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Inertial navigation system

An inertial navigation system is a navigation device that uses a computer, motion sensors and rotation sensors to continuously calculate by dead reckoning the position, the orientation, the velocity of a moving object without the need for external references. The inertial sensors are supplemented by a barometric altimeter and by magnetic sensors and/or speed measuring devices. INSs are used on mobile robots and on vehicles such as ships, submarines, guided missiles, spacecraft. Other terms used to refer to inertial navigation systems or related devices include inertial guidance system, inertial instrument, inertial measurement unit and many other variations. Older INS systems used an inertial platform as their mounting point to the vehicle and the terms are sometimes considered synonymous. Inertial navigation is a self-contained navigation technique in which measurements provided by accelerometers and gyroscopes are used to track the position and orientation of an object relative to a known starting point and velocity.

Inertial measurement units contain three orthogonal rate-gyroscopes and three orthogonal accelerometers, measuring angular velocity and linear acceleration respectively. By processing signals from these devices it is possible to track the position and orientation of a device. Inertial navigation is used in a wide range of applications including the navigation of aircraft and strategic missiles, spacecraft and ships, it is embedded in the nowadays mobile phone for purpose of mobile phone location and tracking. Recent advances in the construction of microelectromechanical systems have made it possible to manufacture small and light inertial navigation systems; these advances have widened the range of possible applications to include areas such as human and animal motion capture. An inertial navigation system includes at least a computer and a platform or module containing accelerometers, gyroscopes, or other motion-sensing devices; the INS is provided with its position and velocity from another source accompanied with the initial orientation and thereafter computes its own updated position and velocity by integrating information received from the motion sensors.

The advantage of an INS is that it requires no external references in order to determine its position, orientation, or velocity once it has been initialized. An INS can detect a change in its geographic position, a change in its velocity and a change in its orientation, it does this by measuring the linear angular velocity applied to the system. Since it requires no external reference, it is immune to deception. Inertial navigation systems are used in many different moving objects. However, their cost and complexity place constraints on the environments in which they are practical for use. Gyroscopes measure the angular velocity of the sensor frame with respect to the inertial reference frame. By using the original orientation of the system in the inertial reference frame as the initial condition and integrating the angular velocity, the system's current orientation is known at all times; this can be thought of as the ability of a blindfolded passenger in a car to feel the car turn left and right or tilt up and down as the car ascends or descends hills.

Based on this information alone, the passenger knows what direction the car is facing but not how fast or slow it is moving, or whether it is sliding sideways. Accelerometers measure the linear acceleration of the moving vehicle in the sensor or body frame, but in directions that can only be measured relative to the moving system; this can be thought of as the ability of a blindfolded passenger in a car to feel himself pressed back into his seat as the vehicle accelerates forward or pulled forward as it slows down. Based on this information alone, he knows how the vehicle is accelerating relative to itself, that is, whether it is accelerating forward, left, right, up, or down measured relative to the car, but not the direction relative to the Earth, since he did not know what direction the car was facing relative to the Earth when they felt the accelerations. However, by tracking both the current angular velocity of the system and the current linear acceleration of the system measured relative to the moving system, it is possible to determine the linear acceleration of the system in the inertial reference frame.

Performing integration on the inertial accelerations using the correct kinematic equations yields the inertial velocities of the system and integration again yields the inertial position. In our example, if the blindfolded passenger knew how the car was pointed and what its velocity was before he was blindfolded and if he is able to keep track of both how the car has turned and how it has accelerated and decelerated since he can know the current orientation and velocity of the car at any time. All inertial navigation systems suffer from integration drift: small errors in the measurement of acceleration and angular velocity are integrated into progress

J. E. M. Ag Supply, Inc. v. Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.

J. E. M. Ag Supply, Inc. v. Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. 534 U. S. 124, was a decision of the United States Supreme Court holding for the first time that utility patents may be issued for crops and other flowering plants under 35 U. S. C. § 101. The Supreme Court rejected the argument that the exclusive ways to protect these plants are under the Plant Variety Protection Act, 7 U. S. C. § 2321, the Plant Patent Act of 1930, 35 U. S. C. §§ 161-164. Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. owns patents that cover the manufacture and sale of various hybrid corn seed products. Pioneer sells its patented hybrid seeds under a limited label license that provides: "License is granted to produce grain and/or forage." The license says that it "does not extend to the use of seed from such crop or the progeny thereof for propagation or seed multiplication," and prohibits "the use of such seed or the progeny thereof for propagation or seed multiplication or for production or development of a hybrid or different variety of seed."J.

E. M. Ag Supply, Inc. doing business as Farm Advantage, Inc. purchased patented hybrid corn seeds from Pioneer in bags bearing the foregoing label license. Farm Advantage resold these bags without authorization from Pioneer to do so. Pioneer sued Farm Advantage and several of its distributors and customers. Pioneer alleged that J. E. M. had "for a long-time past been and still infringing one or more by making, selling, or offering for sale corn seed” covered under the patents. J. E. M. Responded that Pioneer’s patents that purport to confer protection for corn plants are invalid because sexually reproducing plants are not patentable subject matter within the scope of 35 U. S. C. § 101 J. E. M. Maintained that the Plant Variety Protection Act and set forth the exclusive statutory means for the protection of complex plant life. J. E. M. argued that these statutes are more specific than § 101, thus carve out subject matter from § 101 for special treatment. J. E. M. said that awarding utility patents for plants upsets the scheme of protection contemplated by Congress.

Part of that scheme is that the PVPA provides exemptions for farmers to save seed from their crops for planting subsequent crops. Utility patents do not contain such exemptions; the district court and Federal Circuit rejected J. E. M. held that it infringed Pioneer's patents. The case went to the Federal Circuit on an interlocutory appeal of the denial of summary judgment; the only issue on appeal from the district court was whether seeds and plants grown from seeds of sexually reproduced plants are patentable subject matter within the scope of 35 U. S. C. § 101—i.e. are patent eligible. There was no other issue, such as whether J. E. M.'s conduct was patent infringement under 35 U. S. C. § 271 or whether resale of purchased seed in defiance of a label license prohibiting resale was shielded from infringement liability by the exhaustion doctrine or whether growing crops from the seed constituted "making" under that statute. Nonetheless, J. E. M. argued ``. The Federal Circuit responded, "These issues were not decided by the district court, are not before us."

Addressing the only issue properly before it, the court held seeds and plants grown from seeds of sexually reproduced plants are patentable subject matter within the scope of 35 U. S. C. § 101. Justice Clarence Thomas delivered the opinion of a 6-2 court; the majority of the Court considered the case governed by the decision twenty years previous in Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U. S. 303, 312-13. In that case, the Court had upheld the entitlement of a company to a utility patent on a man-made micro-organism capable of digesting oil spills, it rejected the Patent Commissioner's argument that living things could not be patented, saying: "The relevant distinction was not between living and inanimate things, but between products of nature, whether living or not, human-made inventions."The Court said that J. E. M. did not dispute that plants “fall within the terms of § 101's broad language that includes ‘manufacture’ or ‘composition of matter.’ " The argument that J. E. M. made against Pioneer stood or fell with J.

E. M.’s proposition that Congress intended the PVPA to be the sole means for protecting plant inventions. But the Court said. To be sure, the Court said, when Congress passed the PPA in 1930 it did so because it thought plants could not be protected under the regular patent law. Among other things it thought. Congress was mistaken, the Court held, as is shown by the Chakrabarty decision: As this Court held in Chakrabarty, "the relevant distinction" for purposes of § 101 is not "between living and inanimate things, but between products of nature, whether living or not, human-made inventions." The Court found the same true for the PVPA. Under that law, however, “A farmer who purchases and plants a protected variety can save the seed from these plants for replanting on his own farm.” The PVPA and the PPA operate in parallel with § 101 of the utility patent law. They provide different degrees of protection and have different requirements for securing protection; the laws do not supersede the earlier one.

The Court concluded: For these reasons, we hold that newly developed plant breeds fall within the terms of § 101, that neither the PPA nor the PVPA limits the scope of § 101's coverage. As in Chakrabarty, we decline to narrow the reach of § 101 w

Out, Out—

"Out, Out—" is a single stanza poem authored by American poet Robert Frost, relating the accidental death of young boy—with references to Shakespeare's Macbeth. The poem was written in memory of 16-year-old Raymond Tracy Fitzgerald, whom Frost had befriended while living in Franconia, New Hampshire. Fitzgerald had died on March 24, 1910 after an accident similar to the accident related in Out, Out—; the poem was first published in the July 1916 issue of McClure's before being included in the collection Mountain Interval. "Out Out—" tells the story of a young boy who dies after his hand is severed by a "buzz-saw". The poem focuses on people's reactions to death, as well as the death itself, one of the main ideas being that life goes on; the boy lost his hand to a buzz saw and bled so much that he went into shock, dying in spite of his doctor's efforts. Frost uses personification to great effect throughout the poem; the buzz saw, although technically an inanimate object, is described as a cognizant being—"snarling" and "rattling" as well as "leaping" out at the boy's hand in excitement.

Frost concentrates on the apparent innocence and passivity of the boy—which is relevant to the time period—as Frost was forced to move back to America due to war in Britain just a year before the poem was written. Bearing this in mind, the poem can be read as a critique as to how warfare can force innocent, young boys to leave their childhood behind, be destroyed by circumstances created by the "responsible" adult; the title of the poem is an allusion to William Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth. Macbeth is shocked to hear of his wife's death and comments on the brevity of life, it refers to how fragile life is. This poem uses some figurative language including onomatopoeia, alliteration and many others. Harold Bloom said it is "one of Frost's most respected poems, but it has not received the same depth of critical attention and explication as poems such as "The Road Not Taken" and "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening"

DTA Dynamic

The DTA Dynamic is a series of French double-surface ultralight trike wings and produced by DTA sarl of Montélimar. The wings are used on DTA trikes as well as by other ultralight aircraft manufacturers; the Dynamic is a cable-braced, king post-equipped hang glider-style wing designed as a touring wing for two-place trikes. It comes in three sizes. All members of the series are made from bolted-together aluminum tubing, with its 84% double surface wing covered in Dacron sailcloth; the wing's crosstube is of a floating design and all models have a nose angle of 125° and use an "A" frame weight-shift control bar. It is manufactured by La société Ellipse. Dynamic 450 Model with a gross weight of 472.5 kg, a wing area of 15.5 m2, span of 10.2 m, an aspect ratio of 5.4:1 and 80% double surface. Dynamic 15 Model with a gross weight of 400 kg, a wing area of 13.6 m2, span of 9.8 m. Dynamic 15/430 Model with a gross weight of 430 kg, a wing area of 13.6 m2, span of 9.8 m, an aspect ratio of 5.44:1 and 80% double surface.

Dynamic 16/430 Model with a gross weight of 430 kg, a wing area of 14.5 m2, span of 10.2 m, an aspect ratio of 6.0:1 and 75% double surface. DTA Combo DTA Evolution DTA Feeling DTA Voyageur Data from Bayerl and DTAGeneral characteristics Length: 3.00 m Wingspan: 10.20 m Height: 2.70 m Wing area: 15.5 m2 Aspect ratio: 5.4:1 Empty weight: 59 kg wing weight Gross weight: 450 kg maximum aircraft gross weight allowedPerformance Cruise speed: 110 km/h Stall speed: 50 km/h Never exceed speed: 160 km/h g limits: +4/-2 Wing loading: 29.0 kg/m2 maximum Official website

City of Geraldton-Greenough

The City of Geraldton-Greenough was a local government area in the Mid West region of Western Australia, 424 kilometres north of the state capital, Perth on the Indian Ocean. It covered an area of 1,798.3 square kilometres, its seat of government was the town of Geraldton. In existence for four years, it was established on 1 July 2007 through the amalgamation of the former City of Geraldton and Shire of Greenough, itself amalgamated with the Shire of Mullewa into the City of Greater Geraldton on 1 July 2011. A recommendation was made to the Minister for Local Government by the Local Government Advisory Board in August 2006 to amalgamate the Shire of Greenough with the City of Geraldton; the Greenough electors petitioned for a referendum to determine whether amalgamation should proceed. This was held on 2 December 2006, with a participation rate of 28.74%, a majority of 80% voted against the proposal. However, under the Local Government Act 1995 as the vote did not attract 50% of registered voters, it did not meet the requirements for a valid poll.

The councillors of both local government authorities resigned at the end of April 2007, elections for the new local government took place in October 2007. The entity was managed by three commissioners in the interim, headed by Jeff Carr, the state member for Geraldton from 1974 until 1991. Throughout 2010 and 2011 negotiations were held between the City of Geraldton-Greenough and the Shire of Mullewa as to whether the two entities should merge. After a long period of negotiations the entities decided to merge. A poll was requested by both communities and was held on 16 April 2011. 83.24% of voters voted against the merger in Mullewa, with 72.39% of voters against the merger in Geraldton-Greenough. However, both polls failed to reach the minimum 50% turnout required to be a valid poll; the two entities will merge on 1 July 2011 to become the City of Greater Geraldton. The Liberal government announced its intentions to amalgamate local governments around the state in line with reforms undertaken elsewhere in Australia.

The plan did not succeed, but a number of local governments commenced negotiations for voluntary mergers. One such group included the Shire of Chapman Valley and the Shire of Mullewa. In February 2010, Chapman Valley decided not to proceed. In December 2010, the Local Government Advisory Board approved the merger. Polls were held in both municipalities, with 72.61% of voters in Geraldton-Greenough and 83.23% of voters in Mullewa voting against the merger. However, both polls failed to reach the minimum 50% required to be a valid poll, the City of Greater Geraldton came into being on 1 July 2011; the City was divided into each with two councillors. The Local Government Advisory Board recommended that the mayor be elected from amongst the councillors, as opposed to a directly elected mayor such as the former City of Geraldton. Champion Bay Ward – contains Beresford and Webberton Chapman Ward – contains Bluff Point, Drummond Cove, Sunset Beach and Waggrakine Port Ward – contains Geraldton itself and Mahomets Flats Tarcoola Ward – contains Mount Tarcoola, Tarcoola Beach and Wandina Willcock Ward – contains Karloo, Rangeway and part of Utakarra Hills Ward – contains the majority of the City's land area, includes the suburbs of Strathalbyn and Woorree Beachlands Beresford Bluff Point Deepdale Geraldton Glenfield Karloo Mahomets Flats Moresby Mount Tarcoola Narngulu Rangeway Rudds Gully Spalding Strathalbyn Sunset Beach Tarcoola Beach Utakarra Waggrakine Wandina Webberton West End Wonthella Woorree Cape Burney Drummond Cove Eradu Greenough Kojarena Minnenooka Moonyoonooka Walkaway Wicherina The historic populations of the area which formed Geraldton-Greenough were: List of mayors of Geraldton

Saint Francis of Assisi College

Saint Francis of Assisi College is a system of private, Catholic-oriented but non-sectarian Philippine educational institutions, offering complete education from pre-school up to the graduate or masteral level of education. The main campus is situated in Metro Manila; the Saint Francis of Assisi College is a learning institution offering education from pre-school up to the graduate level. Founded in 1981 with about 80 pre-school pupils, SFAC now consists of more than 10,000 students spread across nine campuses in the Southern Luzon area. Main Campus is located in Talon III, Las Piñas City. Saint Francis of Assisi College is one of the prime educational institutions with Home Study Culture in the Philippines that began in the early 1990s where the program was not yet recognized in the country. SFAC ] Campus SFAC Bacoor Campus SFAC Taguig Campus SFAC Alabang Campus SFAC Dasmariñas Campus SFAC SFAC Sta. Rosa, Laguna Campus Saint Anthony School Los Baños, Laguna Saint Anthony School, Las Piñas City Nursery Kindergarten 1 & 2 Elementary Grades 1-6 Science Elementary Grades 4-6 High School Research-Enhanced Junior High School, Grade 7 - Grade 10 Franciscan Home Study Program, Grade 7 - Grade 10 Senior High School, Grade 11 - Grade 12 Science & Technology, Engineering & Mathematics Accountancy and Management Humanities and Social Sciences General Academics Technical and Livelihood - Home Economics Technical and Livelihood - Information and Communications Technology School of Nursing Bachelor of Science in Nursing School of Computer Studies Bachelor of Science in Computer Science BSCS School of Engineering Bachelor of Science in Electronics and Communications Engineering BSCECE Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering BSCoE Bachelor of Science in Electronics Engineering BSEE School of Business Administration Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management School of Education and Liberal Arts Bachelor of Elementary Education Bachelor of Secondary Education Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Graduate Studies Master of Arts in Education - Major in Educational Management Master of Arts in education - Major in Guidance and Counseling Master in Business Management Ranidel de Ocampo - Professional basketball player for Meralco Bolts of Philippine Basketball Association Rayver Cruz or Raymond Oliver Cruz Ilustre - Television artist at ABS-CBN and GMA Marian Rivera - Dantes - Television artist and model Sitti Navarro - The "Filipino Bossa Nova", singer and song writer Wesley So - World chess grandmaster Rodjun Cruz - Television artist at ABS-CBN and GMA, dancer Ervin Sotto - 2004 PBA Draft player, professional basketball Player for Byaheng SCTEX of Pilipinas Commercial Basketball League Kyline Alcantara - Television artist at ABS-CBN and GMA National Athletic Association of Schools and Universities National Collegiate Athletic Association South Universities and Colleges of Luzon Athletic Association National Capital Region Universities and Colleges of Luzon Athletic Association Saint Francis of Assisi College Systems FB Page Saint Francis of Assisi College - Alabang Saint Francis of Assisi College - Las Piñas Official Website