John Calvin was a French theologian and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism, aspects of which include the doctrines of predestination and of the absolute sovereignty of God in salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation, in which doctrines Calvin was influenced by and elaborated upon the Augustinian and other Christian traditions. Various Congregational and Presbyterian churches, which look to Calvin as the chief expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world. Calvin was a tireless apologetic writer who generated much controversy, he exchanged cordial and supportive letters with many reformers, including Philipp Melanchthon and Heinrich Bullinger. In addition to his seminal Institutes of the Christian Religion, Calvin wrote commentaries on most books of the Bible, confessional documents, various other theological treatises. Calvin was trained as a humanist lawyer.
He broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530. After religious tensions erupted in widespread deadly violence against Protestant Christians in France, Calvin fled to Basel, where in 1536 he published the first edition of the Institutes. In that same year, Calvin was recruited by Frenchman William Farel to join the Reformation in Geneva, where he preached sermons throughout the week. At the invitation of Martin Bucer, Calvin proceeded to Strasbourg, where he became the minister of a church of French refugees, he continued to support the reform movement in Geneva, in 1541 he was invited back to lead the church of the city. Following his return, Calvin introduced new forms of church government and liturgy, despite opposition from several powerful families in the city who tried to curb his authority. During this period, Michael Servetus, a Spaniard regarded by both Roman Catholics and Protestants as having a heretical view of the Trinity, arrived in Geneva, he was burned at the stake for heresy by the city council.
Following an influx of supportive refugees and new elections to the city council, Calvin's opponents were forced out. Calvin spent his final years promoting the Reformation both throughout Europe. John Calvin was born as Jehan Cauvin on 10 July 1509, at Noyon, a town in Picardy, a province of the Kingdom of France, he was the first of four sons. His mother, Jeanne le Franc, was the daughter of an innkeeper from Cambrai, she died of an unknown cause after having borne four more children. Calvin's father, Gérard Cauvin, had a prosperous career as the cathedral notary and registrar to the ecclesiastical court. Gérard intended his three sons—Charles and Antoine—for the priesthood. Young Calvin was precocious. By age 12, he was employed by the bishop as a clerk and received the tonsure, cutting his hair to symbolise his dedication to the Church, he won the patronage of an influential family, the Montmors. Through their assistance, Calvin was able to attend the Collège de la Marche, where he learned Latin from one of its greatest teachers, Mathurin Cordier.
Once he completed the course, he entered the Collège de Montaigu as a philosophy student. In 1525 or 1526, Gérard withdrew his son from the Collège de Montaigu and enrolled him in the University of Orléans to study law. According to contemporary biographers Theodore Beza and Nicolas Colladon, Gérard believed that Calvin would earn more money as a lawyer than as a priest. After a few years of quiet study, Calvin entered the University of Bourges in 1529, he was intrigued by a humanist lawyer. Humanism was a European intellectual movement. During his 18-month stay in Bourges, Calvin learned Koine Greek, a necessity for studying the New Testament. Alternate theories have been suggested regarding the date of Calvin's religious conversion; some have placed the date of his conversion around 1533. In this view, his resignation is the direct evidence for his conversion to the evangelical faith. However, T. H. L. Parker argues that while this date is a terminus for his conversion, the more date is in late 1529 or early 1530.
The main evidence for his conversion is contained in two different accounts of his conversion. In the first, found in his Commentary on the Book of Psalms, Calvin portrayed his conversion as a sudden change of mind, brought about by God: God by a sudden conversion subdued and brought my mind to a teachable frame, more hardened in such matters than might have been expected from one at my early period of life. Having thus received some taste and knowledge of true godliness, I was inflamed with so intense a desire to make progress therein, that although I did not altogether leave off other studies, yet I pursued them with less ardour. In the second account, Calvin wrote of a long process of inner turmoil, followed by spiritual and psychological anguish: Being exceedingly alarmed at the misery into which I had fallen, much more at that which threatened me in view of eternal death, I, duty bound, made it my first business to betake myself to your way, condemning my past life, not without groans and tears.
And now, O Lord, what remains to a wretch like me, but instead of defence, earnestly to supplicate you not to judge that fearful abandonment of your Word according to its deserts, from which in your wondrous
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Luke Mourinet known by his producer name Luke Mornay or as part of the remix duo Ruff and Jam, is a French producer and recording artist. He has been known under his other monikers such as Jam, Fortun8 Fellaz, Shades of Mercy, Luke Surgeon, he is best known for his remixing skills, remixing international acts such as Kylie Minogue, The Killers, Bob Marley, Tyler James, Sophie Ellis Bextor and more. He started his career in 1991 as a DJ & Songwriter in France, Producing local artists and went on to London and served as a French market talent scout for Pete Waterman Entertainment, he relocated to Belgium and formed remixing Duo Ruff and Jam, finding international success with a remix of Kylie Minogue's "Love at First Sight", leading to a Grammy Award Nomination within the Best Dance Recording Category and a Billboard number 1. His work could be heard on a couple of productions for radio releases for artists such as: Axelle Red, Ozark Henry, Amron Parker, Frou Frou, Idools and +. In 2011, he co-wrote tracks for the solo album of Hooverphonic's ex lead singer Geike Arnaert and got rewarded in Belgium with a gold certification for the co-production of the single for Idool finalists with the song "More To Me".
As a mix engineer he got credited on releases for singles and albums for Kylie Minogue, Robbie Williams, The Killers "Smile Like You Mean It", Ozark Henry, Keenan Cahill, Axelle Red, Alain Clark, Kate Ryan, Frou Frou, Kato, Au Revoir Simone and more. Official website Facebook Twitter Discogs