The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is an intergovernmental body of the United Nations, dedicated to providing the world with objective, scientific information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of the risk of human-induced climate change, its natural and economic impacts and risks, possible response options. The IPCC was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme and was endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly. Membership is open to all members of the WMO and UN; the IPCC produces reports that contribute to the work of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the main international treaty on climate change. The objective of the UNFCCC is to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system"; the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report was a critical scientific input into the UNFCCC's Paris Agreement in 2015.
IPCC reports cover the "scientific and socio-economic information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of risk of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation." The IPCC does not carry out original research, nor does it monitor climate or related phenomena itself. Rather, it assesses published literature, including non-peer-reviewed sources. However, the IPCC can be said to stimulate research in climate science. Chapters of IPCC reports close with sections on limitations and knowledge or research gaps, the announcement of an IPCC special report can catalyse research activity in that area. Thousands of scientists and other experts contribute on a voluntary basis to writing and reviewing reports, which are reviewed by governments. IPCC reports contain a "Summary for Policymakers", subject to line-by-line approval by delegates from all participating governments; this involves the governments of more than 120 countries. The IPCC provides an internationally accepted authority on climate change, producing reports that have the agreement of leading climate scientists and consensus from participating governments.
The 2007 Nobel Peace Prize was shared between the Al Gore. Following the election of a new Bureau in 2015, the IPCC embarked on its sixth assessment cycle. Besides the Sixth Assessment Report, to be completed in 2022, the IPCC released the Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C in October 2018, released an update to its 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories—the 2019 Refinement—in May 2019, delivered two further special reports in 2019: the Special Report on Climate Change and Land, published online on 7 August, the Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate, released on 25 September 2019. This makes the sixth assessment cycle the most ambitious in the IPCC's 30-year history; the IPCC decided to prepare a special report on cities and climate change in the seventh assessment cycle and held a conference in March 2018 to stimulate research in this area. The IPCC developed from an international scientific body, the Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases set up in 1985 by the International Council of Scientific Unions, the United Nations Environment Programme, the World Meteorological Organization to provide recommendations based on current research.
This small group of scientists lacked the resources to cover the complex interdisciplinary nature of climate science. The United States Environmental Protection Agency and State Department wanted an international convention to agree restrictions on greenhouse gases, the conservative Reagan Administration was concerned about unrestrained influence from independent scientists or from United Nations bodies including UNEP and the WMO; the U. S. government was the main force in forming the IPCC as an autonomous intergovernmental body in which scientists took part both as experts on the science and as official representatives of their governments, to produce reports which had the firm backing of all the leading scientists worldwide researching the topic, which had to gain consensus agreement from every one of the participating governments. In this way, it was formed as a hybrid between a scientific body and an intergovernmental political organisation; the United Nations formally endorsed the creation of the IPCC in 1988.
Some of the reasons the UN stated in its resolution include "ertain human activities could change global climate patterns, threatening present and future generations with severe economic and social consequences""ontinued growth in atmospheric concentrations of "greenhouse" gases could produce global warming with an eventual rise in sea levels, the effects of which could be disastrous for mankind if timely steps are not taken at all levels."The IPCC was tasked with reviewing peer-reviewed scientific literature and other relevant publications to provide information on the state of knowledge about climate change. The IPCC does not conduct its own original research, it produces comprehensive assessments, reports on special topics, methodologies. The assessments build on previous reports. For example, the wording of the reports from the first to the fifth assessment reflects the growing evidence for a changing climate caused by human activity; the IPCC has adopted and published "Principles Governing IPCC Work", which states that the IPCC will assess: the risk of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts, possible options for prevention.
This document states that IPCC will do this work by assessing "on a comprehensive, objective and transparent basis t
The 1995 NatWest Trophy was the 15th NatWest Trophy. It was an English limited overs county cricket tournament, held between 27 June and 2 September 1995; the tournament was won by Warwickshire County Cricket Club who defeated Northamptonshire County Cricket Club by 4 wickets in the final at Lord's. The 18 first-class counties, were joined by eleven Minor Counties: Berkshire, Cheshire, Cumberland, Dorset, Norfolk and Suffolk; the Ireland national cricket team and the Scotland national cricket team participated. A place in the tournament reserved for a Minor County was given to the Netherlands national cricket team, who took part in the competition for the first time. Teams who won in the first round progressed to the second round; the winners in the second round progressed to the quarter-final stage. Winners from the quarter-finals progressed to the semi-finals from which the winners went on to the final at Lord's, held on 2 September 1995. CricketArchive tournament page
The People's Party of Punjab was a Punjab-based Indian political party, founded by Manpreet Singh Badal in March 2011. After disagreements with the Chief Minister and his uncle Parkash Singh Badal, Manpreet resigned from the position of Finance Minister of Punjab, from membership of the state assembly. In 2016, Manpreet announced the merger of the party with the Indian National Congress after meeting with party vice-president Rahul Gandhi; the People's Party of Punjab had a short-lived existence. After its formation in March 2011, it contested the 2012 Punjab Legislative Assembly election. Following a non-impressive performance in 2012, it decided to dissolve the organizational structure in 2014 and make attempts to rejuvenate the party; the party forged an alliance with the Indian National Congress to contest the 2014 Indian general election with Manpreet contesting the Bathinda Parliamentary seat against Harsimrat Kaur Badal. In 2015, amidst speculation that it would merge with the Aam Aadmi Party, the PPP denied talk of its merger.
In 2016, the party was dissolved and it merged with the Indian National Congress. The 2012 state election was the first to be contested by the party, it allied with the Communist Party of India, the Communist Party of India and the Shiromani Akali Dal in a group calling itself the Sanjha Morcha. Badal was the chief ministerial candidate of the coalition; the Sanjha Morcha was unsuccessful in winning any of the seats it had contested despite garnering an approximate share of 6% of the total votes polled. Unlike the Shiromani Akali Dal from where Manpreet Singh Badal and a majority of his followers came, PPP maintained a distance from Sikh political affairs, aimed to emerge as a secular third-front alternative in Punjab politics, aligning with various left parties. Main page