Intelligent design is a pseudoscientific argument for the existence of God, presented by its proponents as "an evidence-based scientific theory about life's origins". Proponents claim that "certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection." ID is a form of creationism that lacks empirical support and offers no testable or tenable hypotheses, so it is not science. The leading proponents of ID are associated with the Discovery Institute, a Christian, politically conservative think tank based in the United States. Though the phrase "intelligent design" had featured in theological discussions of the argument from design, the first publication of the term intelligent design in its present use as an alternative term for creationism was in Of Pandas and People, a 1989 creationist textbook intended for high school biology classes; the term was substituted into drafts of the book, directly replacing references to creation science and creationism, after the 1987 United States Supreme Court's Edwards v. Aguillard decision which barred the teaching of creation science in public schools on constitutional grounds.
From the mid-1990s, the intelligent design movement, supported by the Discovery Institute, advocated inclusion of intelligent design in public school biology curricula. This led to the 2005 Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District trial in which U. S. District Judge John E. Jones III found that intelligent design was not science, that it "cannot uncouple itself from its creationist, thus religious, antecedents," and that the school district's promotion of it therefore violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. ID presents two main arguments against evolutionary explanations: irreducible complexity and specified complexity; these arguments assert. As a positive argument against evolution, ID proposes an analogy between natural systems and human artifacts, a version of the theological argument from design for the existence of God. ID proponents conclude by analogy that the complex features, as defined by ID, are evidence of design. Detailed scientific examination has rebutted the claims that evolutionary explanations are inadequate, this premise of intelligent design—that evidence against evolution constitutes evidence for design—is a false dichotomy.
It is asserted that ID challenges the methodological naturalism inherent in modern science though proponents concede that they have yet to produce a scientific theory. In 1910, evolution was not a topic of major religious controversy in America, but in the 1920s, the Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy in theology resulted in Fundamentalist Christian opposition to teaching evolution, the origins of modern creationism. Teaching of evolution was suspended in U. S. public schools until the 1960s, when evolution was reintroduced into the curriculum, there was a series of court cases in which attempts were made to get creationism taught alongside evolution in science classes. Young Earth creationists promoted creation science as "an alternative scientific explanation of the world in which we live"; this invoked the argument from design to explain complexity in nature as demonstrating the existence of God. The argument from design known as the teleological argument or "argument from intelligent design", has been advanced in theology for centuries.
It can be summarised as "Wherever complex design exists, there must have been a designer. Thomas Aquinas presented it in his fifth proof of God's existence as a syllogism. In 1802, William Paley's Natural Theology presented examples of intricate purpose in organisms, his version of the watchmaker analogy argued that, in the same way that a watch has evidently been designed by a craftsman and adaptation seen in nature must have been designed, the perfection and diversity of these designs shows the designer to be omnipotent, the Christian God. Like creation science, intelligent design centers on Paley's religious argument from design, but while Paley's natural theology was open to deistic design through God-given laws, intelligent design seeks scientific confirmation of repeated miraculous interventions in the history of life. Creation science prefigured the intelligent design arguments of irreducible complexity featuring the bacterial flagellum. In the United States, attempts to introduce creation science in schools led to court rulings that it is religious in nature, thus cannot be taught in public school science classrooms.
Intelligent design is presented as science, shares other arguments with creation science but avoids literal Biblical references to such things as the Flood story from the Book of Genesis or using Bible verses to age the Earth. Barbara Forrest writes that the intelligent design movement began in 1984 with the book The Mystery of Life's Origin: Reassessing Current Theories, co-written by creationist Charles B. Thaxton, a chemist, with two other authors, published by Jon A. Buell's Foundation for Ethics. In March 1986, Stephen C. Meyer published a review of the book, discussing how information theory could suggest that messages transmitted by DNA in the cell show "specified complexity" specified by intelligence, must have originated with an intelligent agent, he argued that science is based upon "foundational assumptions" of naturalism which were as much a matter of faith as those of "creation theory". In November of that year, Thaxton described his reasoning as a more sophisticated form of Paley's argument
Lai Man-Wai romanised as Lay Min Wei or M. W. Ray, considered the "Father of Hong Kong Cinema", was the director of the first Hong Kong film Zhuangzi Tests His Wife in 1913. In the film, Lai played the role of the wife due to the reluctance of women to participate in show business at the time. Born in Japan, of Xinhui, Guangdong origin and raised in Hong Kong, he joined Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang party in 1911 and helped make anti-warlord movies, he was an active director during the golden years of the Shanghai movie industry from 1921 to 1928. In 1923, he founded the China Sun Motion Picture Company with his brother, Lai Pak-Hoi, in Hong Kong which relocated to Shanghai. In 1930, he co-founded one of the "Big Three" studios of the 1930s, Lianhua Film Company, with Lo Ming Yau. Lianhua, together with other leading Shanghai studios, was destroyed when the Empire of Japan attacked Shanghai in 1937. Lai retired, he was married to a Vancouver-born actress. His daughter Lai Suen and granddaughter Gigi Lai are both actresses.
His story was documented in Lai Man-wai: Father of Hong Kong Cinema by Choi Kai-kwong in 2001. Lai Man-Wai is portrayed in Stanley Kwan's 1991 biopic of actress Ruan Lingyu, Center Stage by Hong Kong actor, Waise Lee. Zhuangzi Tests His Wife Romance of the Western Chamber directed with Hou Yao A Page of History. Documentary. Lai Man-Wai followed Sun Yat-sen during the 1920s. Ho, Sam. Hong Kong Cinema: A Cross-cultural View. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810849860, his Origins in Xinhui - http://www.southcn.com/news/gdnews/sh/hrjnh/fyrw/200409020627.htm Lai Man-Wai on IMDb
The Men's European Volleyball League is a continental volleyball competition senior men's national volleyball teams of Europe, organized by the European Volleyball Confederation. Created in 2004, the competition serves as a qualifying tournament for the FIVB World League and to its successor the FIVB Nations League since 2018; this event should not be confused with the other, more prestigious, continental competition for European national volleyball teams, the European Volleyball Championship. 2004 – Petr Pláteník 2005 – Pavel Abramov 2006 – Guido Görtzen 2007 – Guillermo Falasca 2008 – Martin Sopko 2009 – Jochen Schöps 2010 – Valdir Sequeira 2011 – Tomas Kmet 2012 – Emre Batur 2013 – Bram Van den Dries 2014 – Miloš Ćulafić 2015 – Dejan Vinčič 2016 – Robert Täht 2017 – Maksym Drozd 2018 – Renee Teppan 2019 – Arslan Ekşi European Women's Volleyball League Men's European Volleyball Championship FIVB Volleyball World League Official website