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Twenterand

Twenterand is a municipality in the province of Overijssel in the eastern Netherlands. The name means "edge of Twente" as it is situated on the northwestern fringe of the historical region of Twente; the municipality of Twenterand had two city halls, because of the merger between the former municipalities of Vriezenveen and Den Ham in 2001. The city hall in Vriezenveen remained; the extended municipality of Vriezenveen is called Twenterand since 2003. The former municipal area of Vriezenveen belongs to the region of Twente and the former municipal area of Den Ham to the region of Salland and to the region of Twente. Bruinehaar De Pollen Den Ham Geerdijk Kloosterhaar Meer Vriezenveen Vroomshoop Weitemanslanden Westerhaar-Vriezenveensewijk Westerhoeven Dutch topographic map of the municipality of Twenterand, June 2015 Geerdijk railway station Vriezenveen railway station Vroomshoop railway station Louis Reijtenbagh a Dutch businessman, investor, a retired general practitioner and art collector Berend Veneberg a former strongman and powerlifter Sabine Uitslag a former Dutch politician Jarno Hams a strongman Manon Fokke a Dutch politician Johan Kenkhuis swimmer, won bronze at the 2000 Summer Olympics Christian Kist a Dutch professional darts player Sanne Nijhof a Dutch model Maayke Heuver a former Dutch footballer, 154 caps for FC Twente and 17 for NL women's team Media related to Twenterand at Wikimedia Commons Official website

Socialist fraternal kiss

The socialist fraternal kiss was a special form of greeting between socialist leaders. The act demonstrated the special connection that exists between socialist countries, consisting of an embrace, along with a series of three kisses on alternate cheeks. In rare cases, when the two leaders considered themselves exceptionally close, the kisses were given on the mouth rather than on the cheeks; the socialist fraternal embrace consists of a series of three deep hugs, alternating between the left and right sides of the body, without kissing. This modified greeting was adopted by Communist leaders in Asia, which lacks a tradition of cheek kissing as greeting. During the Cold War, Communist leaders in Asia consented to receive kisses from Europeans and Cubans, but they themselves omitted the kiss. Since the fall of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe, the socialist fraternal kiss has died out. However, the socialist fraternal embrace continues to be exchanged between Communist leaders in Asia. In addition, Cuba has adopted the Asian form of the ritual.

This ritual originated in the European practice of cheek kissing as a greeting between family members or close friends. It has been associated with the Eastern Orthodox Fraternal- or Easter Kiss, which through its entrenchment in the rites of the Orthodox Church carried a substantial strength of expression and so found use in daily life; as a symbol of equality and solidarity, the socialist fraternal kiss was the expression of the pathos and enthusiasm of the emergent Workers' movement between the middle and end of the 19th century. In the years after the October Revolution and the subsequent Communist International, a ritualisation of the so far spontaneous gesture succeeded into an official greeting between Communist comrades; the symbolic reinforcement of the feeling of camaraderie gained success through the fact that many Communists and Socialists had to make long and dangerous trips to the isolated Bolshevik Russia. That way the much-experienced international Solidarity found expression in stormy embraces and kisses.

With the expansion of Communism after World War II, the Soviet Union was no longer isolated as the only Communist country. The fraternal socialist kiss became a ritualised greeting among the leaders of Communist countries; the greeting was adopted by socialist leaders in the Third World, as well as the leaders of socialist-aligned liberation movements such as the Palestinian Liberation Organization and the African National Congress. Kremlinologists paid attention to whether the fraternal embrace was exchanged between Communist leaders; the omission of the customary embrace indicated a lower level of relations between the two countries. After the Sino-Soviet split, the Chinese refused to embrace their Soviet counterparts or to address them as "comrade"; when Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev tried to embrace Chinese chairman Mao Zedong on a visit to Beijing in 1959, Mao stepped back to avoid the embrace and offered a handshake instead. With the normalization of relations in 1989, the Chinese continued to omit the fraternal embrace when greeting Soviet leaders.

This was done to emphasize that Sino-Soviet relations were not returning to the pre-split level of the 1950s. For example, although China and Vietnam dispute the ownership of the Spratly Islands and Vietnamese leaders continue to exchange the socialist fraternal embrace; the socialist fraternal kiss should not be confused with ordinary cheek kissing between world leaders. For example, it is traditional for the President of France to greet world leaders by kissing them on both cheeks; this is not a socialist fraternal kiss because there are only two kisses, it carries no ideological meaning. It is practiced by Gaullist presidents as well as Socialist presidents; the fraternal kiss became famous via Erich Honecker and Leonid Brezhnev, who were photographed exercising the ritual. The photograph became widespread and it was subsequently reproduced into a graffiti painting on the Berlin Wall named My God, Help Me to Survive This Deadly Love. Schimmel, Der ‚sozialistische Bruderkuß‘