Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvin's seminal work of systematic theology. Regarded as one of the most influential works of Protestant theology, it was published in Latin in 1536 and in his native French language in 1541, with the definitive editions appearing in 1559 and in 1560; the book was written as an introductory textbook on the Protestant creed for those with some previous knowledge of theology and covered a broad range of theological topics from the doctrines of church and sacraments to justification by faith alone and Christian liberty. It vigorously attacked the teachings of those Calvin considered unorthodox Roman Catholicism, to which Calvin says he had been "strongly devoted" before his conversion to Protestantism; the Institutes is a regarded secondary reference for the system of doctrine adopted by the Reformed churches called Calvinism. John Calvin was a student of law and classics at the University of Paris. Around 1533 he became involved in religious controversies and converted to Protestantism, a new Christian reform movement, persecuted by the Catholic Church in France, forcing him to go into hiding.
He moved to Basel, for safety in 1535, around this time he must have begun writing a summary of theology which would become the Institutes. His Catholic opponents sought to tie him and his associates to groups of radical Anabaptists, some of, put down by persecution, he decided to adapt the work he had been writing to the purpose of defending Protestants suffering from persecution from false accusations that they were espousing radical and heretical doctrines. The work, written in Latin, was published in Basel in March 1536 with a preface addressed to King Francis I of France, entreating him to give the Protestants a hearing rather than continue to persecute them, it is six chapters long, covering the basics of Christian creed using the familiar catechetical structure of the Ten Commandments, the Apostles' Creed, the Lord's Prayer, the sacraments, as well as a chapter on Christian liberty and political theology. Soon after publishing it, Calvin began his ministry in Switzerland; the Institutes proved popular, with many asking for a revised edition.
In 1539, Calvin published a much larger work, with seventeen chapters of about the same length as the six chapters of the first edition. It includes many references to classical authors and Church fathers, as well as many additional references to the Bible. Calvin's epistle to the reader indicates that the new work is intended for theological students preparing for ministry. Four chapters were added in a third edition in 1543, a 1550 edition was published with only minor changes; the fifth and final edition with which Calvin was involved, and, used by scholars as the authoritative text, is 80% larger than the previous edition and was published in Geneva in 1559. Calvin's theology did not change throughout his life, so while he expanded and added to the Institutes, he did not change their main ideas; the Latin word "institutio", translated in the title as "institutes", may be translated "instruction", as it was in titles of German translations of the work, was used in the titles of legal works as well as other summary works covering a large body of knowledge.
The title of Desiderius Erasmus's Institutio principis Christiani, which Calvin would have been familiar with, is translated The Education of a Christian Prince. The form of the short title of the first edition of Calvin's work, published in 1536 is Christianae religionis institutio; the full title of this edition may be translated The Institute of the Christian Religion, Containing the Whole Sum of Piety and Whatever It is Necessary to Know in the Doctrine of Salvation. A Work Very Well Worth Reading by All Persons Zealous for Piety, Lately Published. A Preface to the Most Christian King of France, in Which this Book is Presented to Him as a Confession of Faith. Author, John Calvin, Of Noyon. Basel, MDXXXVI. In the 1539 edition, the title is Institutio Christianae Religionis to emphasize the fact that this is a new expanded work; this is followed by "at length corresponding to its title", a play on the grandiosity of the title and an indication that the new work better lives up to the expectation created by such a title.
Institutes in its first form was not an exposition of Reformation doctrine. It is indebted to Martin Luther in the treatment of faith and sacraments, to Martin Bucer in what is said of divine will and predestination, to the scholastics for teaching involving unsuspected implications of freedom in the relation of church and state; the book is prefaced by a letter to Francis I. As this letter shows, Institutes was composed, or at least completed, to meet a present necessity, to correct an aspersion on Calvin's fellow reformers; the French king, wishing to suppress the Reformation at home, yet unwilling to alienate the reforming princes of Germany, had sought to confound the teachings of the French reformers with the attacks of Anabaptists on civil authority. "My reasons for publishing the Institutes," Calvin wrote in 1557, "were first that I might vindicate from unjust affront my brethren whose death was precious in the sight of the Lord, next that some sorrow and anxiety should move foreign people, since the same sufferings threaten many."
"The hinges on which our controversy turns," says Calvin in his letter to the king, "are that the Church may exist without any apparent form" and that its ma
The Delhi–Lahore Bus known as Sada-e-Sarhad, is a passenger bus service connecting the Indian capital of Delhi with the city of Lahore, Pakistan via the border transit post at Wagah. The Routemaster bus number 10 was of symbolic importance to the efforts of the governments of both nations to foster peaceful and friendly relations. In its inaugural run on 19 February 1999, the bus carried the then-Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, to attend a summit in Lahore and was received by his Pakistani counterpart, Nawaz Sharif at Wagah. Launching its services on 16 March, the bus service was not halted after the outbreak of the Kargil War; the bus service was halted in the aftermath of the 2001 Indian Parliament attack, which led to a serious confrontation between the two neighbours. Since the partition of India in 1947, travel restrictions were imposed and most road and railway links shut off. Following the example of the Samjhauta Express, launched in 1976, the bus service was launched to permit divided families to visit relatives and to foster commerce and tourism.
The bus service launch was a key element in the efforts of the Indian and Pakistani governments to improve frosty and tense relations with Pakistan in the aftermath of the 1998 Pokhran nuclear tests and the immediate Pakistani response of the Chaghai Hills tests. The bus had made its trial runs on 8 and 14 January, carrying officials of both governments. Vajpayee's bus journey and arrival in Pakistan was met with much fanfare on both sides of the border and worldwide media coverage; the inaugural bus carried Indian celebrities and dignitaries such as Dev Anand, Satish Gujral, Javed Akhtar, Kuldip Nayar, Kapil Dev, Shatrughan Sinha and Mallika Sarabhai. Both governments soon promulgated the 1999 Lahore Declaration, which pledged both nations to the peaceful resolution of bilateral disputes that of the Kashmir conflict and deployment of nuclear weapons, while fostering friendly commercial and cultural relations. While the bus service had continued to run during the Kargil War of 1999, it was suspended in the aftermath of the 2001 Indian Parliament attack on 13 December 2001, which the Indian government accused Pakistan of instigating.
The bus service was resumed on 16 July 2003. Despite suspension due to bilateral tensions, the Delhi-Lahore bus remains a symbol of desired friendship between the two nations. Since its inception, the bus has carried trade delegations and celebrities to both nations, attracting much media coverage. In consideration of the Indian national cricket team's tour of Pakistan in 2004, the Pakistani government permitted 10,000 Indians to travel to watch the cricket matches in Lahore; the Delhi-Lahore bus is jointly operated by the Delhi Transport Corporation and the Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation. The bus service is operated from Ambedkar Stadium Bus Terminal near Delhi Gate in Delhi and the Lahore-Delhi Bus Terminal at Gulberg-III near Liberty Market in Lahore. For journey to Lahore, there is a DTC Bus every Monday and Friday and a PTDC Bus every Tuesday and Saturday; as regards the return trip to Delhi, the DTC Bus leaves Lahore every Tuesday and Saturday whereas the PTDC Bus leaves Lahore every Monday and Friday.
The DTC charges ₹ 2400 for adults, ₹ 833 for minors. Children under age of 2 travel free; the PTDC charges Rs. 4000 for adult ticket since 1 November 2014. Authorities on both sides maintain strict security screening of the luggage. Hazardous materials are prohibited and valuables checked. Customs and immigration checking are performed on arrival in the Pakistani town of Wagah and at the first stop in India at Amritsar. Passengers are required to carry their passports, a valid visa and their travel tickets and check in 2 hours before departure; the loss of tickets are to be reported to the police authorities. The DTC operated Bus is a Volvo B9R. Earlier, DTC had an Ashok Leyland Viking Bus with an Azad built body; the bus stops for meals and refreshment at Wagah and at the towns of Kartarpur, Kurukshetra and Amritsar in India. The duration of the entire journey is 8 hours; the bus is air-conditioned and carries on-board entertainment such as film shows and music players as well as a mobile telephone service
Alexander Yakovlevich Yashin was a Soviet writer associated with the Village Prose movement. Yashin was born in the northern Russian village of Bludnovo, Vologda Governorate, to a poor peasant family, he spent some time teaching in a village school. His first poems were published in various district newspapers between 1928-29, his first book of poetry came out in 1934 in Arkhangelsk. In the late 1930s he studied at the Gorky literary institute in Moscow where his book of poems, The Northern Maiden, was published in 1938, his long poem, followed in 1940. During World War II, Yashin was a naval war correspondent, he served with marine battalions during the Siege of Leningrad, with the Volga Fleet at Stalingrad, with the Black Sea Fleet. After the war he travelled back to the northern villages of his youth, staying with the builders at new construction sites and with the pioneers developing the virgin lands of Altay, his impressions are reflected in the numerous poetry collections he published in the 1940s, 50s, 60s.
He began writing prose in the early 1960s. His best known stories were A Feast of Rowanberries and A Vologda Wedding, he died in Moscow in 1968. Stalin Prize, 1950, for his poem Alena Fomina Order of the Red Star Levers, Fifty Years of Russian Prose, Vol 2, M. I. T. Press, 1971. A Feast of Rowanberries, Anthology of Soviet Short Stories, Vol 1, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1976