Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Armenia, Eritrea, Ethiopia and parts of the Middle East and India. An Eastern Christian communion of autocephalous churches, its bishops are equal by virtue of episcopal ordination, its doctrines can be summarised in that the communion recognizes the validity of only the first three ecumenical councils; the Oriental Orthodox communion is composed of six autocephalous churches: the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church. Collectively, they consider themselves to be the One, Holy and Apostolic church founded by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles.
Most member churches are part of the World Council of Churches. All member churches share a identical theology, with the distinguishing feature being Miaphysitism. Three different rites are practiced in the communion: the western-influenced Armenian Rite, the West Syrian Rite of the two Syriac churches, the Alexandrian Rite of the Copts and Eritreans. At the Council of Chalcedon in 451 AD, the Oriental Orthodox churches separated from the Imperial Roman Church over differences in Christology. Oriental Orthodoxy developed distinctively under the Patriarchate of Alexandria in Egypt part of the Pentarchy, the only episcopal see besides the Holy See to maintain the title "Pope"; the majority of Oriental Orthodox Christians live in Egypt, Ethiopia and Armenia, with smaller Syriac communities living in the Middle East–decreasing due to persecution–and India. There are many in other parts of the world, formed through diaspora and missionary activity; the Oriental Orthodox churches are distinguished by their recognition of only the first three ecumenical councils during the period of the State church of the Roman Empire –the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381 and the Council of Ephesus in 431.
Oriental Orthodoxy shares much theology and many ecclesiastical traditions with the Eastern Orthodox Church. The primary theological difference between the two communions is the differing Christology. Oriental Orthodoxy rejects the Chalcedonian Definition, instead adopts the Miaphysite formula, believing that the human and divine natures of Christ are united; the early prelates of the Oriental Orthodox churches thought that the Chalcedonian Definition implied a possible repudiation of the Trinity or a concession to Nestorianism. Other differences include minor deviations in social teaching and different views on ecumenism. Oriental Orthodox churches are considered to be more conservative with regard to social issues as well more enthusiastic about ecumenical relations with non-Orthodox churches; the break in communion between the Imperial Roman and Oriental Orthodox churches did not occur but rather over 2-3 centuries following the Council of Chalcedon. The two communions developed separate institutions, the Oriental Orthodox did not participate in any of the ecumenical councils.
The Oriental Orthodox churches maintain their own ancient apostolic succession. The various churches are governed by holy synods, with a primus inter pares bishop serving as primate; the primates hold titles like patriarch and pope. Among these patriarchs, the Pope of Alexandria takes precedence, is sometimes considered the "face" of Oriental Orthodoxy; the Alexandrian Patriarchate, along with Rome and Antioch, was one of the most prominent sees of the early Christian Church, contains a majority population of Coptic Christians, unlike Antioch is still a major population center. That said, the Pope of Alexandria has no governing powers with respect to the non-Coptic churches. Oriental Orthodoxy does not have a magisterial leader like the Roman Catholic Church, nor does the communion have a leader who can convene ecumenical synods like the Eastern Orthodox Church; the schism between Oriental Orthodoxy and the adherents of Chalcedonian Christianity was based on differences in Christology. The First Council of Nicaea, in 325, declared that Jesus Christ is God, to say, "consubstantial" with the Father.
The third ecumenical council, the Council of Ephesus, declared that Jesus Christ, though divine as well as human, is only one being, or person. Thus, the Council of Ephesus explicitly rejected Nestorianism, the Christological doctrine that Christ was two distinct beings, one divine and one human, who happened to inhabit the same body; the churches that became Oriental Orthodoxy were anti-Nestorian, therefore supported the decisions made at Ephesus. Twenty years after Ephesus, the Council of Chalcedon reaffirmed the view that Jesus Christ was a single person, but at the same time declared that this one person existed "in two complete natures", one human and one divine; those who opposed Chalcedon saw this as a concession to Nestorianism, or as a conspiracy to convert the Church to Nestorianism by stealth. As a result, over the following decades, they separated from communion with those who accepted the Council of Chalcedon, formed the body, today called Oriental Orthodoxy. At times, Chalcedonian Christians have referre
Adoption of the Gregorian calendar
The adoption of the Gregorian Calendar was an event in the modern history of most nations and societies, marking a change from their traditional dating system to the modern dating system, used around the world today. Some countries adopted the new calendar from 1582, some did not do so before the early twentieth century, others did so at various dates between. For many the new style calendar is only used for civil purposes and the old style calendar remains used in religious contexts. Today, the Gregorian calendar is the world's most used civil calendar. During – and for some time after – the change between systems, it has been common to use the terms Old Style and New Style when giving dates, to indicate which calendar was used to reckon them; the Gregorian calendar was decreed in 1582 by the papal bull Inter gravissimas by Pope Gregory XIII, to correct a divergence in the canonical date of the spring equinox from observed reality that affected the calculation of the date of Easter. Although Gregory's reform was enacted in the most solemn of forms available to the Church, the bull had no authority beyond the Catholic Church and the Papal States.
The changes he was proposing were changes to the civil calendar, over which he had no formal authority. They required adoption by the civil authorities in each country to have legal effect; the bull became the canon law of the Catholic Church in 1582, but it was not recognised by Protestant churches, Eastern Orthodox Churches, a few others. The days on which Easter and related holidays were celebrated by different Christian churches again diverged. A month after having decreed the reform, the pope granted to one Antoni Lilio the exclusive right to publish the calendar for a period of ten years; the Lunario Novo secondo la nuova riforma was printed by Vincenzo Accolti, one of the first calendars printed in Rome after the reform, notes at the bottom that it was signed with papal authorization and by Lilio. The papal brief was revoked on 20 September 1582, because Antonio Lilio proved unable to keep up with the demand for copies. Catholic states such as France, the Italian principalities, Spain and the Catholic states of the Holy Roman Empire were first to change to the Gregorian calendar.
Thursday, 4 October 1582 was followed by 15 October 1582, with ten days skipped. Countries that did not change until the 18th century had by observed an additional leap year, necessitating the dropping of eleven days; some countries did not change until the 19th or 20th century, necessitating one or two further days to be omitted from the calendar. Philip II of Spain decreed the change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar, which affected much of Roman Catholic Europe, as Philip was at the time ruler over Spain and Portugal as well as much of Italy. In these territories, as well as in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and in the Papal States, the new calendar was implemented on the date specified by the bull, with Julian Thursday, 4 October 1582, being followed by Gregorian Friday, 15 October 1582. Other Catholic countries soon followed. France adopted the new calendar with Sunday, 9 December 1582, being followed by Monday, 20 December 1582; the Dutch provinces of Brabant and Zeeland, the States General adopted it on 25 December of that year.
The seven Catholic Swiss cantons adopted the new calendar in January 1684 while Geneva and several Protestant cantons adopted it in January 1701 or at other dates throughout the 18th century. The two Swiss communes of Schiers and Grüsch were the last areas of Western and Central Europe to switch to the Gregorian calendar, in 1812. Many Protestant countries objected to adopting a Catholic innovation. In England, Queen Elizabeth I and her privy council had looked favourably to a Gregorian-like royal commission recommendation to drop 10 days from the calendar but the virulent opposition of the Anglican bishops, who argued that the Pope was undoubtedly the fourth great beast of Daniel, led the Queen to let the matter be dropped. In the Czech lands, Protestants resisted the calendar imposed by the Habsburg Monarchy. In parts of Ireland, Catholic rebels until their defeat in the Nine Years' War kept the "new" Easter in defiance of the English-loyal authorities; the Lutheran Duchy of Prussia, until 1657 still a fiefdom of Roman Catholic Poland, was the first Protestant nation to adopt the Gregorian calendar.
Under influence of its liege lord, the King of Poland, it agreed in 1611 to do so. So 22 August was followed by 2 September 1612. However, this calendar change did not apply for other territories of the Hohenzollern, such as Berlin-based Brandenburg, a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. Through Ole Rømer's influence, Denmark in 1700, which included Norway, adopted the solar portion of the Gregorian calendar with Sunday, 18 February 1700, being followed by Monday, 1 March 1700 with the Brandenburg-Pomerania and other Protestant estates of the Holy Roman Empire. None of these st
The civil calendar is the calendar, or one of several calendars, used within a country for civil, official or administrative purposes. The civil calendar is always used for general purposes by people and private organizations; the most widespread civil calendar and de facto international standard is the Gregorian calendar. Although that calendar is associated with the Catholic Church and the papacy, it has been adopted, as a matter of convenience, by many secular and non-Christian countries although some countries use other calendars; the majority of countries in the world use the Gregorian calendar as their sole civil calendar. Countries which do not use the Gregorian calendar are Afghanistan and Iran, which use the Solar Hijri calendar and Nepal; some countries use other calendars alongside the Gregorian calendar: Bangladesh and Israel. Other countries use modified versions of the Gregorian calendar: Taiwan, North Korea and Japan. Chinese calendar Islamic calendar List of calendars Persian calendar Vikram Samvat
Computus is a calculation that determines the calendar date of Easter. Because the date is based on a calendar-dependent equinox rather than the astronomical one, there are differences between calculations done according to the Julian calendar and the modern Gregorian calendar; the name has been used for this procedure since the early Middle Ages, as it was considered the most important computation of the age. For most of their history Christians have calculated Easter independently of the Jewish calendar. In principle, Easter falls on the Sunday following the full moon that follows the northern spring equinox. However, the vernal equinox and the full moon are not determined by astronomical observation; the vernal equinox is fixed to fall on 21 March. The full moon is an ecclesiastical full moon determined by reference to a lunar calendar, which again varied in different areas. While Easter now falls at the earliest on the 15th of the lunar month and at the latest on the 21st, in some areas it used to fall at the earliest on the 14th and at the latest on the 20th, or between the sixteenth and the 22nd.
The last limit arises from the fact that the crucifixion was considered to have happened on the 14th and the resurrection therefore on the sixteenth. The "computus" is the procedure of determining the first Sunday after the first ecclesiastical full moon falling on or after 21 March, the difficulty arose from doing this over the span of centuries without accurate means of measuring the precise tropical year; the synodic month had been measured to a high degree of accuracy. The schematic model, accepted is the Metonic cycle, which equates 19 tropical years to 235 synodic months. In 1583, the Catholic Church began using 21 March under the Gregorian calendar to calculate the date of Easter, while the Eastern Churches have continued to use 21 March under the Julian calendar; the Catholic and Protestant denominations thus use an ecclesiastical full moon that occurs four, five or thirty-four days earlier than the eastern one. The earliest and latest dates for Easter are 22 March and 25 April, in the Gregorian calendar as those dates are understood.
However, in the Orthodox Churches, while those dates are the same, they are reckoned using the Julian calendar. Easter is the most important Christian feast, the proper date of its celebration has been the subject of controversy as early as the meeting of Anicetus and Polycarp around 154. According to Eusebius's Church History, quoting Polycrates of Ephesus, churches in the Roman Province of Asia "always observed the day when the people put away the leaven", namely Passover, the 14th of the lunar month of Nisan; the rest of the Christian world at that time, according to Eusebius, held to "the view which still prevails," of fixing Easter on Sunday. Eusebius does not say. Other documents from the 3rd and 4th centuries reveal that the customary practice was for Christians to consult their Jewish neighbors to determine when the week of Passover would fall, to set Easter on the Sunday that fell within that week. By the end of the 3rd century some Christians had become dissatisfied with what they perceived as the disorderly state of the Jewish calendar.
The chief complaint was that the Jewish practice sometimes set the 14th of Nisan before the spring equinox. This is implied by Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria, in the mid-3rd century, who stated that "at no time other than the spring equinox is it legitimate to celebrate Easter", and it was explicitly stated by Peter, bishop of Alexandria that "the men of the present day now celebrate before the equinox...through negligence and error." Another objection to using the Jewish computation may have been that the Jewish calendar was not unified. Jews in one city might have a method for reckoning the Week of Unleavened Bread different from that used by the Jews of another city; because of these perceived defects in the traditional practice, Christian computists began experimenting with systems for determining Easter that would be free of these defects. But these experiments themselves led to controversy, since some Christians held that the customary practice of holding Easter during the Jewish festival of Unleavened Bread should be continued if the Jewish computations were in error from the Christian point of view.
At the First Council of Nicaea in 325, it was agreed that the Christians should observe a common date, independent from the Jewish method. The council agreed to two rules without explicitly stating them, that 14 Nisan was to occur after the vernal equinox, that Easter was to occur on the Sunday after 14 Nisan; the first prevented two Easters in one solar year, while the second prevented Christians from celebrating Easter at the same time as the Jews celebrated Passover. The council ignored the fact that the Christian vernal equinox was a day rather than an astronomical instant, that the Christian 14 Nisan was a different day than the Jewish 14 Nisan, that Alexandria and Rome used different Easter tables; the Patriarchy of Alexandria celebrated Easter on the Sunday after the 14th day of the moon that falls on or after the vernal equinox, which they placed on 21 March. However, the Patriarchy of Rome stil
Kingdom of Northumbria
The Kingdom of Northumbria was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now Northern England and south-east Scotland. The name derives from the Old English Norþan-hymbre meaning "the people or province north of the Humber", which reflects the approximate southern limit to the kingdom's territory, the Humber Estuary. Northumbria started to consolidate into one kingdom in the early seventh century, when the two earlier core territories of Deira and Bernicia entered into a dynastic union. At its height, the kingdom extended from the Humber, Peak District and the River Mersey on the south to the Firth of Forth on the north. Northumbria ceased to be an independent kingdom in the mid-tenth century, though a rump Earldom of Bamburgh survived around Bernicia in the north to be absorbed into the mediaeval kingdoms of Scotland and England. Today, Northumbria refers to a smaller region corresponding to the counties of Northumberland, County Durham and Tyne and Wear in North East England; the term is used in the names of some North East regional institutions the Northumbria Police, (based in Newcastle upon Tyne, the Northumbria Army Cadet Force, the regionalist Northumbrian Association.
The local Environment Agency office, located in Newcastle Business Park uses the term Northumbria to describe its area. However, the term is not the official name for the EU region of North East England; the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria was two kingdoms divided around the River Tees: Bernicia was to the north of the river and Deira to the south. It is possible that both regions originated as native British Kingdoms which the Germanic settlers conquered, although there is little information about the infrastructure and culture of the British kingdoms themselves. Much of the evidence for them comes from regional names that are British rather than Anglo-Saxon in origin; the names Deira and Bernicia are British in origin, for example, indicating that some British place names retained currency after the Anglo-Saxon migrations to Northumbria. There is some archeological evidence to support British origins for the polities of Bernicia and Deira. In what would have been southern Bernicia, in the Cheviot Hills, a hill fort at Yeavering called Yeavering Bell contains evidence that it was an important centre for first the British and the Anglo-Saxons.
The fort is pre-Roman, dating back to the Iron Age at around the first century. In addition to signs of Roman occupation, the site contains evidence of timber buildings that pre-date Germanic settlement in the area that are signs of British settlement. Moreover, Brian Hope-Taylor has traced the origins of the name Yeavering, which looks deceptively English, back to the British gafr from Bede's mention of a township called Gefrin in the same area. Yeavering continued to be an important political centre after the Anglo-Saxons began settling in the north, as King Edwin had a royal palace at Yeavering. Overall, English place-names dominate the Northumbrian landscape, suggesting the prevalence of an Anglo-Saxon elite culture by the time that Bede—one of Anglo-Saxon England's most prominent historians—was writing in the eighth century. According to Bede, the Angles predominated the Germanic immigrants that settled north of the Humber and gained political prominence during this time period. While the British natives may have assimilated into the Northumbrian political structure contemporary textual sources such as Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People depict relations between Northumbrians and the British as fraught.
The Anglo-Saxon countries of Bernicia and Deira were in conflict before their eventual semi-permanent unification in 654. Political power in Deira was concentrated in the East Riding of Yorkshire, which included York, the North York Moors, the Vale of York; the political heartlands of Bernicia were the areas around Bamburgh and Lindisfarne and Jarrow, in Cumbria, west of the Pennines in the area around Carlisle. The name that these two countries united under, may have been coined by Bede and made popular through his Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Information on the early royal genealogies for Bernicia and Deira comes from Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People and Welsh chronicler Nennius’ Historia Brittonum. According to Nennius, the Bernician royal line begins with son of Eoppa. Ida was able to annex Bamburgh to Bernicia. In Nennius’ genealogy of Deira, a king named Soemil was the first to separate Bernicia and Deira, which could mean that he wrested the kingdom of Deira from the native British.
The date of this supposed separation is unknown. The first Deiran king to make an appearance in Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum is Ælle, the father of the first Roman Catholic Northumbrian king Edwin. A king of Bernicia, Ida's grandson Æthelfrith, was the first ruler to unite the two polities under his rule, he exiled the Deiran Edwin to the court of King Rædwald of the East Angles in order to claim both kingdoms, but Edwin returned in 616 to conquer Northumbria with Rædwald's aid. Edwin, who ruled from 616 to 633, was one of the last kings of the Deiran line to reign over all of Northumbria. Oswald's brother Oswiu succeeded him to the Northumbrian throne despite initial attempts on Deira's part to pull away again. Although the Bernician line became the royal line of Northumbria
Christopher Clavius was a Jesuit German mathematician and astronomer who modified the proposal of the modern Gregorian calendar after the death of its primary author, Aloysius Lilius. Clavius would write defences and an explanation of the reformed calendar, including an emphatic acknowledgement of Lilio's work. In his last years he was the most respected astronomer in Europe and his textbooks were used for astronomical education for over fifty years in and out of Europe. Little is known about Clavius' early life other than the fact that he was born in Bamberg in either 1538 or 1537, his given name is not known to any great degree of certainty—it is thought by scholars to be Christoph Clau or Klau. There are some who think that his taken name, "Clavius", may be a Latinization of his original German name, suggesting that his name may have been "Schlüssel". Clavius joined the Jesuit order in 1555, he attended the University of Coimbra in Portugal, where it is possible that he had some kind of contact with the famous mathematician Pedro Nunes.
Following this he studied theology at the Jesuit Collegio Romano in Rome. In 1579 he was assigned to compute the basis for a reformed calendar that would stop the slow process in which the Church's holidays were drifting relative to the seasons of the year. Using the Prussian Tables of Erasmus Reinhold and building on the work of Aloysius Lilius, he proposed a calendar reform, adopted in 1582 in Catholic countries by order of Pope Gregory XIII and is now the Gregorian calendar used worldwide. Within the Jesuit order, Clavius was single-handedly responsible for the adoption of a rigorous mathematics curriculum in an age where mathematics was ridiculed by philosophers as well as fellow Jesuits like Benito Pereira. In logic, Clavius' Law is named after him, he used the decimal point in the goniometric tables of his astrolabium in 1593 and he was one of the first who used it in this way in the West. As an astronomer Clavius held to the geocentric model of the solar system, in which all the heavens rotate about the Earth.
Though he opposed the heliocentric model of Copernicus, he recognized problems with the Ptolemaic model. He was treated with great respect by Galileo, who visited him in 1611 and discussed the new observations being made with the telescope. A large crater on the Moon was named in his honor. Novi calendarii romani apologia. Rome, 1588 Romani calendarii a Gregorio XIII P. M. restituti explicatio. Rome, 1603 Romani calendarii a Gregorio XIII P. M. restituti explicatio. Romani calendarii a Gregorio XIII P. M. restituti explicatio. Commentary on Euclid, 1574 Elementorum Libri XV. Cologne, 1627 Treatise of gnomonics, 1581 Refutatio cyclometriae Iosephi Scaligeri. Mainz, 1609 Clavius, Christoph. Corrispondenza Edizione critica a cura di Ugo Baldini e Pier Daniele Napolitani. Pisa: Università di Pisa – Dipartimento di Matematica. Clavius' complete mathematical works are available online. Asteroid 20237 Clavius Clavius, a lunar crater named after Clavius Clavius Base, located in Clavius crater, in both the novel and film versions of 2001: A Space Odyssey Aloysius Lilius Computus List of Jesuit scientists List of Roman Catholic scientist-clerics Bracket Ralf Kern, Wissenschaftliche Instrumente in ihrer Zeit.
Cologne, 2010. Pp. 254 – 255. James M. Lattis, Between Copernicus and Galileo: Christoph Clavius and the collapse of Ptolemaic cosmology. University of Chicago Press, 1994. Karl Christian Bruhns, "Clavius, Christoph", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 4, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 298–299 Edmondo Lamalle, "Clavius, Christoph", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 3, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, p. 279 Christoph Clavius, Edizione critica a cura di Ugo Baldini e Pier Daniele Napolitani, 7 volumes, Edizioni del Dipartimento di Matematica dell'Università di Pisa, Pisa, 1992 Christoper Clavius, Catholic Encyclopedia Christopher Clavius, The Galileo Project O'Connor, John J.. Materialsammlung zur Geschichte von Ingolstadt: Rita Haub: Christoph Clavius Online Galleries, History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries—High resolution images of works by and/or portraits of Christopher Clavius in JPEG and TIFF formats Cristoforo Clavio in the Historical Archives of the Pontifical Gregorian University Project Clavius On The Web.
A Web platform for the works and literature of Christophorus Clavius, CNR-IIT, CNR-ILC, APUG
Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages. Celtic Christianity has been conceived of with differing levels of specificity: some writers have described a distinct Celtic Church uniting the Celtic peoples and distinguishing them from the Roman Church, while others classify it as a set of distinctive practices occurring in those areas. Varying scholars reject the former notion, but note that there were certain traditions and practices present in both the Irish and British churches that were not seen in the wider Christian world; such practices include: a distinctive system for determining the dating of Easter, a style of monastic tonsure, a unique system of penance, the popularity of going into "exile for Christ". Additionally, there were other practices that developed in certain parts of Britain and Ireland, that were not known to have spread beyond particular regions.
The term denotes the regional practices among the insular churches and their associates, rather than actual theological differences. The term "Celtic Church" is deprecated by many historians as it implies a unified and identifiable entity separate from that of mainstream Western Christendom. For this reason, many prefer the term "Insular Christianity"; as Patrick Wormald explained, "One of the common misconceptions is that there was a Roman Church to which the Celtic Church was nationally opposed."Popularized by German historian Lutz von Padberg, the term "Iroschottisch" is used to describe this supposed dichotomy between Irish-Scottish and Roman Christianity. As a whole, Celtic-speaking areas were part of Latin Christendom at a time when there was significant regional variation of liturgy and structure. Though, a general collective veneration of the Papacy was no less intense in Celtic-speaking areas. Nonetheless, distinctive traditions developed and spread to both Ireland and Britain in the 6th and 7th centuries.
Some elements may have been introduced to Ireland by the Briton St. Patrick, others from Ireland to Britain through the Irish mission system of Saint Columba. However, the histories of the Irish, Scots, Breton and Manx Churches diverge after the 8th century. Interest in the subject has led to a series of "Celtic Christian Revival" movements, which have shaped popular perceptions of the Celts and their religious practices - most notably, Celtomania. People have conceived of "Celtic Christianity" in different ways at different times. Writings on the topic say more about the time in which they originate than about the historical state of Christianity in the early medieval Celtic-speaking world, many notions are now discredited in modern academic discourse. One prominent feature ascribed to Celtic Christianity is that it is inherently distinct from – and opposed to – the Catholic Church. Other common claims include that Celtic Christianity denied the authority of the Pope, was less authoritarian than the Catholic Church, more spiritual, friendlier to women, more connected with nature, more comfortable dealing with Celtic polytheism.
One view, which gained substantial scholarly traction in the 19th century, was that there was a "Celtic Church", a organised Christian body or denomination uniting the Celtic peoples and separating them from the "Roman" church of continental Europe. Others have been content to speak of "Celtic Christianity" as consisting of certain traditions and beliefs intrinsic to the Celts. However, modern scholars have identified problems with all of these claims, find the term "Celtic Christianity" problematic in and of itself. Modern scholarship roundly rejects the idea of a "Celtic Church" due to the lack of substantiating evidence. Indeed, distinct Irish and British church traditions existed, each with their own practices, there was significant local variation within the individual Irish and British spheres. While there were some traditions known to have been common to both the Irish and British churches, these were few; these commonalities did not exist due to the "Celticity" of the regions, but due to other historical and geographical factors.
Additionally, the Christians of Ireland and Britain were not "anti-Roman". Caitlin Corning further notes that the "Irish and British were no more pro-women, pro-environment, or more spiritual than the rest of the Church."Corning writes that scholars have identified three major strands of thought that have influenced the popular conceptions of Celtic Christianity. The first arose in the English Reformation, when the Church of England declared itself separate from papal authority. Protestant writers of this time popularised the idea of an indigenous British Christianity that opposed the foreign "Roman" church and was purer in thought; the English church, they claimed, was not forming a new institution, but casting off the shackles of Rome and returning to its true roots as the indigenous national church of Britain. Ideas of Celtic Christianity were further influenced by the Romantic movement of the 18th century, in particular Romantic notions of the noble savage and the intrinsic qualities of the "Celtic race".
Romantics idealised the Celts as a primitive, bucolic people who were far more poetic and freer of rationalism than their neighbours. The Celts were seen as having an inner spiritual nature that shone through after their form of Christianity had been destroyed by the authoritarian and rational Rome. In the 20th and 21st centuries, ideas about "Celtic Christia