SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Internal resistance to apartheid

Internal resistance to apartheid in South Africa originated from several independent sectors of South African society and alternatively took the form of social movements, passive resistance, or guerrilla warfare. Mass action against the ruling National Party government, coupled with South Africa's growing international isolation and economic sanctions, were instrumental factors in ending official racial segregation. Both black and white South African activists such as Steve Biko, Desmond Tutu, Nelson Mandela, Harry Schwarz, Joe Slovo were involved with various anti-apartheid causes. By the 1980s, there was continuous interplay between violent and non-violent action, this interplay was a notable feature of resistance against apartheid from 1983 until South Africa's first multiracial elections under a universal franchise in 1994. Passive resistance to apartheid was initiated by the African National Congress with its Defiance Campaign in the early 1950s. Subsequent civil disobedience protests targeted curfews, pass laws, "petty apartheid" segregation in public facilities.

Some anti-apartheid demonstrations resulted in widespread rioting in Port Elizabeth and East London in 1952, but organised destruction of property was not deliberately employed until 1959. That year, anger over pass laws and environmental regulations perceived as unjust by black farmers resulted in a series of arsons targeting sugarcane plantations. Organisations such as the ANC, the South African Communist Party, the Pan Africanist Congress remained preoccupied with organising student strikes and work boycotts between 1959 and 1960; the Sharpeville massacre marked a shift in the tactics of some anti-apartheid movements, including the ANC and PAC, from peaceful non-cooperation to the formation of armed resistance wings. Mass strikes and student demonstrations continued into the 1970s, charged by growing black unemployment, the unpopularity of the South African Border War, a newly assertive Black Consciousness Movement; the brutal suppression of the 1976 Soweto uprising radicalised an entire generation of black activists and bolstered the strength of the ANC's guerrilla force, Umkhonto we Sizwe.

From 1976 to 1987 MK carried out a series of successful bombing attacks which targeted government facilities, transportation lines, power stations, other civil infrastructure. South Africa's military retaliated by raiding ANC safe houses in neighbouring states; the National Party made several attempts to reform the apartheid system, beginning with the Constitutional Referendum of 1983. This introduced a Tricameral Parliament, which allowed for some parliamentary representation of Coloureds and Indians, but continue to deny political rights to black South Africans; the resulting controversy triggered a new wave of anti-apartheid social movements and community groups which articulated their interests through a national front in politics, the United Democratic Front. Inter-factional rivalry between the ANC, the PAC, the Azanian People's Organisation, a third militant force, escalated into sectarian violence as the three groups jockeyed for influence; the government took the opportunity to declare a state of emergency in 1986 and detain thousands of its political opponents without trial.

Secret bilateral negotiations to end apartheid commenced in 1987 as the National Party reacted to increased external pressure and the atmosphere of political unrest. Leading ANC officials such as Govan Mbeki and Walter Sisulu were released from prison between 1987 and 1989, in 1990 the ANC and PAC were formally delisted as banned organisations by President F. W. de Klerk. The same year, MK reached a formal ceasefire with the South African Defence Force. Apartheid laws were formally abolished on 17 June 1991, pending general elections set for April 1994. Although its creation predated apartheid, the African National Congress became the primary force in opposition to the government after its conservative leadership was superseded by the organisation's Youth League in 1949. Led by Walter Sisulu, Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo, elected to the ANC's National Executive that year, the ANCYL advocated a radical black nationalist programme that combined the Africanist ideas of Anton Lembede with those of Marxism.

They brought the notion. The ideals of the ANC and ANCYL are stated in the ANC official web site and state, concerning the "Tripartite Alliance", "The Alliance is founded on a common commitment to the objectives of the National Democratic Revolution, the need to unite the largest possible cross-section of South Africans behind these objectives." This cites their goal to end oppression. Once the ANCYL had taken control of the ANC, the organisation advocated a policy of open defiance and resistance for the first time; this unleashed the 1950s Programme of Action, instituted in 1949, which laid emphasis on the right of the African people to freedom under the flag of African Nationalism. It laid out plans for strikes and civil disobedience, resulting in violent clashes, with mass protests, stay-aways and strikes predominating; the 1950 May Day stay-away was a successful expression of black grievances. In 1952 the Joint Planning Council, made up of members from the ANC, the South African Indian Congress as well as the Coloured People's Congress, agreed on a plan for the defiance of unfair laws.

They wrote to the Prime Minister, DF Malan and demanded that he repeal the Pass Laws, the Group Areas Act, the Bantu Administration Act and other legislation, warning that refusal to do so would be met with a campaign of defiance. The Prime Minister was haughty in his rejoinder, referring the Council to the Native Affairs Departme

Armistice Day

Armistice Day is commemorated every year on 11 November to mark the armistice signed between the Allies of World War I and Germany at Compiègne, France at 5:45 am, for the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front of World War I, which took effect at eleven o'clock in the morning—the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" of 1918. But, according to Thomas R. Gowenlock, an intelligence officer with the U. S. First Division, shelling from both sides continued for the rest of the day, only ending at nightfall; the armistice expired after a period of 36 days and had to be extended several times. A formal peace agreement was only reached when the Treaty of Versailles was signed the following year; the date is a national holiday in France, was declared a national holiday in many Allied nations. However, many Western countries and associated nations have since changed the name of the holiday from Armistice Day, with member states of the Commonwealth of Nations adopting Remembrance Day, the United States government opting for Veterans Day.

In some countries Armistice Day coincides with other public holidays. On 11 November 2018, the centenary of the World War One Armistice, commemorations were held globally. In France, more than 60 heads of government and heads of state gathered at the Arc de Triomphe in Paris; the first Armistice Day was held at Buckingham Palace, commencing with King George V hosting a "Banquet in Honour of the President of the French Republic" during the evening hours of 10 November 1919. The first official Armistice Day events were subsequently held in the grounds of Buckingham Palace on the morning of 11 November 1919, which included a two-minute silence as a mark of respect for those who died in the war and those left behind; this would set the trend for a day of remembrance for decades to come. Similar ceremonies developed in other countries during the inter-war period. In South Africa, for example, the Memorable Order of Tin Hats had by the late 1920s developed a ceremony whereby the toast of "Fallen Comrades" was observed not only in silence but darkness, all except for the "Light of Remembrance", with the ceremony ending with the Order's anthem "Old Soldiers Never Die".

In Britain, beginning in 1939, the two-minute silence was moved to the Sunday nearest to 11 November in order not to interfere with wartime production should 11 November fall on a weekday. This became Remembrance Sunday. After the end of World War II, most member states of the Commonwealth of Nations, followed the earlier example of Canada and adopted the name Remembrance Day. Other countries changed the name of the holiday just prior to or after World War II, to honour veterans of that and subsequent conflicts; the United States chose All Veterans Day shortened to'Veterans Day', to explicitly honour military veterans, including those participating in other conflicts. In the United Kingdom and Commonwealth countries, both Remembrance Day and Remembrance Sunday are commemorated formally, but are not public holidays; the National Service of Remembrance is held in London on Remembrance Sunday. In the United States, Veterans Day honours American veterans, both dead; the official national remembrance of those killed in action is Memorial Day, which predates World War I.

Some, including American novelist Kurt Vonnegut and American Veteran For Peace Rory Fanning, have urged Americans to resume observation of 11 November as Armistice Day, a day to reflect on how we can achieve peace as it was observed. In Poland, National Independence Day is a public holiday, celebrated on 11 November to commemorate the anniversary of the restoration of Poland's sovereignty as the Second Polish Republic in 1918, after 123 years of partition by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg Empire. "Armistice Day" remains the name of the holiday in Belgium. It has been a statutory holiday in Serbia since 2012. Serbia is an Allied force that suffered the largest casualty rate in World War I. To commemorate their victims, people in Serbia wear Natalie's ramonda as a symbol of remembrance. Ceremonies are held in Kenya over the weekend two weeks after Armistice Day; this is because news of the armistice only reached African forces, the King's African Rifles, still fighting with great success in today's Zambia about a fortnight where the German and British commanders had to agree on the protocols for their own armistice ceremony.

Remembrance Day Timeline of World War I Dalisson, Rémi: Remembrance day: 11 November 1922-Today in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War

Rampur district

Rampur district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state of India, Rampur town is the district headquarters. Rampur district is a part of Moradabad division; the district occupies an area of 2,367 km2. According to the 2011 Census of India, Rampur district has a population of 2,335,819 equal to the nation of Latvia or the US state of New Mexico; this gives it a ranking of 194th in India. The district has a population density of 987 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 21.4%. Rampur has a sex ratio of 905 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 75.08%. At the time of the 2011 Census of India, 74.03% of the population of the district spoke Hindi, 23.04% Urdu and 2.54% Punjabi as their first language