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Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for writing with a pen, brush, or quill. Thicker inks, in paste form, are used extensively in lithographic printing. Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, dyes, lubricants, surfactants, particulate matter and other materials; the components of inks serve many purposes. In 2011 worldwide consumption of printing inks generated revenues of more than 20 billion US dollars. Demand by traditional print media is shrinking, on the other hand more and more printing inks are consumed for packagings. Many ancient cultures around the world have independently discovered and formulated inks for the purposes of writing and drawing; the knowledge of the inks, their recipes and the techniques for their production comes from archaeological analysis or from written text itself. The earliest inks from all civilisations are believed to have been made with lampblack, a kind of soot, as this would have been collected as a by-product of fire.

Ink was used in Ancient Egypt for writing and drawing on papyrus from at least the 26th century BC. Chinese inks may go back as far to the Chinese Neolithic Period; these used plants and mineral inks based on such materials as graphite that were ground with water and applied with ink brushes. Direct evidence for the earliest Chinese inks, similar to modern inksticks, is around 256 BC in the end of the Warring States period and produced from soot and animal glue; the best inks for drawing or painting on paper or silk are produced from the resin of the pine tree. They must be between 100 years old; the Chinese inkstick is produced with a fish glue, whereas Japanese glue is from stag. India ink was first invented in China, though materials were traded from India, hence the name; the traditional Chinese method of making the ink was to grind a mixture of hide glue, carbon black and bone black pigment with a pestle and mortar pouring it into a ceramic dish to dry. To use the dry mixture, a wet brush would be applied.

The manufacture of India ink was well-established by the Cao Wei Dynasty. Indian documents written in Kharosthi with ink have been unearthed in Chinese Turkestan; the practice of writing with ink and a sharp pointed needle was common in early South India. Several Buddhist and Jain sutras in India were compiled in ink. In ancient Rome, atramentum was used; the recipe was used for centuries. Iron salts, such as ferrous sulfate, were mixed with tannin from a thickener; when first put to paper, this ink is bluish-black. Over time it fades to a dull brown. Scribes in medieval Europe wrote principally on vellum. One 12th century ink recipe called for hawthorn branches to be left to dry; the bark was pounded from the branches and soaked in water for eight days. The water was boiled until it turned black. Wine was added during boiling; the ink was hung in the sun. Once dried, the mixture was mixed with iron salt over a fire to make the final ink; the reservoir pen, which may have been the first fountain pen, dates back to 953, when Ma'ād al-Mu'izz, the caliph of Egypt, demanded a pen that would not stain his hands or clothes, was provided with a pen that held ink in a reservoir.

In the 15th century, a new type of ink had to be developed in Europe for the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg. According to Martyn Lyons in his book Books: A Living History, Gutenberg's dye was indelible, oil-based, made from the soot of lamps mixed with varnish and egg white. Two types of ink were prevalent at the time: the Greek and Roman writing ink and the 12th century variety composed of ferrous sulfate, gall and water. Neither of these handwriting inks could adhere to printing surfaces without creating blurs. An oily, varnish-like ink made of soot and walnut oil was created for the printing press. Ink formulas vary, but involve two components: Colorants Vehicles Inks fall into four classes: Aqueous Liquid Paste Powder Ink comes in black, blue and red; the collors combine in a printer to make new colors. See the color wheel for examples. Pigment inks are us color range than dyes. Pigments are solid, opaque particles suspended in ink to provide color. Pigment molecules link together in crystalline structures that are 0.1–2 µm in size and comprise 5–30 percent of the ink volume.

Qualities such as hue and lightness vary depending on the source and type of pigment. Dye-based inks are much stronger than pigment-based inks and can produce much more color of a given density per unit of mass. However, because dyes are dissolved in the liquid phase, they have a tendency to soak into the paper allowing the ink to bleed at the edges of an image. To circumvent this problem, dye-based inks are made with solvents that dry or are used with quick-drying methods of printing, such as blowing hot air on the fresh print. Other methods include more specialized paper coatings; the latter is suited to inks used in non-industrial settings (which must conform to tighter toxicity an

Haryana Legislative Assembly

The Haryana Legislative Assembly or the Haryana Vidhan Sabha is the unicameral state legislature of Haryana state in India. The seat of the Vidhan Sabha at Chandigarh, the capital of the state; the Vidhan Sabha comprises 90 Members of Legislative Assembly, directly elected from single-seat constituencies. The term of office is five years; the body was founded in 1966, when the state was created from part of the state of Punjab, by the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966. The house had 54 seats, ten reserved for scheduled castes, this was increased to 81 seats in March 1967, to 90 seats in 1977. Highest number of seats won was in 1977 when Janata Party won 75 out of 90 seats when in the aftermath of 1975-77 emergency by Indian National Congress's Indira Gandhi irate voters booted INC out which won only 3 seats, Vishal Haryana Party and independents both won 5 seats each. Since the formation of Haryana in 1966, the state politics became infamously dominiated by the nepotistic clans of 5 political dynasts, Lal trio as well as the Hooda clan and Rao Birender clan.

The infamous Aaya Ram Gaya Ram politics, named after Gaya Lal in 1967, of frequent floor-crossing, switching parties and political horse trading within short span of time became associated with Haryana. Aaya Ram Gaya Ram Dynastic politics of Haryana Elections in Haryana Official website Map of Haryana Assembly constituencies, created by Haryana Space Applications Centre, Hisar

Hell Date

Hell Date was a prank, dating show on Black Entertainment Television. The show presented itself as a typical dating show, such as Blind Date, however it featured actors pretending to be a contestant/participant on the show, portraying a character, with their goal being to make the date an unpleasant experience. Unbeknownst to one unsuspecting dater, not aware of the setup; the show aired for two seasons, with both seasons having different formats, yet the idea was the same. The first season was filmed in the Los Angeles area; the second season was filmed in the Atlanta metropolitan areas. The show has not been since the summer of 2008; the show was produced by Peter M. Cohen Productions. In the first season, two segments were shown per episode. In the beginning of the segment, an unsuspecting dater, described themselves to the audience. Following, an actor known as the "Hell Dater", would describe themselves to the audience, letting the audience know that he or she is an actor and playing a character, their objective is to purposefully make this a terrible date for their unsuspecting partner.

The unsuspecting dater, the hell date actor met and introduce themselves to each other. At first, the actor shows mild hints of annoyance on the date, to where the unsuspecting dater is bothered, but isn't at a level to where the date becomes abnormal; however as the date progresses, the actors become more extreme and uncomfortable with their character, making it embarrassing and torturing for the unsuspecting dater. At the end of the date, the victimized dater is informed that this is a prank show and that they are on "Hell Date." This is done by a character named "The Devil", a little person dressed in a devil costume. The unsuspecting dater would be interviewed on their experience on "Hate Date" This is when the segment ends. If this was the first segment, the second segment is done in an identical format. At the end of the second segment, the episode ends; the second season had a different format. Each episode featured one single segment. In the beginning of each episode, "The Devil" in a prerecorded scene is sitting in a dark room and conversing with and describes three hell date actors, the character they are portraying to the unsuspecting dater.

The unsuspecting dater in a separate scene would describe themselves to the audience. The unsuspecting dater is introduced to the three hell daters all at once, in which all four go on and participate in a small date activity; the unsuspecting dater is given the privilege to eliminate two hell daters after this. Similar to that of Elimidate; this is however done in a sly method. Two of the hell daters act outrageously strange and insane for no apparent reason within meeting the unsuspecting dater, while the third actor is purposefully putting on a normal facade; this of course in turn makes the unsuspecting daters choice surefire. After two of the hell daters are eliminated, the third hell dater who put on a normal facade turns out to be more outrageous than the first two. At this point for the remainder of the program, an identical format to season one is played out. At the end of the date, the victimized dater is informed by The Devil that this is a prank show and that all three daters are actors, that they are on "Hell Date."

The unsuspecting dater is interviewed on their experience on the show. The program ends. Pierre Antonio Calvin Cyrus Garrick Dixon Daheli Hall Pedro Hernandez Michael James Thela Brown Zainab Johnson Andrew Flavin Donnivin Jordan Nichole A. Joubert Amy Lawhorn Chenese Lewis Sam Lewis Chuanda Mason Dawan Owens Sebrina Revelle Zakiya "Kiya" Roberts Simone Shepherd Mona Valentine Keedar Whittle Farelle Walker Kelly Park Frank Lawson Calvin Cyrus Aikisha HollyIt is common for some Hell Date actors to appear in several different episodes, if they repeat their same character or portray a different character. BET Shows - Hell Date Hell Date official MySpace Hell Date on IMDb Hell Date at


The Kippumjo or Gippeumjo is an alleged collection of groups of 2,000 women and girls, maintained by the leader of North Korea for the purpose of providing pleasure of a sexual nature, entertainment for high-ranking Workers' Party of Korea officials and their families, as well as distinguished guests. The South Korean newspaper Chosun Ilbo said that the group that used to perform for Kim Jong-un's father, Kim Jong-il, was disbanded shortly after the elder Kim's death in December 2011; the members were made to sign a pledge of secrecy in exchange for money and gifts. According to the paper, the women who worked as entertainers received an amount of money worth $4,000 before returning to their hometowns; the girls in the squad would receive compensation in the form of home appliances. Little is known outside North Korea about the Gippeumjo, but information has emerged through the testimony of North Koreans who have defected Kenji Fujimoto and Mi Hyang; the first two syllables of the name, gippeum, is a native Korean word meaning happiness.

The suffix jo is a Sino-Korean word which describes a group of people analogous to the terms "squad" or "team". Kim Il-sung is believed to have established this corps of women in the belief that having sexual relations with young women would increase his jing and have the effect of enhancing his life force, or gi; the Gippeumjo were reported to have been established in 1978, during the administration of Kim Il-sung. The first group was recruited by Lee Dong-ho, the First Vice Director of the Department of United Front of the WPK, for the purpose of entertaining Kim at the Munsu Chodaeso. In 2015 the recruiting and training of Gippeumjo were administered by the Fifth Department of Staff of the Organic Direction of the Party; the practice was said to have been maintained by Il-sung's son, Kim Jong-il, until his own death in 2011. In April 2015, Kim Jong-un was seeking new members for his own Gippeumjo, after his father's group of girls was disbanded in December 2011; each pleasure group is composed of three teams: Manjokjo – a satisfaction team Haengbokjo – a happiness team Gamujo – a dancing and singing team Girls from throughout the country are recruited to be Gippeumjo members according to government criteria.

After being selected, they undergo a rigorous training period, with some Haengbokjo members being sent overseas for massage training. Gippeumjo members leave at age 22 or 25. At that time they are married to members of North Korea's elite—and are sometimes paired off with military officers seeking wives—and their former membership in the Gippeumjo is kept secret. Comfort women Gungnyeo Human trafficking in North Korea Kisaeng Prostitution in North Korea Martin, Bradley K.. Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader: North Korea and the Kim Dynasty. New York, New York, United States: Thomas Dunne Books. Hardcover: ISBN 978-0-312-32221-2. "The Dear Leader Unmasked"

Carson Mansion

The Carson Mansion is a large Victorian house located in Old Town, California. Regarded as one of the highest executions of American Queen Anne Style architecture, the house is "considered the most grand Victorian home in America." It is one of the most written about and photographed Victorian houses in California and also in the United States. The home of William Carson, one of Northern California's first major lumber barons, it has been a private club since 1950; the house and grounds are not open to the public. William Carson, for whom the house was built, arrived in San Francisco from New Brunswick, with a group of other woodsmen in 1849. After rolling out gold slugs in San Francisco, they joined in the northern gold rush, arriving in the Trinity Mountains via the Eel River and Humboldt Bay, they left the Trinity Mountains to overwinter at Humboldt Bay and contracted to provide logs for a small sawmill. In November 1850, Carson and Jerry Whitmore felled a tree, the first for commercial purposes on Humboldt Bay.

All winter and his team hauled logs from the Freshwater slough to the Pioneer Mill on the shores of Humboldt Bay. In spring, the party went back to the mines where they had staked claim on Big Bar by the Trinity, they built a dam and continued mining until they heard that a large sawmill was being built at Humboldt Bay. They went south through the Sacramento Valley, bought oxen, returned to Humboldt Bay by August 1852, where Carson, went into the lumber business permanently. In 1854, he shipped the first loads of redwood timber to San Francisco. Only fir and spruce had been logged. In 1863, Carson and John Dolbeer formed Carson Lumber Company. Eighteen years in 1881, as the company advanced into areas more difficult to log, Dolbeer invented the Steam Donkey Engine which revolutionized log removal in hard to reach areas. At about the same time, Carson was involved in the founding of the Eel River and Eureka Railroad with John Vance. Before commencing the building of his mansion, Carson said, "If I build it poorly, they would say that I am a damned miser.

In 1884, on the eve of construction of the great home, the company was producing 15,000,000 board feet of lumber annually. The milling operations, combined with additional investments as far away as Southern California and at least partial ownerships in schooners used to move the lumber to booming markets on the west coast and all over the globe, set the stage for the unlimited budget and access to resources the builders would have. Pacific Lumber Company purchased the company in 1950 and maintained milling operations at the original Humboldt Bay site, located bay-side below the house, well into the 1970s. Following the Carson family divestiture of remaining family holdings in 1950, the family left the area; the building was purchased for $35,000 in 1950 by local community business leaders, houses the Ingomar Club, a private club, named after Carson's Ingomar Theater, itself named for Carson's favorite play Ingomar the Barbarian. The house is a mix of every major style of Victorian architecture, including but not limited to: Eastlake, Queen Anne, Stick.

One nationally known architectural historian described the house as "a baronial castle in Redwood..." and stated further that "The illusion of grandeur in the house is heightened by the play on scale, the use of fanciful detail and the handling of mass as separate volumes, topped by a lively roofscape." The style of the house has been described as "eclectic" and "peculiarly American." Unlike most other houses dating from the period, this property always has been maintained, is in nearly the same condition as when it was built. In May 1964, the house was included in the Historic American Buildings Survey as catalog number CA-1911; this is the only official historical building listing of the house. Although the historic house does merit National Register of Historic Places status, the private club has chosen not to apply for it. Samuel and Joseph Cather Newsom of San Francisco, were nineteenth century builder-architects contracted by Carson to create the house by 1883; the Newsoms produced many styles and types of buildings from homes to churches to public buildings including: the Oakland City Hall, the Alameda County Courthouse, the Napa County Courthouse.

Of their many commissions in California, a few original buildings remain in addition to the Carson house, including the Napa Valley Opera House and the San Dimas Hotel. One house they designed was "The Pink Lady," which William Carson gave to his son Milton as a wedding present in 1889. After being sold in 1920, it went through several owners before being inherited by sisters in Germany, it operated as a rooming house until it was seized as Nazi property in 1942. In 1964, it became the first historic building in Eureka to be restored. Another of their designs was built in Eureka in 1982 by the Carter House Inn, it is a replica of the 1885 Murphy House in San Francisco, designed by Newsom and Newsom, lost in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Their works include the Bradbury Mansion, built in 1887 at the cost of $80,000 for Lewis L. Bradbury; the house, a 35-room structure with five chimneys and five turrets, stood at 147 North Hill Street in Los Angeles' Bunker Hill, at the corner of Hill and Court streets, until being demolished in 1929, was the inspiration behind the exterior of Hong Kong Disneyland's Mystic Manor attraction.

Images of the house are prevalent in website designs and video animations as well as on post

Did You Say Chicks?!

Did You Say Chicks?! is an anthology of fantasy stories, edited by Esther M. Friesner, with a cover by Larry Elmore, it consists of works featuring female protagonists by female authors. It was first published in paperback by Baen Books in February 1998, it was the second of a number of themed anthologies edited by Friesner. The book collects 19 short stories and novelettes by various fantasy authors, with an introduction by Friesner and a section of notes about the authors. "Introduction" "No Pain, No Gain" "Slue-Foot Sue and the Witch in the Woods" "A Young Swordswoman's Garden Primer" "The Old Fire" "Like No Business I Know" "A Bone to Pick" "The Attack of the Avenging Virgins" "Oh, Sweet Goodnight!" "A Bitch in Time" "Don't You Want to Be Beautiful?" "A Night with the Girls" "A Quiet Knight's Reading" "Armor Propre" "A Big Hand for the Little Lady" "Blade Runner" "Keeping Up Appearances" "La Différence" "Tales from the Slushpile" "Yes, We Did Say Chicks!" "About the Authors" ISFD entry for Did You Say Chicks