SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

International law

International law known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules and standards accepted in relations between nations. It establishes normative guidelines and a common conceptual framework to guide states across a broad range of domains, including war, diplomacy and human rights. International law thus provides a means for states to practice more stable and organized international relations; the sources of international law include international custom and general principles of law recognized by most national legal systems. International law may be reflected in international comity, the practices and customs adopted by states to maintain good relations and mutual recognition, such as saluting the flag of a foreign ship or enforcing a foreign judgment. International law differs from state-based legal systems in that it is primarily—though not exclusively—applicable to countries, rather than to individuals, operates through consent, since there is no universally accepted authority to enforce it upon sovereign states.

States may choose to not abide by international law, to break a treaty. However, such violations of customary international law and peremptory norms, can be met with coercive action, ranging from military intervention to diplomatic and economic pressure; the relationship and interaction between a national legal system and international law is complex and variable. National law may become international law when treaties permit national jurisdiction to supranational tribunals such as the European Court of Human Rights or the International Criminal Court. Treaties such as the Geneva Conventions may require national law to conform to treaty provisions. National laws or constitutions may provide for the implementation or integration of international legal obligations into domestic law; the term "international law" is sometimes divided into "public" and "private" international law by civil law scholars, who seek to follow a Roman tradition. Roman lawyers would have further distinguished jus gentium, the law of nations, jus inter gentes, agreements between nations.

On this view, "public" international law is said to cover relations between nation-states and includes fields such as treaty law, law of sea, international criminal law, the laws of war or international humanitarian law, international human rights law, refugee law. By contrast "private" international law, more termed "conflict of laws", concerns whether courts within countries claim jurisdiction over cases with a foreign element, which country's law applies. A more recent concept is "supranational law", which concerns regional agreements where the laws of nation states may be held inapplicable when conflicting with a supranational legal system to which the nation has a treaty obligation. Systems of supranational law arise when nations explicitly cede their right to make certain judicial decisions to a common tribunal; the decisions of the common tribunal are directly effective in each party nation, have priority over decisions taken by national courts. The European Union is most prominent example of an international treaty organization that implements a supranational legal framework, with the European Court of Justice having supremacy over all member-nation courts in matter of European Union law.

The term "transnational law" is sometimes used to a body of rules. The origins of international law can be traced back to ancient times. Among the earliest examples are peace treaties between the Mesopotamian city-states of Lagash and Umma, an agreement between the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II and the Hittite king, Hattusilis III, concluded in 1258 BCE. Interstate pacts and agreements of various kinds were negotiated and concluded by polities across the world, from the eastern Mediterranean to East Asia. Ancient Greece, which developed basic notions of governance and international relations, contributed to the formation of the international legal system; the Roman Empire established an early conceptual framework for international law, jus gentium, which governed both the status of foreigners living in Rome and relations between foreigners and Roman citizens. Adopting the Greek concept of natural law—the idea that certain rights are inherent to all humans—the Romans conceived of jus gentiumas as being universal.

However, in contrast to modern international law, the Roman law of nations applied to relations with and between foreign individuals rather than among political units such as states. Beginning with the Spring and Autumn period of the eighth century BCE, China was divided into numerous ethnic Han states that were at war with each other. Subsequently, there emerged rules for diplomacy and treaty-making, including notions regarding the just grounds for war, the rights of neutral parties, the consolidation and partition of states; the subsequent Warring States period saw the development of two major schools of thought and Legalism, both of which held that the domestic and international legal spheres were interlinked, sought to establish competing normative principles to guide foreign relations. The Indian subcontinent was characterized by an ever-changing panoply of states, which over time developed rules of neutrality, treaty law, international conduct. Embassies both temporary and permanent were established between sta

Bill Bollinger

Bill Bollinger was an American artist. In the late 1960s, he was one of the foremost sculptors of his time mentioned in the same breath as the likes of Bruce Nauman, Robert Smithson, Eva Hesse and Richard Serra, his work can be categorized as postminimalist art. Bollinger's work has received renewed attention, with a retrospective hosted at SculptureCenter in New York in 2012 entitled Bill Bollinger: The Retrospective. Bollinger is represented by Greenspon in New York. From 1957 to 1961, Bill Bollinger studied aeronautical engineering at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. In 1961, the year he identifies as the beginning of his artistic career, Bollinger moved to New York City where he studied painting at the Art Students League. From 1969 to 1971, he took a teaching position at the School of New York. In 1976, he served as an instructor at the Minneapolis College of Design. Around 1979/80, he taught at the University of Rhode Island. In his works, Bill Bollinger made frequent use of standard industrially fabricated products.

The artist explained his approach: "I only do. There is no reason to use color, to polish, to bend, to weld, if it is not necessary to do so.”For the Channel Pieces from 1965 to 1968, he joined together extruded aluminum profiles to create works with additive and rhythmic properties. These were followed by the Pipe Pieces made from aluminum pipes held together with fittings and the Rope Pieces, consisting of a rope stretched between two terminal points within the exhibition space. In the Cyclone Fence Pieces, Chain-Link Fence Pieces, Wire Pieces and Screen Pieces from 1968 and 1969, Bollinger utilized commercially available wire mesh and netting, they allowed him to lend expression to the painterly and graphic questions of space and the fundamental laws of physics. Four works from 1968 – a Rope Piece, a Wire Piece and two Pipe Pieces – were included in the legendary 1969 exhibition “Live in Your Head: When Attitudes Become Form” curated by Harald Szeemann at Kunsthalle Bern. In the Graphite Pieces, Bollinger spread graphite dust over the floor, leaving clear traces of the process of creation while incorporating the sense of openness and expandability, so important to Bollinger.

The ready-made character of Bollinger’s works is apparent in the Droplights from 1969. Works with floating tree trunks and barrels show Bollinger’s affinity for water. In 1973, he began working in cast iron. 1968: National Council on the Arts Grant Meyer-Stoll, Bill Bollinger: Water is Life and Like Art It Finds Its Own Level. Vaduz: Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein, 2011, catalogue for the exhibition at Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein, April 2 – May 8, 2011, at ZKM / Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie Karlsruhe May 28 – September 25, 2011, Fruitmarket Gallery, October 29, 2011 – January 8, 2012. "An Afterlife for a Sculptor Bill Bollinger's Works Resurface in Two Exhibitions", New York Times, 2012 "Bollinger, Unchained: Long Overdue Retrospective at SculptureCenter Proves Late Sculptor's Influence", Gallerist NY, 2012 "Starting From Zero", New York Magazine, 2012 "10 Rediscoveries From 2012", GalleristNY, 2013 "Bill Bollinger At Algus Greenspon", Contemporary Art Daily, 2012 "Not Lost, Not Found: Bill Bollinger", Art in America, 2000 "Bill Bollinger.

The Retrospective", Artnews, 2011

Dolores Arsenova

Dolores Borisova Arsenova is a former Member of the Bulgarian Parliament and leader of the National Movement for Stability and Progress known as the National Movement Simeon II, a liberal political party in Bulgaria. She has Jewish descent, she served in the cabinet of Tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria as his Minister of Waters. Arsenova was born in the small village of Belimel in Bulgaria. Educational backgroundIn 1990, Arsenova graduated with a teaching degree from St. Clement of Ohrid University of Sofia, Bulgaria. In 1995, she received her law degree from the University for National and World Economics in Sofia, Bulgaria. In 1996, Arsenova began becoming a member of the Sofia Bar Association, her focus included providing legal advice and serving as a management consultant working with nonprofit organizations. In 1999, she was honored with a fellowship of the Global and Regional Development Section at the Sociology Institute with the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. On July 24, 2001, Arsenova set her legal career aside, when she became a Member of Parliament and was appointed as the Minister of Environment and Waters in the cabinet of Tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria, with the Government of the National Movement Simeon II.

Arsenova is member of the Bulgarian Sociology Association and of the Union of Scientists in Bulgaria. She is the chair of the Governing Board of the Hypokrat Nonprofit Association. Arsenova drew the attention of the IRS and the journalists on Nova Television's "Tax the rich struck from the air", broadcast on October 1, 2010. In February 2010, Arsenova and her husband came under scrutiny when they were accused of fraud by purchasing Docetaxel chemotherapy medication, in India and selling it with a surcharge three times higher to Bulgaria's health ministry. According to the accusation Arsenova's company, Biomars Ltd. took a profit of US$980 per bottle of the medication. Cancer patients and patients rights advocates claimed that the inflated prices of the medicine resulted in a drastic shortage of medication for oncology diseases, causing decreasing health and/or death for cancer patients throughout the country. On February 26, Arsenova appeared on bTV channel, her appearance caused controversy, when she failed to clear her name or that of her husband stating, "It is a lie that the company of my husband has siphoned off the state budget."

She refused to disclose the price at which the medicine was purchased in India, claiming that the financial transaction was confidential