosnyánszky has a son Zalan and a daughter Szonja. In 2008 he received the Officer's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary. In 2015 he had a neck injury in a car accident. BVSC-Westel Ferencvárosi TC-VMAX Florentia Szeged-Beton TEVA-VasasPlaket Florentia 2x TEVA-VasasPlaket 2x ZF-Eger Szolnoki Dózsa-KÖZGÉP ZF-Eger 2x loan to Marsaxlokk A. S. C. 2018 Olympic Games: Gold medal - 2008 World Championships: Gold medal - 2013 European Championship: Silver medal - 2006, 2014.

Thomas Nail

Thomas Nail is an Associate Professor of Philosophy at The University of Denver. Nail became interested in philosophy through his political activism at the University of North Texas, where he received his B. A. in philosophy. He received his Ph. D. from the University of Oregon, where he studied political philosophy, environmental philosophy, feminist philosophy, post-structuralism, continued his political activism. In Oregon, Nail wrote his dissertation on the theme of political revolution in the work of French philosophers Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari and the Zapatista uprising in Chiapas, Mexico; this research was the foundation of his first book, Returning to Revolution: Deleuze and Zapatismo, published in 2012. In 2009-2010, Nail was awarded a U. S. Fulbright Scholarship to conduct a year-long participatory research program with the migrant activist movement, No One is Illegal in Toronto, Canada; this was a major source of inspiration for The Figure of the Migrant and Theory of the Border and the beginning of his work on the philosophy of movement.

Nail defines the philosophy of movement as “the analysis of diverse phenomena across social, aesthetic and ontological domains from the primary perspective of motion.” The philosophy of motion is a unique kind of philosophical methodology. It is related to process philosophy but is distinct from Whitehead's discontinuous "occasions" and from Bergson's vitalism. “The difference between describing the motion of things, which every philosopher and layperson has done, the philosophy of movement is the degree to which movement plays an analytically primary role in the description.” For example, Nail contrasts two methods of describing motion. On the one hand, if we describe a body moving through a space over a time, we are describing motion, but we are not describing motion from the perspective of motion; this is because we have assumed the prior existence of static background spacetime coordinates and the prior existence of a discrete, internally unchanging, “body” that moves through them. On the other hand, if we describe a situation from the perspective of motion there are no pre-given phenomena of space, time, or discrete bodies.

There are only emergent features of matter-in-motion. In other words, if we begin from the perspective that movement is primary motion is not reducible to spacetime. Matter-in-motion is not in spacetime but rather produces spacetime itself; this conclusion is consistent with, but not identical to, recent physical theories of motion in quantum gravity. From the perspective of movement, according to Nail, all discrete bodies are the result of moving flows of matter that continually fold themselves up in various patterns or what he calls “fields of motion.” Nail's philosophy of movement provides a conceptual framework for the study of these patterns of motion through history. Nail, however claims his philosophy of movement is not a metaphysical theory of reality in itself. Instead, he describes it as a practical and historical methodology oriented by the unprecedented scale and scope of global mobility in the early 21st century. In particular, he names four major historical conditions that situate his thought: mass migration, digital media, quantum physics, climate change.

He therefore describes his philosophy as a “history of the present.” Nail describes his work as loosely part of the recent philosophical tradition of new materialism. The term “new materialism” has been applied to numerous and divergent philosophies including speculative realists, object-oriented ontologists, neo-vitalists who all share in common some version of non-anthropocentric realism. However, Nail's work does not fit into any of these camps, his philosophy of movement instead offers a different kind of new materialism insofar as it focuses on the pedetic/indeterministic motion of matter and its various kinetic patterns. His philosophy is unique among new materialists because of its historical methodology. Nail's published work is divided into two primary books series; the first series is composed of six “core” books, each written with a similar organization on five major areas of philosophy: ontology, aesthetics and nature. Each book provides a theory and contemporary case study of the kinetic method.

The purpose of each book is to redefine its subject area from a kinetic or process materialist perspective. The Figure of the Migrant and Theory of the Border develop a theory and history of what he terms “kinopolitics” based on the study of patterns of social motion. Theory of the Image develops a “kinesthetics” of moving images in the arts. Theory of the Object develops a “kinemetrics” of moving objects in the sciences. Theory of the Earth develops a “geokinetics” of nature in motion, Being and Motion develops an original historical ontology of motion; the second series is composed of several books, each written on a major historical precursor to the philosophy motion. This includes Lucretius, Karl Marx, Virginia Woolf; each book offers a kinetic interpretation and close reading of one of these figures as philosophers who made motion their fundamental starting point. They include Lucretius I: An Ontology of Motion, released in 2018. Returning to Revolution: Deleuze and Zapatismo, ISBN 978-0748655861 The Figure of the Migrant, ISBN 978-0804787178, ISBN 978-0804796583 Theory of the Border, ISBN 978-0190618643, ISBN 978-0190618650 Lucretius I: An Ontology of Motion (Ed