The pectineus muscle is a flat, quadrangular muscle, situated at the anterior part of the upper and medial aspect of the thigh. The pectineus muscle is the most anterior adductor of the hip; the muscle does adduct and medially rotate the thigh but its primary function is hip flexion. It can be classified in the anterior compartment of thigh; the pectineus muscle arises from the pectineal line of the pubis and to a slight extent from the surface of bone in front of it, between the iliopectineal eminence and pubic tubercle, from the fascia covering the anterior surface of the muscle. The pectineus is in relation by its anterior surface with the pubic portion of the fascia lata, which separates it from the femoral artery and vein and internal saphenous vein, lower down with the profunda artery. By its posterior surface with the capsule of the hip joint, with the obturator externus and adductor brevis, the obturator artery and vein being interposed. By its external border with the psoas major, the femoral artery resting upon the line of interval.
By its internal border with the outer edge of the adductor longus. Obturator foramen is situated directly behind this muscle, it forms part of the floor of the femoral triangle. The lumbar plexus is formed from the anterior rami of nerves L1 to L4 and some fibers from T12. With only five roots and two divisions, it is less complex than the brachial plexus and gives rise to a number of nerves including the femoral nerve and accessory obturator nerve; the pectineus muscle is considered a composite muscle as the innervation is by the femoral nerve and a branch of the obturator nerve called the accessory obturator nerve. When it is present, the accessory obturator nerve innervates a portion of the pectineus muscle, entering the muscle on its dorsomedial aspect; the greater nerve to the muscle is the femoral nerve. Unlike the obturator accessory nerve, the femoral nerve is always present and provides the sole innervation for the pectineus muscle in over 90% of cases; the muscle is innervated by the accessory obturator nerve in the 8.7% of cases in which the nerve occurs.
It is one of the muscles responsible for hip flexion. It adducts the thigh. Thigh This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 472 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Woodburne, Russell. "The Accessory Obturator Nerve and the Innervation of the Pectineus Muscle". Michigan Library Med School: 367–369. Retrieved 2 December 2015. Saladin, Kenneth S. Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2007. Pg.493. Print. Anatomy figure: 12:02-05 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh." Anatomy figure: 12:03-04 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Deep muscles of the anterior thigh." Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna
Fascia of Camper
The fascia of Camper is a thick superficial layer of the anterior abdominal wall. It is areolar in texture, contains in its meshes a varying quantity of adipose tissue, it is found superficial to the fascia of Scarpa. Superficial fascia is composed of two layers: the fatty outer layer, known as Camper's fascia, the more membranous inner layer, called Scarpa's fascia; these parts of the superficial fascia are most prominent in the lower aspect of the abdominal wall below the level of the umbilicus. Camper's fascia is continuous inferiorly with the superficial fascia of the thigh. Medial and inferior to the pubic tubercle, in the male, Scarpa's fascia changes as it continues over the scrotum and forms Dartos tunic; this layer is infiltrated by elastic and smooth muscle fibers and contains a minimal amount of fat. Scarpa's fascia ends inferior to the inguinal ligament fusing with the fascia lata of the thigh. In the midline, just superior to the penis, Scarpa's fascia contributes to formation of the fundiform ligament of the penis.
As Scarpa's fascia continues posteriorly onto the perineum, it is called Colles' fascia.. The structure was named after anatomist Petrus Camper; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 408 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:35:03-0102 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Anterior Abdominal Wall: Layers of the Superficial Fascia" Anatomy figure: 35:03-02 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Layers of the anterior wall." Anatomy image:7041 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Anatomy image:7409 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Atlas image: abdo_wall57 at the University of Michigan Health System
Anterior superior iliac spine
The anterior superior iliac spine is a bony projection of the iliac bone and an important landmark of surface anatomy. It refers to the anterior extremity of the iliac crest of the pelvis, which provides attachment for the inguinal ligament, the sartorius muscle; the tensor fasciae latae muscle attaches about 5 cm away at the iliac tubercle. The anterior superior iliac spine provides a clue in identifying some other clinical landmarks, including: McBurney's point Roser-Nélaton line True leg length A – Anterior S – Superior I – Iliac S – Spine Bone terminology Anatomical terms of location Ilium Human anatomical terms Anatomy photo:17:os-0105 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center – "Major Joints of the Lower Extremity: Hip bone" Anatomy photo:35:os-0103 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center – "Anterior Abdominal Wall: Osteology and Surface Anatomy" "Anatomy diagram: 03281.000-3". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2012-07-22. Diagram at Wayne State
An aponeurosis is a type or a variant of the deep fascia, in the form of a sheet of pearly-white fibrous tissue that attaches sheet-like muscles needing a wide area of attachment. Their primary function is to join muscles and the body parts they act upon, whether it be bone or other muscles, they have a shiny, whitish-silvery color, are histologically similar to tendons, are sparingly supplied with blood vessels and nerves. When dissected, aponeuroses are peel off by sections; the primary regions with thick aponeuroses are in the ventral abdominal region, the dorsal lumbar region, the ventriculus in birds, the palmar and plantar regions. The anterior abdominal aponeuroses are located just superficial to the rectus abdominis muscle, it has for its borders the external oblique, pectoralis muscles, the latissimus dorsi. The posterior lumbar aponeuroses are situated just on top of the epaxial muscles of the thorax, which are multifidus spinae and sacrospinalis; the palmar aponeuroses occur on the palms of the hands.
The extensor hoods are aponeuroses at the back of the fingers. The plantar aponeuroses occur on the plantar aspect of the foot, they extend from the calcaneal tuberosity diverge to connect to the bones and the dermis of the skin around the distal part of the metatarsal bones. The anterior and posterior intercostal membranes are aponeuroses located between the ribs and are continuations of the external and internal intercostal muscles, respectively; the epicranial aponeurosis, or galea aponeurotica, is a tough layer of dense fibrous tissue which runs from the frontalis muscle anteriorly to the occipitalis posteriorly. Pennate muscles, in which the muscle fibers are oriented at an angle to the line of action have two aponeuroses. Muscle fibers connect one to the other, each aponeurosis thins into a tendon which attaches to bone at the origin or insertion site. Like tendons, aponeuroses attached to pennate muscles can be stretched by the forces of muscular contraction, absorbing energy like a spring and returning it when they recoil to unloaded conditions.
Serving as an origin or insertion site for certain muscles e.g latissimus dorsi. Aponeurosis of the obliquus externus abdominis Aponeurosis of the serratus posterior superior muscle Plantar aponeurosis Inguinal aponeurotic falx Bicipital aponeurosis Palatine aponeurosis Fascia Gray's s104 - Aponeuroses
The femoral triangle is an anatomical region of the upper third of the thigh. It is a subfascial space which appears as a triangular depression below the inguinal ligament when the thigh is flexed and laterally rotated; the femoral triangle is bounded: superiorly by the inguinal ligament. Medially by the medial border of the adductor longus muscle. Laterally by the medial border of the sartorius muscle; the apex of the triangle is continuous with the adductor canal. The roof is formed by the skin, superficial fascia, deep fascia; the superficial fascia contains the superficial inguinal lymph nodes, femoral branch of the genitofemoral nerve, branches of the ilioinguinal nerve, superficial branches of the femoral artery with accompanying veins, upper part of the great saphenous vein. The deep fascia has a saphenous opening and the opening is covered by the cribiform fascia, its floor is formed by the pectineus and adductor longus muscles medially and iliopsoas muscle laterally. The femoral triangle is important as a number of vital structures pass through it, right under the skin.
The following structures are contained within the femoral triangle: Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh - It crosses the lateral angle of the triangle, runs on the lateral side of the thigh and ends by dividing into anterior and posterior branches. The anterior branch supplies the anterolateral aspect of the thigh while the lateral branche supplies the lateral aspect of the gluteal region. Femoral nerve and its terminal branches - The nerve enters the femoral triangle by passing beneath the inguinal ligament, just lateral to the femoral artery. In the thigh, the nerve lies in a groove between iliacus muscle and psoas major muscles, outside the femoral sheath, lateral to the femoral artery. After a short course of about 4 cm in the thigh, the nerve is divided into anterior and posterior divisions, separated by lateral femoral circumflex artery. Nerve to pectineus - This nerve arises from the femoral nerve just above the inguinal ligament, it passes behind the femoral sheath to reach the anterior surface of the pectineus muscle.
Femoral sheath encloses the upper 4 cm of the femoral vessels. Its contents are shown below: Femoral branch of the genitofemoral nerve - occupies the lateral compartment of the femoral sheath along with femoral artery, it supplies the skin over the femoral triangle. Femoral artery and its branches - It emerges from the base of the femoral triangle at the mid-inguinal point and exits through the apex of the triangle into the adductor canal. Femoral vein and its tributaries - The vein lies medial to the femoral artery at the base of the triangle but as it approaches the apex of the triangle, it lies posteromedially to the femoral atery, it receives drainage from great saphenous vein, circumflex veins, veins corresponding to the branches of the femoral artery here. Deep inguinal lymph nodes - It lies deep to the deep fascia, medial to the upper part of the femoral vein, inside the femoral canal. Cloquet's node lies in this canal, it receives lymphatic drainage from superficial inguinal lymph nodes, lymphatic drainage from the glans penis or clitoris, from the deep lymphatics of the lower limb.
Since the femoral triangle provides easy access to a major artery, coronary angioplasty and peripheral angioplasty is performed by entering the femoral artery at the femoral triangle. Heavy bleeding in the leg can be stopped by applying pressure to points in the femoral triangle. Another clinical significance of the femoral triangle is that the femoral artery is positioned at the midinguinal point, thus the femoral vein, once located, allows for femoral venipuncture.. Femoral venopuncture is useful when there are no superficial veins that can be aspirated in a patient, in the case of collapsed veins in other parts of body; the positive pulsation of the femoral artery signifies that the heart is beating and blood is flowing to the lower extremity. It is necessary to appreciate clinically that this is a case where the nerve is more lateral than the vein. In most other cases the nerve would be the deepest or more medial followed by the artery and the vein, but in this case it is the opposite. This must be remembered.
This area contains the superficial and deep basins of the inguinal lymph nodes, is the location targeted in an inguinal lymphadenectomy. The basins are separated by the fascia lata. For patients with palpable nodal disease, removal of the superficial and deep basins are recommended. In a patient with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy only the superficial nodes are removed, unless Cloquet's node is clinically positive. Anatomy photo:12:02-0101 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Anterior and Medial Thigh Region: Boundaries of the Femoral Triangle" antthigh at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location
The pyramidalis is a small triangular muscle, anterior to the rectus abdominis muscle, contained in the rectus sheath. Inferiorly, the pyramidalis attaches to the pelvis in two places: the pubic symphysis and pubic crest, arising by tendinous fibers from the anterior part of the pubis and the anterior pubic ligament. Superiorly, the fleshy portion of the pyramidalis passes upward, diminishing in size as it ascends, ends by a pointed extremity, inserted into the linea alba, midway between the umbilicus and pubis; the pyramidalis is innervated by the ventral portion of T12. The inferior and superior epigastric arteries supply blood to this muscle; the pyramidalis muscle is present in 80% of human population. This muscle may be absent on both sides, it is double on one side, the muscles of the two sides are sometimes of unequal size. It may extend higher than the usual level; the pyramidalis, when contracting, tenses the linea alba. While making the longitudinal inscision for a classical caesarean section, the pyramidalis is used to determine midline and location of the linea alba.
Anatomy photo:35:11-0100 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Anterior Abdominal Wall: The Pyramidalis Muscle" Anatomy image:7283 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-female-17—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna