An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece of semiconductor material, silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny MOS transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller and less expensive than those constructed of discrete electronic components; the IC's mass production capability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs. Integrated circuits were made practical by technological advancements in metal–oxide–silicon semiconductor device fabrication. Since their origins in the 1960s, the size and capacity of chips have progressed enormously, driven by technical advances that fit more and more MOS transistors on chips of the same size – a modern chip may have many billions of MOS transistors in an area the size of a human fingernail.
These advances following Moore's law, make computer chips of today possess millions of times the capacity and thousands of times the speed of the computer chips of the early 1970s. ICs have two main advantages over discrete circuits: performance. Cost is low because the chips, with all their components, are printed as a unit by photolithography rather than being constructed one transistor at a time. Furthermore, packaged ICs use much less material than discrete circuits. Performance is high because the IC's components switch and consume comparatively little power because of their small size and proximity; the main disadvantage of ICs is the high cost to fabricate the required photomasks. This high initial cost means ICs are only commercially viable when high production volumes are anticipated. An integrated circuit is defined as: A circuit in which all or some of the circuit elements are inseparably associated and electrically interconnected so that it is considered to be indivisible for the purposes of construction and commerce.
Circuits meeting this definition can be constructed using many different technologies, including thin-film transistors, thick-film technologies, or hybrid integrated circuits. However, in general usage integrated circuit has come to refer to the single-piece circuit construction known as a monolithic integrated circuit. Early concepts of an integrated circuit go back to 1949, when German engineer Werner Jacobi filed a patent for an integrated-circuit-like semiconductor amplifying device showing five transistors on a common substrate in a 3-stage amplifier arrangement. Jacobi disclosed cheap hearing aids as typical industrial applications of his patent. An immediate commercial use of his patent has not been reported; the idea of an integrated circuit was conceived by Geoffrey Dummer, a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the British Ministry of Defence. Dummer presented the idea to the public at the Symposium on Progress in Quality Electronic Components in Washington, D.
C. on 7 May 1952. He gave many symposia publicly to propagate his ideas and unsuccessfully attempted to build such a circuit in 1956. Between 1953 and 1957, Sidney Darlington and Yasuro Tarui proposed similar chip designs where several transistors could share a common active area, but there was no electrical isolation to separate them from each other; the monolithic integrated circuit chip was enabled by the surface passivation process, which electrically stabilized silicon surfaces via thermal oxidation, making it possible to fabricate monolithic integrated circuit chips using silicon. The surface passivation process was developed by Mohamed M. Atalla at Bell Labs in 1957; this was the basis for the planar process, developed by Jean Hoerni at Fairchild Semiconductor in early 1959, critical to the invention of the monolithic integrated circuit chip. A key concept behind the monolithic IC is the principle of p–n junction isolation, which allows each transistor to operate independently despite being part of the same piece of silicon.
Atalla's surface passivation process isolated individual diodes and transistors, extended to independent transistors on a single piece of silicon by Kurt Lehovec at Sprague Electric in 1959, independently by Robert Noyce at Fairchild the same year. A precursor idea to the IC was to create small ceramic substrates, each containing a single miniaturized component. Components could be integrated and wired into a bidimensional or tridimensional compact grid; this idea, which seemed promising in 1957, was proposed to the US Army by Jack Kilby and led to the short-lived Micromodule Program. However, as the project was gaining momentum, Kilby came up with a new, revolutionary design: the IC. Newly employed by Texas Instruments, Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958 demonstrating the first working example of an integrated circuit on 12 September 1958. In his patent application of 6 February 1959, Kilby described his new device as "a body of semiconductor material … wherein all the components of the electronic circuit are integrated."
The first customer for the new invention was the US Air Force. Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize in physics for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit. However, Kilby's invention was a hybrid inte
Craig Casey is an Irish rugby union player for Pro14 and European Rugby Champions Cup Munster. He represents Shannon in the All-Ireland League. Born in Limerick, Casey captained Ardscoil Rís to the semi-finals of the 2017 Munster Schools Rugby Senior Cup, his performances saw him named in the Munster Schools top XV for 2017, as well as earning representation for Munster and Ireland at under-18 level, he is the nephew of Munster player Mossy Lawler. Casey joined the Munster academy ahead of the 2017–18 season, won the John McCarthy Award for Academy Player of the Year in April 2019. Casey made his senior competitive debut for Munster in their 27–14 win against Connacht in round 21 of the 2018–19 Pro14 on 27 April 2019. Casey had been a late call-up to the bench for Munster after the starting scrum-half, Conor Murray, withdrew during the warm-up and Neil Cronin was promoted to the starting XV, he joined the provinces senior squad ahead of the 2019–20 season on a development contract, before progressing to a full contract ahead of the 2020–21 season.
Casey made his first start for Munster in their 19–14 away win against Connacht in round 8 of the 2019–20 Pro14 on 21 December 2019, he made his European debut for the province in their 39–22 defeat away to French club Racing 92 in round 5 of the 2019–20 Champions Cup on 12 January 2020. One week Casey scored his first try for Munster in their 33–6 win against Welsh side Ospreys, in what was the provinces final pool fixture of the 2019–20 Champions Cup. Casey had been in contention for selection for Ireland under-20s during 2018, but a series of injuries ruled him out. Having overcome his injury issues, Casey was named as vice-captain in the under-20s squad for the 2019 Six Nations Under 20s Championship, made three appearances, scoring two tries, during the tournament, which saw Ireland secure a grand slam victory for the first time since 2007, he was retained as vice-captain in the under-20s squad for the 2019 World Rugby Under 20 Championship when it was confirmed in May 2019. Six Nations Under 20s Championship: Winner: 2019 Grand Slam: Winner: 2019 Triple Crown: Winner: 2019 Munster Senior Profile Munster Academy Profile Ireland U20 Profile U20 Six Nations Profile Pro14 Profile Craig Casey at European Professional Club Rugby
Reform Jersey is a social-democratic political party in Jersey, an island Crown dependency of the British crown. It is the only registered political party in Jersey. Reform Jersey was founded in 2012 as a pressure group by Montfort Tadier, Nick Le Cornu, Jasen Cronin and Sam Mézec. On 24 April 2014, Deputies Mezec and Le Cornu announced that it would become a party to contest the 2014 general election scheduled for October, it was registered as a political party at the Royal Court on 4 July 2014. Reform Jersey founding member Deputy Nick Le Cornu was expelled from the party in September 2014. For the 2014 general election on 15 October 2014, Reform Jersey put up eight candidates. Deputies Sam Mézec, Montfort Tadier and Geoff Southern were re-elected but none of the new Reform candidates were successful. In the 2018 general election on 16 May 2018, the party returned four deputies, with Sam Mézec gaining a senatorial seat; the party states its support for a living wage, progressive taxation, 26 weeks statutory maternity leave, construction of affordable housing, democratic reform of the States of Jersey and the parish system.
Reform Jersey supported and campaigned for the legalisation of same-sex marriage and organised a rally in support of equal marriage on 12 July 2014, prior to the legalisation of same-sex marriage in Jersey on 1 July 2018. The party's 2018 election manifesto, Working For A Fairer Island, promised tax reform, grants to cover the cost of university tuition fees, a rent freeze on the social housing sector, an empty property tax, electoral reform of the States of Jersey to introduce one type of States member elected in equal-size constituencies, it expressed support for a universal healthcare system, free at the point of use, promised to reduce the cost of GP visits. The manifesto supported the conservation of Jèrriais; the party supports environmental activism. On the 30th of April, 2019, party chairman Sam Mézec addressed a rally of local Extinction Rebellion activists in the Royal Square. On 2 May 2019, during a debate in the States Assembly, Deputy Montfort Tadier called for “ecological socialism” in response to anthropogenic climate change.