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Intelligent transportation system

An intelligent transportation system is an advanced application which aims to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and'smarter' use of transport networks. Some of these technologies include calling for emergency services when an accident occurs, using cameras to enforce traffic laws or signs that mark speed limit changes depending on conditions. Although ITS may refer to all modes of transport, the directive of the European Union 2010/40/EU, made on July 7, 2010, defined ITS as systems in which information and communication technologies are applied in the field of road transport, including infrastructure and users, in traffic management and mobility management, as well as for interfaces with other modes of transport. ITS may improve the efficiency of transport in a number of situations, i.e. road transport, traffic management, etc. Recent governmental activity in the area of ITS — is further motivated by an increasing focus on homeland security.

Many of the proposed ITS systems involve surveillance of the roadways, a priority of homeland security. Funding of many systems comes either directly through homeland security organisations or with their approval. Further, ITS can play a role in the rapid mass evacuation of people in urban centers after large casualty events such as a result of a natural disaster or threat. Much of the infrastructure and planning involved with ITS parallels the need for homeland security systems. In the developing world, the migration from rural to urbanized habitats has progressed differently. Many areas of the developing world have urbanised without significant motorisation and the formation of suburbs. A small portion of the population can afford automobiles, but the automobiles increase congestion in these multimodal transportation systems, they produce considerable air pollution, pose a significant safety risk, exacerbate feelings of inequities in the society. High population density could be supported by a multimodal system of walking, bicycle transportation, motorcycles and trains.

Other parts of the developing world, such as China and Brazil remain rural but are urbanising and industrialising. In these areas a motorised infrastructure is being developed alongside motorisation of the population. Great disparity of wealth means that only a fraction of the population can motorise, therefore the dense multimodal transportation system for the poor is cross-cut by the motorised transportation system for the rich. Intelligent transport systems vary in technologies applied, from basic management systems such as car navigation. Additionally, predictive techniques are being developed to allow advanced modelling and comparison with historical baseline data; some of these technologies are described in the following sections. Various forms of wireless communications technologies have been proposed for intelligent transportation systems. Radio modem communication on UHF and VHF frequencies are used for short and long range communication within ITS. Short-range communications of 350 m can be accomplished using IEEE 802.11 protocols WAVE or the dedicated short range communications standard being promoted by the Intelligent Transportation Society of America and the United States Department of Transportation.

Theoretically, the range of these protocols can be extended using mobile ad hoc networks or mesh networking. Longer range communications have been proposed using infrastructure networks such as WiMAX, Global System for Mobile Communications, or 3G. Long-range communications using these methods are well established, unlike the short-range protocols, these methods require extensive and expensive infrastructure deployment. There is lack of consensus as to. Auto insurance companies have utilised ad hoc solutions to support eCall and behavioural tracking functionalities in the form of Telematics 2.0. Recent advances in vehicle electronics have led to a move towards fewer, more capable computer processors on a vehicle. A typical vehicle in the early 2000s would have between 20 and 100 individual networked microcontroller/programmable logic controller modules with non-real-time operating systems; the current trend is toward fewer, more costly microprocessor modules with hardware memory management and real-time operating systems.

The new embedded system platforms allow for more sophisticated software applications to be implemented, including model-based process control, artificial intelligence, ubiquitous computing. The most important of these for intelligent transportation systems is artificial intelligence. "Floating car" or "probe" data collected other transport routes. Broadly speaking, four methods have been used to obtain the raw data: Triangulation method. In developed countries a high proportion of cars contain one or more mobile phones; the phones periodically transmit their presence information to the mobile phone network when no voice connection is established. In the mid-2000s, attempts were made to use mobile phones as anonymous traffic probes; as a car moves, so does the signal of any mobile phones that are inside the vehicle. By measuring and analysing network data using triangulation

Boss Rally

Boss Rally is a 1999 racing game developed by Boss Game Studios and published by SouthPeak Interactive for Microsoft Windows. It is a port of the Nintendo 64 game Top Gear Rally, with extra features such as more cars and tracks and a multiplayer mode that supports up to eight players. Boss Rally is a racing game that comprises four gameplay modes: Championship, Time Attack, Quick Race, a multiplayer mode. In Championship, a single player must progress through a series of seasons, with each season requiring the player to race against computer-controller opponents on multiple tracks. Points are awarded based on the position the player finishes a race, if the required quantity is not met, the player will not qualify for the next season; as the player progresses through the Championship mode, new cars and tracks are unlocked. The game features a total of 16 cars. Time Attack and Quick Race are single-race challenges where the player must race against their best time and a computer-controlled opponent, respectively.

The multiplayer mode supports null modem options. LAN allows up to eight players to compete against one another, while the null modem option is limited to two players only. Boss Rally was developed by Boss Game Studios as a Microsoft Windows port of their Nintendo 64 game Top Gear Rally; because Kemco owns the Top Gear license and Boss owns the game design, the game's title had to be changed. The game was not meant to compete with more elaborate racing games of the computer market, with the only technical improvement over its Nintendo 64 counterpart being a higher resolution. Boss Rally features three more cars and an additional track; the soundtrack features music by a band named Dragline. The game was published by SouthPeak Interactive and first released in North America in April 1999. In the UK, Boss Rally was released in late July 1999. Boss Rally received unfavorable reviews according to the review aggregation website GameRankings. PC Zone described the game as generic, stating that it does not offer anything new when compared to Colin McRae Rally, while GameSpot criticized the "nonexistent" artificial intelligence of computer-controlled opponents and the absence of internet support.

Boss Rally at MobyGames

John Armstrong (physician)

John Armstrong was an English physician. Armstrong was born, on 8 May 1784, at Ayres Quay, near Bishop Wearmouth, County Durham, where his father, George Armstrong, of humble birth, was a superintendent of glass works, he was educated and studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, where he graduated M. D. in 1807 with a dissertation, De Causis Morborum Hydropicorum. He practised in Sunderland, was physician to the Sunderland Infirmary. In 1818 he moved to London, in 1819 he was appointed physician to the London Fever Institution, a post which he resigned in 1824. Armstrong acquired a practice and became a popular teacher of medicine. In 1821 he joined Edward Grainger, a teacher of anatomy, as lecturer on medicine at the school being founded by the latter in Webb Street, a significant institution of the time. In 1826 he joined James Risdon Bennett in founding another school in Little Dean Street and for some time lectured in both places. In 1828, failing health compelled Armstrong to give up teaching, he died of consumption on 12 December 1829, at the age of 45.

While at Sunderland, Armstrong published, besides several memoirs in the Edinburgh Medical Journal and Observations relative to the Fever called Puerperal, Practical Illustrations of Typhus and other Febrile Diseases, by which he became known to the medical profession. He published Practical Illustrations of the Scarlet Fever, Pulmonary Consumption, which added to his reputation. Popular at the time, based on his own observations, they became obsolete shortly. Armstrong's own views changed in relation to typhus, which he in his earlier works asserted to be contagious, but in his memoirs attributed to a malarial origin. In treatment Armstrong was an ardent advocate of the antiphlogistic system, made a copious use of bleeding. Armstrong wrote also: An Address to the Members of the Royal College of Surgeons on the injurious conduct and defective state of that Corporation with reference to Professional Rights, Medical Science, the Public Health, London, 1825, his controversy with the Royal College of Surgeons arose out of an attempt by the College to discourage private medical teaching by refusing to accept certificates except from the recognised hospitals and their medical schools.

With the Royal College of Physicians he was at odds, having been rejected when he first presented himself as a candidate for the licentiateship. The Morbid Anatomy of the Stomach and Liver, illustrated by a series of plates with explanatory letterpress, a summary of the symptoms of the acute and chronic affections of the above-named organs, London. Lectures on the Morbid Anatomy and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Diseases, edited by Joseph Rix, London, 1834. In 1811 he married Sarah, daughter of Charles Spearman, by whom he left a family, including a son John, who became bishop of Grahamstown. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Payne, Joseph Frank. "Armstrong, John". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 2. London: Smith, Elder & Co. John Armstrong, Practical illustrations of typhus fever, of the common continued fever, of inflammatory diseases

Kenneth Benton

Kenneth Benton, CMG was an English MI6 officer and diplomat from 1937–68. Following retirement, Benton began a second career as writer of crime thrillers. Benton attended Wolverhampton School, was first employed teaching French in an English prep school teaching English in Florence and Vienna. During this time, he earned a degree in French and Italian as an external student at London University. In 1937, in Vienna, Benton was offered a job by Captain Thomas Kendrick, the British Passport Control Officer for Vienna, who he had met through his future wife, Peggie Lambert, he was subsequently interviewed by Maurice Jeffes and Admiral Hugh Sinclair chief of MI6. Benton realised that his role in the Passport Control Office was in fact a cover for intelligence work for MI6. "I had expected to begin dealing with visas, but instead was brought in to one of the back rooms where Bill Holmes passed me a letter addressed to somebody with a Czech name in some street in Vienna and asked me to translate it.

I opened the letter, called Bill, said,'Look, I can't do this. She said,'Oh, I'm sorry. At the back of my desk there was a little open bottle of colourless liquid, with a brush, she dipped the brush in the liquid, passed it over the whole of the front of the letter and to my amazed eyes red writing appeared at right angles to the Czech text and it was in German, she turned the letter over and did the same on the rear side, so that I had two sides of what was in fact a German report."After the Annexation of Austria in 1938, Kenneth and Peggie were posted to Riga, he as acting vice consul. Benton reported technically to Hamilton Stokes, Head of the Madrid SIS Station, but because of the confidential nature of his decoding work, he was not allowed to discuss ISOS traffic; this situation created friction between the two men, Benton was appointed head of a separate station, named'Iberia'. The cover that the Visa office provided allowed Benton and his wife to create a database of information on individuals leaving and entering Spain, which could be compiled with other intelligence reports to identify patterns.

"The card index, in the course of nearly three years when I was in charge, grew to fourteen feet in length and appeared to have a life of its own, because it produced information that we did not know it had. Into that card index went the names of visa applicants, lists of ship passengers, names of known agents, Abwehr officers, guests at hotels, passengers on air flights, passengers on trains, as well as individuals about whom we had received information from Head Office or locally."Benton's team identified 19 spies during his time in Madrid, including the Double Cross agents TREASURE, ARTIST, TRICYCLE and GARBO. "what we wanted to do was to get them to England and turn them into double agents, not just to satisfy the Germans that they were getting a lot of spies into England, but of course for the great deception, so effective in deceiving the Germans on D-Day the great advantage of the ISOS double agents was that, as soon as the false messages had been sent to the German case officers, we knew by their reactions how they had been accepted, an enormous advantage."

In 1941, Kim Philby was appointed head of the Iberian section, which dealt with both Spain and Portugal, became Benton's boss. He articulated the emotional effect of Philby's outing as a Soviet agent in 1963: "Philby betrayed us all He had no loyalties, either to HMG or friends, or to the women he married. We had liked and admired him and were left feeling unclean."His sentiments were shared by his wife: "Years when Philby made his escape to Moscow, Peggie and I were having a drink with Footman, looking shattered.'I know', said Peggie.'We could work out a plan to leak information to the NKVD showing that Philby was a triple-cross, that Nicholas Eliot's last meeting with him in Beirut had been to brief him on how to make touch with our Embassy in Moscow. I'll bet they'd swallow the story, if we did it craftily."But the NKVD would shoot him', protested David, shocked to the core.'Yes', said Peggie happily,'and serve him bloody right.'" Shortly after the Allied invasion of Italy in September 1943, Kenneth and Peggie were posted to Rome.

Benton's career included a further posting to Madrid in 1953 to London from 1956–62 as head of recruitment for SIS. He was subsequently posted to Lima and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as Deputy Director for Latin America, retired from the Service in 1968. Following retirement to Appledore, Kent to Chichester, West Sussex, Kenneth began a second career as a writer of spy, crime thrillers, historical fiction, drawing on his experiences as intelligence officer and diplomat, his extensive travels, he became president of the Crime Writers Association in 1974-5. Benton published 11 novels across several genres, two of which were published under the pseudonym James Kirton; those closest to his experiences in MI6, "though avoiding anything which could compromise or damage his former Service" are the six titles featuring a recurring hero, the police advisor and Counter-terrorism expert Peter Craig. Notes www.craig-thri

Relative neighborhood graph

In computational geometry, the relative neighborhood graph is an undirected graph defined on a set of points in the Euclidean plane by connecting two points p and q by an edge whenever there does not exist a third point r, closer to both p and q than they are to each other. This graph was proposed by Godfried Toussaint in 1980 as a way of defining a structure from a set of points that would match human perceptions of the shape of the set. Supowit showed, it can be computed in O expected time, for random set of points distributed uniformly in the unit square. The relative neighborhood graph can be computed in linear time from the Delaunay triangulation of the point set; because it is defined only in terms of the distances between points, the relative neighborhood graph can be defined for point sets in any dimension, for non-Euclidean metrics. The relative neighborhood graph is an example of a lens-based beta skeleton, it is a subgraph of the Delaunay triangulation. In turn, the Euclidean minimum spanning tree is a subgraph of it, from which it follows that it is a connected graph.

The Urquhart graph, the graph formed by removing the longest edge from every triangle in the Delaunay triangulation, was proposed as a fast method to compute the relative neighborhood graph. Although the Urquhart graph sometimes differs from the relative neighborhood graph it can be used as an approximation to the relative neighborhood graph

List of presidents of Greece by longevity

This is a list of the Presidents of Greece since 1924, in order of longevity. There are twelve Presidents on the list and three living Presidents; the list is in descending order and is correct as of 13 March 2020. The oldest president is Michail Stasinopoulos, who died at the age of 96 days; the oldest living president is Christos Sartzetakis. He is 90 years, 342 days old and has held the title of oldest living president of Greece since 13 March 2020. To account for the different number of leap days within the life of each president, two measure of longevity are given; the first is the number of whole years the president lived, the number of days past their last birthday. The second list the total number of days lived by the president, accounting for differing numbers of leap years within the lifespans of different presidents. Deceased Living Currently in Office Incoming