Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD. Prior to that, Primitive Irish was written in Ogham, Irish orthography is mainly based on etymological considerations, although a spelling reform in the mid-20th century simplified the relationship between spelling and pronunciation somewhat. There are three dialects of spoken Irish, Ulster and Munster, some spelling conventions are common to all the dialects, while others vary from dialect to dialect. In addition, individual words may have in any given dialect a pronunciation that is not reflected by the spelling, modern loanwords make use of j k q v w x y z. Of these, v is the most common and it occurs in a small number of words of native origin in the language such as vácarnach, vác and vrác, all of which are onomatopoeic. It occurs in a number of colloquial forms such as víog instead of bíog. It is the only non-traditional letter used to write foreign names, cork, as the eclipsis of s. K is the only not to be listed by Ó Dónaill. H, when not prefixed to a vowel as an aspirate in certain grammatical functions.
The letters names are spelt out thus, á bé cé dé é eif gé héis í eil eim ein ó pé ear eas té ú along with jé cá cú vé wae eacs yé zae, tree names were once popularly used to name the letters. Tradition taught that they all derived from the names of Ogham letters and this alphabet, together with Roman type equivalents and letter name pronunciations along with the additional lenited letters, is shown below. Use of Gaelic type is today almost entirely restricted to decorative and/or self-consciously traditional contexts, the dot above the lenited letter is usually replaced by a following h in the standard Roman alphabet. The only other use of h in Irish is for words after certain proclitics. Although the Gaelic script remained common until the mid-20th century, efforts to introduce Roman characters began much earlier, the consonant letters generally correspond to the consonant phonemes as shown in this table. See Irish phonology for an explanation of the used and Irish initial mutations for an explanation of eclipsis.
In most cases, consonants are broad when the nearest vowel letter is one of a, o, u, in spite of the complex chart below, pronunciation of vowels in Irish is mostly predictable from a few simple rules, Fada vowels are always pronounced. Vowels on either side of a vowel are silent. They are present only to satisfy the caol le caol agus leathan le leathan rule
Letter case is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case and smaller lower case in the written representation of certain languages. The writing systems that distinguish between the upper and lower case have two sets of letters, with each letter in one set usually having an equivalent in the other set. Basically, the two variants are alternative representations of the same letter, they have the same name and pronunciation. Letter case is generally applied in a fashion, with both upper- and lower-case letters appearing in a given piece of text. The choice of case is often prescribed by the grammar of a language or by the conventions of a particular discipline, in mathematics, letter case may indicate the relationship between objects, with upper-case letters often representing superior objects. In some contexts, it is conventional to use only one case, the terms upper case and lower case can be written as two consecutive words, connected with a hyphen, or as a single word.
These terms originated from the layouts of the shallow drawers called type cases used to hold the movable type for letterpress printing. Traditionally, the letters were stored in a separate case that was located above the case that held the small letters. Majuscule, for palaeographers, is technically any script in which the letters have very few or very short ascenders and descenders, or none at all. By virtue of their impact, this made the term majuscule an apt descriptor for what much came to be more commonly referred to as uppercase letters. The word is often spelled miniscule, by association with the word miniature. This has traditionally been regarded as a mistake, but is now so common that some dictionaries tend to accept it as a nonstandard or variant spelling. Miniscule is still less likely, however, to be used in reference to lower-case letters, the glyphs of lower-case letters can resemble smaller forms of the upper-case glyphs restricted to the base band or can look hardly related.
There is more variation in the height of the minuscules, as some of them have higher or lower than the typical size. In Times New Roman, for instance, b, d, f, h, k, l, t are the letters with ascenders, and g, j, p, q, y are the ones with descenders. In addition, with old-style numerals still used by traditional or classical fonts,6 and 8 make up the ascender set. Writing systems using two separate cases are bicameral scripts, languages that use the Latin, Greek, Armenian, Varang Kshiti and Osage scripts use letter cases in their written form as an aid to clarity. Other bicameral scripts, which are not used for any modern languages, are Old Hungarian, the Georgian alphabet has several variants, and there were attempts to use them as different cases, but the modern written Georgian language does not distinguish case
History of Anglo-Saxon England
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066. It consisted of various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 927 when it was united as the Kingdom of England by King Æthelstan and it became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway in the 11th century. The Anglo-Saxons were the members of Germanic-speaking groups who migrated to the half of the island from continental Europe. Anglo-Saxon identity survived beyond the Norman conquest, came to be known as Englishry under Norman rule, Bede completed his book Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum in around 731. Thus the term for English people was in use by to distinguish Germanic groups in Britain from those on the continent, the historian James Campbell suggested that it was not until the late Anglo-Saxon period that England could be described as a nation state. It is certain that the concept of Englishness only developed very slowly, as the Roman occupation of Britain was coming to an end, Constantine III withdrew the remains of the army, in reaction to the barbarian invasion of Europe.
The Romano-British leaders were faced with a security problem from seaborne raids. The expedient adopted by the Romano-British leaders was to enlist the help of Anglo-Saxon mercenaries, in about 442 the Anglo-Saxons mutinied, apparently because they had not been paid. There followed several years of fighting between the British and the Anglo-Saxons, the fighting continued until around 500, when, at the Battle of Mount Badon, the Britons inflicted a severe defeat on the Anglo-Saxons. There are records of Germanic infiltration into Britain that date before the collapse of the Roman Empire and it is believed that the earliest Germanic visitors were eight cohorts of Batavians attached to the 14th Legion in the original invasion force under Aulus Plautius in AD43. There is a hypothesis that some of the tribes, identified as Britons by the Romans. It was quite common for Rome to swell its legions with foederati recruited from the German homelands and this practice extended to the army serving in Britain, and graves of these mercenaries, along with their families, can be identified in the Roman cemeteries of the period.
The migration continued with the departure of the Roman army, when Anglo-Saxons were recruited to defend Britain, and during the period of the Anglo-Saxon first rebellion of 442. The arrival of the Anglo-Saxons into Britain can be seen in the context of a movement of Germanic peoples around Europe between the years 300 and 700, known as the Migration period. In the same there were migrations of Britons to the Armorican peninsula, initially around 383 during Roman rule. The historian Peter Hunter-Blair expounded what is now regarded as the view of the Anglo-Saxon arrival in Britain. He suggested a mass immigration and driving the Sub-Roman Britons off their land and into the extremities of the islands. This view was influenced by sources such as Bede, where he talks about the Britons being slaughtered or going into perpetual servitude
A rubric is a word or section of text that is traditionally written or printed in red ink for emphasis. The word derives from the Latin, meaning red ochre or red chalk, rubric can mean the red ink or paint used to make rubrics, or the pigment used to make it. Although red was most often used, other colours came into use from the late Middle Ages onwards, various figurative senses of the word have been extended from its original sense. Usually these senses are used within the set phrase under rubric, for example, under this rubric, or under the rubric of Y. Instructions for a priest explaining what he must do during a liturgy were rubricated in missals and the liturgical books. From this, rubric has a denotation of an instruction in a text. This is the oldest recorded definition in English, found in 1375, less formally, rubrics may refer to any liturgical action customarily performed, whether or not pursuant to a written instruction. The history and authority of the content of rubrics are significant, in the past, some theologians distinguished between rubrics they considered of Divine origin and those merely of human origin.
Rubrics were probably originally verbal, and written in separate volumes, the earliest extant liturgical books do not contain them, but from references in texts of the first millennium it appears that written versions existed. Full rubrics regarding matters such as vesture, appearance of the altar, timing of specific liturgies, in modern liturgical books, e. g. Red is used to distinguish words spoken by the celebrant. Other versions of the Bible have since adopted the popular practice, code of Rubrics Rubrication Scriptorium Rubrics of the Anglican Low Mass Very full set of rubrics, the words to be spoken are here shown in red, and the rubrics in black. Catholic Order of Mass Rubrics showing who speaks are in red, Kelmscott Press Examples of Kelmscott Press pages showing use of red accents. So this is the preachment entitled Chicago tongue A flip book presentation of the Roycroft Press edition c,1913, illustrating use of rubrics in the Arts and Crafts tradition
Gospel of Mark
The Gospel According to Mark, the second book of the New Testament, is one of the four canonical gospels and the three synoptic gospels. It portrays Jesus as a man of action, an exorcist, a healer. Jesus is the Son of God, but he keeps his identity secret, all this is in keeping with prophecy, which foretold the fate of the messiah as Suffering Servant. The gospel ends, in its version, with the discovery of the empty tomb, a promise to meet again in Galilee. Traditionally thought to be an epitome of Matthew, which accounts for its place as the gospel in the Bible. The Gospel of Mark is anonymous, early Christian tradition ascribes it to John Mark, a companion and interpreter of the apostle Peter. Hence its author is often called Mark, even though most modern scholars are doubtful of the Markan tradition and instead regard the author as unknown. It was probably written c. AD 66–70, during Neros persecution of the Christians in Rome or the Jewish revolt, as suggested by references to war in Judea.
The author used a variety of pre-existing sources, such as stories, apocalyptic discourse. Mark was written in Greek, for an audience of Greek-speaking Christians, Galilee, Antioch. The gospels of Matthew and Luke bear a resemblance to each other. Their close relationship is termed the problem, and has led to a number of hypotheses explaining their interdependence. The most widely accepted hypothesis is that Mark was the first gospel and was used as a source by both Matthew and Luke, together with additional material. The strongest argument for this is the fact that Matthew and Luke agree with other in their sequence of stories. The 19th century recognition of Mark as the earliest gospel led to the belief that it must therefore be the most reliable, the modern consensus is that Marks purpose was to present a theological message rather than to write history. Marks gospel is nevertheless seen as the most reliable of the four in terms of its overall description of Jesuss life. This recognition allows scholars to chart the evolution of Jesus in the scriptures, Marks Christ, for example, dies with the cry, My God, my God, historical reconstruction suggests that the original despairing death of Jesus has become more and more victorious over time.
From the outset, Christians depended heavily on Jewish literature, supporting their convictions through the Jewish scriptures and those convictions involved a nucleus of key concepts, the messiah, the son of God and the son of man, the Day of the Lord, the kingdom of God
St. Gall Gospel Book
Amongst its 11 illustrated pages are a Crucifixion, a Last Judgement, a Chi Rho monogram page, a carpet page, and Evangelist portraits. It is designated by 48 on the Beuron system, and is an 8th-century Latin manuscript of the New Testament, the text, written on vellum, is a version of the old Latin. The manuscript contains the text of the four Gospels on 134 parchment leaves and it is written in two columns, in Irish semi-uncials. It has been in the St Gall library since at least the 10th century, the Latin text of the Gospel of John is a representative of the Western text-type. The text of the other Gospels represents the Vulgate version, St Gall was founded where Saint Gall had settled and died. He was an Irish monk and one of the twelve companions of Saint Columbanus on his Hiberno-Scottish mission to the continent. The abbey maintained close links with Ireland and England in its early centuries, list of New Testament Latin manuscripts Gustav Scherrer, Verzeichniss der Handschriften der Stiftsbibliothek von St.
Gallen, Halle 1875, S. 22-23. Codex Sangallensis 51 images of the codex at the Stiffsbibliothek St. Gallen St. Gall Gospel Book, www. e-codices. unifr. ch
Book of Kells
The Book of Kells is an illuminated manuscript Gospel book in Latin, containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together with various prefatory texts and tables. It was created in a Columban monastery in Ireland or may have had contributions from various Columban institutions from both Britain and Ireland and it is believed to have been created c.800 AD. The text of the Gospels is largely drawn from the Vulgate and it is a masterwork of Western calligraphy and represents the pinnacle of Insular illumination. It is regarded as Irelands finest national treasure. The illustrations and ornamentation of the Book of Kells surpass that of other Insular Gospel books in extravagance, the decoration combines traditional Christian iconography with the ornate swirling motifs typical of Insular art. Figures of humans and mythical beasts, together with Celtic knots and interlacing patterns in vibrant colours, many of these minor decorative elements are imbued with Christian symbolism and so further emphasise the themes of the major illustrations.
The manuscript today comprises 340 folios and, since 1953, has been bound in four volumes, the Insular majuscule script of the text itself appears to be the work of at least three different scribes. The lettering is in iron gall ink, and the colours used were derived from a range of substances. The manuscript takes its name from the Abbey of Kells, which was its home for centuries, today, it is on permanent display at Trinity College Library, Dublin. These manuscripts include the Cathach of St. Columba, the Ambrosiana Orosius, fragmentary Gospel in the Durham Dean and Chapter Library, from the early 8th century come the Durham Gospels, the Echternach Gospels, the Lindisfarne Gospels, and the Lichfield Gospels. Among others, the St. Gall Gospel Book belongs to the late 8th century, scholars place these manuscripts together based on similarities in artistic style and textual traditions. The fully developed style of the ornamentation of the Book of Kells places it late in this series, the Book of Kells follows many of the iconographic and stylistic traditions found in these earlier manuscripts.
For example, the form of the letters found in the incipit pages for the Gospels is surprisingly consistent in Insular Gospels. The name Book of Kells is derived from the Abbey of Kells in Kells, County Meath, the manuscripts date and place of production have been the subject of considerable debate. Traditionally, the book was thought to have created in the time of Columba. This tradition has long been discredited on paleographic and stylistic grounds,800, long after St. Columbas death in 597. The proposed dating in the 9th century coincides with Viking raids on Iona, there is another tradition, with some traction among Irish scholars, that suggests the manuscript was created for the 200th anniversary of the saints death. There are at least five competing theories about the place of origin
Tironian notes is a system of shorthand invented by Tiro, Marcus Tullius Ciceros slave and personal secretary, and his freedman. Tiros system consisted of about 4,000 abstract symbols that were extended in classical times to 5,000 signs, during the medieval period, Tiros notation system was taught in European monasteries and was extended to about 13,000 signs. Tironian notes declined after 1100 but were still in use in the 17th century. Tironian notes can be themselves composites of simpler Tironian notes, the resulting compound still being far shorter than the word it replaces and this accounts in part for the large number of attested Tironian notes, and for the wide variation in estimates of the total number of Tironian notes. Further, the sign can have other variant forms, leading to the same issue. Nicknamed the father of stenography by historians, Tiro was a slave, the only systematized form of abbreviation in Latin at the time was used for legal notations, but it was deliberately abstruse and only accessible to people with specialized knowledge.
Otherwise shorthand was improvised for note-taking or writing personal communications and these notations would not have been understood outside of closed circles, Tironian notes, known as Tironian shorthand, consisted of abbreviations with Latin letters, abstract symbols contrived by Tiro, and symbols borrowed from Greek shorthand. Tiros notes represented prepositions, truncated words, syllables, according to Di Renzo, Tiro combined these mixed signs like notes in a score to record not just phrases, but, as Cicero marvels in a letter to Atticus, whole sentences. Dio Cassius attributes the invention of shorthand to Maecenas, and states that he employed his freedman Aquila in teaching the system to numerous others. Isidore of Seville, details another version of the history of the system, ascribing the invention of the art to Quintus Ennius. Isidore states that Tiro brought the practice to Rome, but only used Tironian notes for prepositions, there are no surviving copies of Tiros original manual and code, so modern knowledge is on biographical records and copies of Tironian tables from the medieval period.
There is evidence that Tiro taught his system to Cicero and his other scribes, on many of the oldest Tironian tables, lines from this speech were frequently used as examples, leading scholars to theorize it was originally transcribed using Tironian shorthand. Scholars believe that in preparation for speeches, Tiro drafted outlines in shorthand that Cicero used as notes while speaking. In the 15th century Johannes Trithemius, abbot of the Benedictine abbey of Sponheim, discovered the notae Benenses, a psalm, Tironian notes are still used today, the Tironian et, used in Ireland and Scotland to mean and, and in the z of viz. In blackletter texts it was used in the abbreviation ⟨⁊c. ⟩ = etc. still throughout the 19th century, the Tironian et can look very similar to an r rotunda, ⟨ꝛ⟩, depending on the typeface. In Old English manuscripts, the Tironian et served as both a phonetic and morphological place holder, for instance a Tironian et between two words would be phonetically pronounced ond and would mean and.
However, if the Tironian et followed the letter s, it would be phonetically pronounced sond and this additional function of a phonetic as well as a conjunction placeholder has escaped formal Modern English, for example, one may not spell the word sand as s&. This practice was distinct from the use of &c. for etc. where the & is interpreted as the Latin word et
Calligraphy is a visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad tip instrument, brush, a contemporary calligraphic practice can be defined as, the art of giving form to signs in an expressive and skillful manner. Modern calligraphy ranges from functional inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the letters may or may not be readable, classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may practice both. It is used for props and moving images for film and television, testimonials and death certificates, the principal tools for a calligrapher are the pen and the brush. Calligraphy pens write with nibs that may be flat, for some decorative purposes, multi-nibbed pens—steel brushes—can be used. However, works have created with felt-tip and ballpoint pens. There are some styles of calligraphy, like Gothic script, which require a stub nib pen, Writing ink is usually water-based and is much less viscous than the oil-based inks used in printing.
Normally, light boxes and templates are used to achieve straight lines without pencil markings detracting from the work, ruled paper, either for a light box or direct use, is most often ruled every quarter or half inch, although inch spaces are occasionally used. This is the case with litterea unciales, and college-ruled paper often acts as a guideline well, common calligraphy pens and brushes are, Quill Dip pen Ink brush Qalam Fountain pen Western calligraphy is recognizable by the use of the Latin script. The Latin alphabet appeared about 600 BC, in Rome, and by the first century developed into Roman imperial capitals carved on stones, Rustic capitals painted on walls, in the second and third centuries the uncial lettering style developed. As writing withdrew to monasteries, uncial script was more suitable for copying the Bible. It was the monasteries which preserved calligraphic traditions during the fourth and fifth centuries, at the height of the Empire, its power reached as far as Great Britain, when the empire fell, its literary influence remained.
The Semi-uncial generated the Irish Semi-uncial, the small Anglo-Saxon, each region developed its own standards following the main monastery of the region, which are mostly cursive and hardly readable. Christian churches promoted the development of writing through the copying of the Bible, particularly the New Testament. Two distinct styles of writing known as uncial and half-uncial developed from a variety of Roman bookhands, the 7th-9th centuries in northern Europe were the heyday of Celtic illuminated manuscripts, such as the Book of Durrow, Lindisfarne Gospels and the Book of Kells. Charlemagnes devotion to improved scholarship resulted in the recruiting of a crowd of scribes, according to Alcuin, Alcuin developed the style known as the Caroline or Carolingian minuscule. The first manuscript in hand was the Godescalc Evangelistary — a Gospel book written by the scribe Godescalc. Carolingian remains the one hand from which modern booktype descends
The Latin alphabet is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world. It is the script of the English language and is often referred to simply as the alphabet in English. It is an alphabet which originated in the 7th century BC in Italy and has changed continually over the last 2500 years. It has roots in the Semitic alphabet and its offshoot alphabets, the Phoenician, the phonetic values of some letters changed, some letters were lost and gained, and several writing styles developed. Two such styles, the minuscule and majuscule hands, were combined into one script with alternate forms for the lower and upper case letters, due to classicism, modern uppercase letters differ only slightly from their classical counterparts. The Latin alphabet started out as uppercase serifed letters known as roman square capitals, the lowercase letters evolved through cursive styles that developed to adapt the formerly inscribed alphabet to being written with a pen. Throughout the ages, many stylistic variations of each letter have evolved that are still identified as being the same letter.
From the Cumae alphabet, the Etruscan alphabet was derived, the Latins ultimately adopted 21 of the original 26 Etruscan letters. Gaius Julius Hyginus, who recorded much Roman mythology, mentions in Fab, the Parcae, Clotho and Atropos invented seven Greek letters — A B H T I Y. Others say that Mercury invented them from the flight of cranes, palamedes, son of Nauplius, invented eleven letters, too, invented four letters — Ó E Z PH, Epicharmus of Sicily, two — P and PS. The Greek letters Mercury is said to have brought to Egypt, Cadmus in exile from Arcadia, took them to Italy, and his mother Carmenta changed them to Latin to the number of 15. Apollo on the added the rest. The original Latin alphabet was, The oldest Latin inscriptions do not distinguish between /ɡ/ and /k/, representing both by C, K and Q according to position, K was used before A, Q was used before O or V, C was used elsewhere. This is explained by the fact that the Etruscan language did not make this distinction, C originated as a turned form of Greek Gamma and Q from Greek Koppa.
In Latin, K survived only in a few such as Kalendae, Q survived only before V. G was invented to distinguish between /ɡ/ and /k/, it was simply a C with an additional diacritic. C stood for /ɡ/ I stood for both /i/ and /j/, V stood for both /u/ and /w/. K was marginalized in favour of C, which stood for both /ɡ/ and /k/
The Lichfield Gospels is an eighth century Insular gospel Book housed in Lichfield Cathedral. There are 236 surviving pages, eight of which are illuminated, the pages themselves measure 30.8 cm by 23.5 cm. The manuscript is important because it includes, as marginalia, some of the earliest known examples of written Old Welsh. Peter Lord dates the book at 730, placing it chronologically before the Book of Kells, in 2010, Bill Endres, at the University of Kentucky, led efforts to digitize the manuscript. In 2014, Endres returned to Lichfield Cathedral and used Reflectance Transformation Imaging to capture the drypoint glosses in the Lichfield Gospels, one gloss recovers contributions of women during the early medieval period, its listing of three Anglo-Saxon female names suggests that women worked in the scriptorium at Lichfield. Scholars view four places as possible sites for the making of the Lichfield Gospels, Northumbria, Wales and stylistic similarities link it to Northumbria and Iona, the painting techniques resemble those of the Lindisfarne Gospels and the Book of Kells.
Some scholars view this great gospel book as written in Wales due to the Welsh marginalia. However, in 1980, Wendy Stein made an argument for Lichfield, viewing Wales as unlikely but Ireland. In 2003, the discovery of the Lichfield Angel provided further evidence for a claim of Lichfield, sharp has drawn similarities to motifs in the Gospels with goldwork in the Staffordshire Hoard. But without definitive evidence, this debate is likely to continue, based upon style, the actual making of the book may be placed between 698 and 800. Although it is unknown how the book came to be in Lichfield, the opening folio contains a faded signature reading Wynsige presul, which probably refers to the Wynsige who was Bishop of Lichfield from circa 963 to 972–5. Folio four contains a reference to Leofric who was bishop from 1020 to 1026, wherever this great gospel book originated and however it came to Lichfield, it has been there since the tenth century. In 1646, during the English Civil War, Lichfield Cathedral was sacked, the books and manuscripts were given to Frances, Duchess of Somerset, who returned them in 1672 or 1673.
This is probably when the volume of the Gospels was lost. Precentor William Higgins is credited with saving the remaining volume and they were put on public display in 1982. The bishops of Lichfield still swear allegiance to the crown on the Lichfield Gospels, other Insular illuminated manuscripts of possible Welsh origin include the Ricemarch Psalter and the Hereford Gospels. The manuscript contains the Gospels of Matthew and Mark, and the part of the Gospel of Luke. A second volume disappeared about the time of the English Civil War, the Latin text is written in a single column and is based on the Vulgate