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International Drive

International Drive known as I-Drive, is a major 11.1-mile thoroughfare in Orlando, United States, is the city's main tourist strip. I-Drive is located several miles southwest of proper Downtown Orlando in the southernmost limits of the city; the International Drive area serves a similar purpose to that of the Las Vegas Strip in Las Vegas as the core of the tourism area. International Drive stretches 11.1 miles, with the northern part extending into the southernmost city limits of Orlando and the remainder of the central and southern portion located in unincorporated Orange County. An additional extension which does not directly intersect with the main section of International Drive is known as International Drive South located in the northern portion of Osceola County. Surrounding cross-roads include Sand Lake Road, Kirkman Road, SR 536, Universal Boulevard, which runs parallel to the midsection of International Drive. I-Drive has four lanes, two in each direction, from its north end at Oak Ridge Road to Pointe Plaza Dr. and again between the northern and southern intersections with Westwood Blvd.

It has six lanes, three in each direction, from Pointe Plaza Dr. to the Beachline Expressway, again from the southern intersection with Westwood Blvd. to its end at SR 536. The entirety of International Drive South, from SR 535 to US 192, is six lanes; the section of I-Drive from Universal Blvd. to Sand Lake Road has no median or center turn lane, has heavy traffic and gridlock in the evenings in the tourism corridor, affecting Carrier Dr. and Sand Lake Road. The International Drive area is home to the wax museum Madame Tussauds, the Orange County Convention Center complex, the Pointe Orlando entertainment complex, major hotels, SeaWorld Orlando, Fun Spot America amusement park, the ICON Orlando Ferris wheel, the world's tallest StarFlyer, the world's tallest Slingshot, the World's Largest Entertainment McDonald's, CoCo Key Hotel & Water Resort, the I-Drive 360 entertainment complex, themed restaurants, outlet malls, mini golf courses like Pirate's Cove Adventure Golf and other tourism-related commercial properties and tourist attractions such as Air Florida Helicopter Inc, Wonder Works and The Magical Midway.

The major theme park resort Universal Orlando is located in the area. Wet n' Wild was a water park opened on March 13, 1977 located on International Drive, considered to be America's first water park until it closed on December 31, 2016 to make way for a new water park built by Universal called Volcano Bay that opened up on May 25, 2017; the I-Ride Trolley system operated by the International Drive Master Transit & Improvement District provides bus transportation along the I-Drive Resort Area for tourists, convention attendees, locals alike. Several Lynx public bus routes serve the I-Drive area with routes to Orlando International Airport, Downtown Orlando and other parts of the city; the first section of I-Drive was laid out in the 1960s by attorney Finley Hamilton to serve his Hilton Inn South, opened in May 1970. He imagined that once Walt Disney World opened in October 1971, tourists would spot the hotel when traveling to the park along Interstate 4. "They called the hotel'Finley's Folly' – everyone, all of my friends," Hamilton said.

"They said it was in the boondocks.... But it turned out to be successful.... I came up with International Drive," he recalled, "because it sounded big and important." International Drive was extended to its current north point and southward past the Beachline Expressway. The International Drive Master Transit and Improvement District was created in 1992 to provide growth management and infrastructure development for the area with collaboration between the local governments and I-Drive businesses. One of the most critical projects presented to the organization is to create an efficient transportation system for tourists on the I-Drive strip. Universal Boulevard runs parallel to International Drive from the Beachline Expressway north crosses I-Drive and intersects I-4 via an overpass into the Universal Orlando Resort. Built as Republic Drive, it stopped at International Drive and fed into ramps onto and off I-4 eastbound. In 1998, the extension north into Universal Studios was opened, the road was renamed to Universal Blvd.

The intersection at I-4 still only has ramps off I-4 eastbound. Southbound, it fed into International Drive just north of the Orange County Convention Center; the north corner of the intersection is now the Pointe Orlando shopping district. When the North Building of the OCCC was planned, it was planned to extend Universal Boulevard along its current alignment on the north side of the North Building. Plans were made in conjunction with the Williamsburg subdivision to design the intersection at the Beachline Expressway so that traffic would not inadvertently clog Orangewood Boulevard, which met the Beachline at that point; the extension was opened in early 2003, the old connector to I-Drive at Pointe Orlando was renamed Pointe Plaza Avenue. An electric sign system on the Beachline directs convention-goers to the proper road so as to avoid unnecessary t

Gangs of Wasseypur

Gangs of Wasseypur is a 2012 Indian two-part crime film and directed by Anurag Kashyap, written by Kashyap and Zeishan Quadri. Centered on the coal mafia of Dhanbad, the underlying power struggles and vengeance between three crime families, the film features an ensemble cast, with Manoj Bajpai, Nawazuddin Siddiqui, Huma Qureshi, Richa Chadda and Tigmanshu Dhulia in the major roles, its story spans from the early 1940s to the 2000s. Both parts were shot as a single film measuring a total of 319 minutes and screened at the 2012 Cannes Directors' Fortnight, since no Indian theatre would volunteer to screen a more-than-five-hour film, it was divided into two parts for the Indian market. Anurag had revealed twice - once in 2010 and once in 2018 - that the Tamil movie, Subramaniapuram was the inspiration for this movie series. Most characters in this film are from Uttar Pradesh and Wasseypur. Review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reports that the film holds a 96% approval rating, based on 27 reviews, with an average score of 8.36/10.

The film holds a Metacritic score of 89 based on 10 reviews, indicating "niversal acclaim". Critic Danny Bowes of called it "ne of the most ambitious gangster films made, quite one of the best", writing that it is "worthy of discussion alongside Coppola's first two “Godfather” films, or Leone's “Once Upon a Time in America.”" Salon's Andrew O'Hehir wrote: "As a rich and exuberant character-driven crime saga in an idiom you have not encountered before, a dense, unsentimental portrayal of the collision between democracy and gangsterism on the frayed margins of the post-colonial world, Gangs of Wasseypur is a signal achievement in 21st-century cinema."In 2019, The Guardian ranked Gangs of Wasseypur in 59th place in its 100 best films of the 21st century list. There was a rumored third part of the franchise, named Gangs of Wasseypur 1.5. However, Director Kashyap discarded the rumors and confirmed there won't be a third part of the franchise. Faheem Khan Gangs of Wasseypur on IMDb Gangs of Wasseypur at Rotten Tomatoes Gangs of Wasseypur at AllMovie

Wagon Box Fight

The Wagon Box Fight was an engagement on August 2, 1867, in the vicinity of Fort Phil Kearny, during Red Cloud's War. A party of 26 US Army soldiers and 6 civilians were attacked by several hundred Lakota Sioux warriors. Although outnumbered, the soldiers were armed with newly supplied breech-loading Springfield Model 1866 rifles and Lever Action Henry rifles, had a defensive wall of wagon boxes to protect them, they held off the attackers for hours with few casualties, although they lost a large number of horses and mules driven off by the raiders. This was the last major engagement of the war, although Lakota and allied forces continued to raid European-American parties along the Bozeman Trail; the area has been designated as a Wyoming State Historic Site and is marked by a memorial and an historic plaque. In July 1867, after their annual sun dance at camps on the Tongue and Rosebud rivers, Oglala Lakota warriors under Red Cloud, other bands of Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, a few Arapaho resolved to attack the soldiers at nearby Fort C.

F. Smith and Fort Phil Kearny; these would be the first major military actions of 1867 against government forces in the area, following up the Native American successes in 1866, including the Fetterman Fight. Unable to agree where to attack first, the Sioux and Cheyenne force — variously estimated at between 300 and 1,000 men — split into two large bodies, moving against Fort C. F. Smith, a similar number Sioux and including Red Cloud, headed toward Fort Phil Kearny. In addition to guarding emigrants on the Bozeman Trail, major tasks occupying the 350 soldiers and 100 civilians at Fort Phil Kearny included gathering wood and timber from a pine forest about five miles from the Fort and cutting hay for livestock in prairie areas; these jobs were performed by civilian contractors armed with Spencer repeating rifles and accompanied and guarded by squads of soldiers. The hay cutters and wood gatherers had been a favorite target of the local Indian warriors since Fort Kearny was established one year earlier.

The Indians had conducted dozens of small raids, killing several dozen soldiers and civilians, driving off hundreds of head of livestock for their own use. The soldiers were on the defensive, suffering a lack of horses and trained cavalrymen, limited by their old weapons, muzzle-loading Springfield Model 1861 muskets. But, the soldiers had been issued breech-loading rifles that could fire about three times faster than muzzle-loaders and could be more re-loaded from a prone position; the native population were poorly armed possessing only about 200 firearms and fewer than two bullets per gun. Bows and arrows were their basic weapon. While the Indians used these at short range in a fight against a mobile opponent, whether on horseback or on foot, they were ineffective weapons against a well entrenched or fortified enemy. To protect against raids near the pine forest, the civilian contractors had constructed a corral, it consisted of 14 wooden bodies of wagons, which were removed from the chassis and placed on the ground in an oval 60–70 ft long and 25–30 ft wide.

Both soldiers and civilians in the wood-cutting details lived in tents outside the corral of wagon boxes but could retreat to it for defense. On July 31, Captain James Powell and his command of 51 troops departed the walls of Fort Kearny on a 30-day assignment to guard the wood cutters; until the summer had been quiet, with few hostile encounters with the local Native Americans. On the morning of August 2, Captain Powell's force was divided. Fourteen soldiers were detailed to escort the wood train to and from the fort; the Indian plan of attack on the woodcutters and soldiers was tried-and-true, similar to the plan used the previous year to kill Fetterman's force, a total of 81 lost. A small group of Indians would entice the soldiers to chase them, leading the men into an ambush by a larger hidden force. Crazy Horse was among the members of the decoy team; the plan broke down when a number of fighters attacked an outlying camp of four woodcutters and four soldiers, killing three of the soldiers.

The other soldier and the woodcutters warned the soldiers near the corral. The pursuing force halted at the woodcutter's camp to loot and seize the large number of horses and mules there, which gave the soldiers taking refuge in the corral time to prepare for the attack. There were six civilians in the corral; the first assault on the wagon box corral came from mounted warriors from the southwest, but the raiders encountered heavy fire from the soldiers using the new breech-loaders. The attackers withdrew and launched several further attacks on foot, they killed Powell's second-in-command, Lt. Jenness, two soldiers; the battle continued from about 7:30 a.m. until 1:30 pm. The defenders had plenty of ammunition, were well-defended from arrows behind the thick sides of the wagon boxes; the garrison at Fort Kearny learned of the fight from its observation station on Pilot Hill. About 11:30 a.m. Major Benjamin Smith led 103 soldiers out of the fort to the wood camp to relieve the soldiers in the wagon boxes.

Smith took with him 10 wagons, driven by armed civilians, a mountain howitzer. He proceeded and, when he neared the wagon box corral, began firing his cannon at long range; the attackers were forced to withdraw. Smith advanced without opposition to the corral, collected the soldiers, returned to Fort Kearny. Additional civilian survivors, who had hidden in the woods during the battle, made it back to the fort that night; the Wagon Box Fight is prominent in the folklore and literature of the Old West as an example of a small group of we

Quotient filter

A quotient filter is a space-efficient probabilistic data structure used to test whether an element is a member of a set. A query will elicit a reply specifying either that the element is not in the set or that the element is in the set; the former result is definitive. But with the latter result there is some probability, ε, of the test returning "element is in the set" when in fact the element is not present in the set. There is a tradeoff between ε, the false positive rate, storage size. Other AMQ operations include "insert" and "optionally delete"; the more elements are added to the larger the probability of false positives. A typical application for quotient filters, other AMQ filters, is to serve as a proxy for the keys in a database on disk; as keys are added to or removed from the database, the filter is updated to reflect this. Any lookup will first consult the fast quotient filter look in the database only if the quotient filter reported the presence of the key. If the filter returns absence, the key is known not to be in the database without any disk accesses having been performed.

A quotient filter has the usual AMQ operations of query. In addition it can be merged and re-sized without having to re-hash the original keys; this property benefits certain kinds of log-structured merge-trees. The compact hash table underlying a quotient filter was described by Cleary in 1984. First known reference to using the structure as an AMQ filter is by Pagh et. al. in 2005. In 2009, Dillinger and Manolios optimized the structure's metadata, added in-place accommodation of more elements, applied the structure to explicit-state model checking. In 2011, Bender et al. penned the name "quotient filter" and applied the structure to database storage. The quotient filter is based on a kind of hash table in which entries contain only a portion of the key plus some additional meta-data bits; these bits are used to deal with the case. By way of contrast, other types of hash tables that deal with such collisions by linking to overflow areas are not compact because the overhead due to linkage can exceed the storage used to store the key.

In a quotient filter a hash function generates a p-bit fingerprint. The r least significant bits is called the remainder while the q = p - r most significant bits is called the quotient, hence the name quotienting The hash table has 2q slots. For some key d which hashes to the fingerprint dH, let its quotient be dQ and the remainder be dR. QF will try to store the remainder in slot dQ, known as the canonical slot; however the canonical slot might be occupied because multiple keys can hash to the same fingerprint—a hard collision—or because when the keys' fingerprints are distinct they can have the same quotient—a soft collision. If the canonical slot is occupied the remainder is stored in some slot to the right; as described below, the insertion algorithm ensures that all fingerprints having the same quotient are stored in contiguous slots. Such a set of fingerprints is defined as a run. Note that a run's first fingerprint might not occupy its canonical slot if the run has been forced right by some run to the left.

However a run whose first fingerprint occupies its canonical slot indicates the start of a cluster. The initial run and all subsequent runs comprise the cluster, which terminates at an unoccupied slot or the start of another cluster; the three additional bits are used to reconstruct a slot's fingerprint. They have the following function: is_occupied is set when a slot is the canonical slot for some key stored in the filter. Is _ continuation is set. Is _ shifted; the various combinations have the following meaning: We can test if a quotient filter contains some key, d, as follows. We hash the key to produce its fingerprint, dH, which we partition into its high-order q bits, dQ, which comprise its quotient, its low-order r bits, dR, which comprise its remainder. Slot dQ is the key's canonical slot; that slot is empty. In that case the filter does not contain the key. If the canonical slot is occupied we must locate the quotient's run; the set of slots that hold remainders belonging to the same quotient are stored contiguously and these comprise the quotient's run.

The first slot in the run might be the canonical slot but it is possible that the entire run has been shifted to the right by the encroachment from the left of another run. To locate the quotient's run we must first locate the start of the cluster; the cluster consists of a contiguous set of runs. Starting with the quotient's canonical slot we can scan left to locate the start of the cluster scan right to locate the quotient's run. We scan left; this indicates the start of the cluster. We scan right keeping a running count of the number of runs we must skip over; each slot to the left of the canonical slot having is_occupied set indicates another run to be skipped, so we increment the running count. Each slot having is_continuation clear indicates the start of another run, thus the end of the previous run, so we decrement the running count; when the running count reaches zero, we are scanning the quotient's run. We can compare the remainder in each slot in the run with dR. If found


The guqin is a plucked seven-string Chinese musical instrument of the zither family. It has been played since ancient times, has traditionally been favoured by scholars and literati as an instrument of great subtlety and refinement, as highlighted by the quote "a gentleman does not part with his qin or se without good reason," as well as being associated with the ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius, it is sometimes referred to by the Chinese as "the father of Chinese music" or "the instrument of the sages". The guqin is not to be confused with the guzheng, another Chinese long zither without frets, but with moveable bridges under each string. Traditionally, the instrument was referred to as the "qin" but by the twentieth century the term had come to be applied to many other musical instruments as well: the yangqin hammered dulcimer, the huqin family of bowed string instruments, the Western piano are examples of this usage; the prefix "gu-" was added for clarification. Thus, the instrument is called "guqin" today.

It can be called qixian-qin. Because Robert Hans van Gulik's book about the qin is called The Lore of the Chinese Lute, the guqin is sometimes inaccurately called a lute. Other incorrect classifications from music compact discs, include "harp" or "table-harp"; the guqin is a quiet instrument, with a range of about four octaves, its open strings are tuned in the bass register. Its lowest pitch is the lowest note on the cello. Sounds are produced by plucking open strings, stopped strings, harmonics; the use of glissando—sliding tones—gives it a sound reminiscent of a pizzicato cello, fretless double bass or a slide guitar. The qin is capable of many harmonics, of which 91 are most used and indicated by the dotted positions. By tradition, the qin had five strings, but ancient qin-like instruments with 10 or more strings have been found; the modern form has been standardized for about two millennia. There are more than 3,360 known pieces of Guqin music. On 7 November 2003, the UNESCO World Heritage Committee announced that the Chinese Guqin was selected as the World Cultural Heritage Centre.

In 2006, Guqin was listed in the List of National Non-material Cultural Heritage in China. Legend has it that the qin, the most revered of all Chinese musical instruments, has a history of about 5,000 years, that the legendary figures of China's pre-history — Fuxi and Huang Di, the "Yellow Emperor" — were involved in its creation. Nearly all qin books and tablature collections published prior to the twentieth century state this as the actual origins of the qin, although this is now viewed as mythology, it is mentioned in Chinese writings dating back nearly 3,000 years, examples have been found in tombs from about 2,500 years ago. The exact origins of the qin is still a much continuing subject of debate over the past few decades. In 1977, a recording of "Flowing Water" was chosen to be included in the Voyager Golden Record, a gold-plated LP recording containing music from around the world, sent into outer space by NASA on the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecraft, it is the longest excerpt included on the disc.

The reason to select a work played on this specific instrument is because the tonal structure of the instrument, its musical scale, is derived from fundamental physical laws related to vibration and overtones, representing the intellectual capacity of human beings on this subject. In 2003, guqin music was proclaimed as one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO. There are a number of ancient sources that discuss qin theory and general qin literature; some of these books are available. The basic contents of qin literature are essays discussing and describing the nature of qin music, the theory behind the notes and tones, the method of correct play, the history of qin music, lists of mentions in literature, etc; the detail can be concise to detailed and thorough. Some are philosophical or artistic musings, others are scientific and technical; as with any other musical tradition, there are differences in ideals and interaction between different people. Therefore, there exist different schools and societies which transmit these different ideas and artistic traditions.

Many qin schools known as qin pai developed over the centuries. Such schools formed around areas where qin activity was greatest; some schools have come and gone, some have offshoots. The school is originated from a single person, such as the Wu school, named after the late Wu Zhaoji; the style can vary between schools. The differences are in the interpretation of the music. Northern schools tend to be more vigorous in technique than Southern schools, but in modern terms, the distinction between schools and styles is blurred because a single player may learn from many different players from different schools and absorb each of their styles. This is so for conservatory trained players. People from the same school trained under the same master may have different individual styles. There is a difference between qin schools and qin societies; the former concerns itself with transmission of a style, the latter concerns itself with performance. The qin society will encourage meetings with fellow qin players in order to play music and maybe di

Waldport, Oregon

Waldport is a city in Lincoln County, United States. The population was 2,033 at the 2010 census; the city is located on the Alsea River and Alsea Bay, 15 miles south of Newport and 8 miles north of Yachats. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.02 square miles, of which, 2.77 square miles is land and 0.25 square miles is water. This region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Waldport has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps. Camp Angel, a Civilian Conservation Corps camp near Waldport, was home to World War II conscientious objectors involved in the arts. In September 1975, Marshall Applewhite gave a lecture in Waldport on UFOs, attended by 150 people. In the following days, an estimated 20 residents, nearly one out of 30 people who lived in the town, abandoned their homes and possessions and joined Applewhite's cult, Heaven's Gate.

An Oregon State Police investigation concluded. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,033 people, 974 households, 530 families living in the city; the population density was 733.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,196 housing units at an average density of 431.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.2% White, 0.8% African American, 1.1% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 0.5% from other races, 5.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.3% of the population. There were 974 households of which 19.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.2% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 45.6% were non-families. 37.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.08 and the average family size was 2.69. The median age in the city was 53 years.

15.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 52.6 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,050 people, 909 households, 540 families living in the city; the population density was 956.8 people per square mile. There were 1,099 housing units at an average density of 513.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.41% White, 0.10% African American, 2.20% Native American, 1.17% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, 2.68% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.71% of the population. There were 909 households out of which 23.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.5% were non-families. 34.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.81. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 4.2% from 18 to 24, 22.8% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, 23.5% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,301, the median income for a family was $38,571. Males had a median income of $29,904 versus $22,071 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,939. About 9.4% of families and 17.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.9% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those age 65 or over. On February 22, 2009, Mayor Herman Welch announced. Upon re-registering as a member of the Independent Party of Oregon, he became the first public official in Oregon to be a member of that party. Wakonda Beach State Airport Siuslaw National Forest. "Camp 56: An Oral History Project: World War II Conscientious Objectors and the Waldport, Oregon Civilian Public Service Camp". Center for Columbia River History. Retrieved 2013-08-15. City of Waldport Entry for Waldport in the Oregon Blue Book