SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

International trade

International trade is the exchange of capital and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product. While international trade has existed throughout history, its economic and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries. Carrying out trade at an international level is a complex process when compared to domestic trade; when trade takes place between two or more nations factors like currency, government policies, judicial system and markets influence trade. To smoothen and justify the process of trade between countries of different economic standing, some international economic organisations were formed, such as the World Trade Organization; these organisations work towards the growth of international trade. Statistical services of intergovernmental and supranational organisations and national statistical agencies publish official statistics on international trade. A product, transferred or sold from a party in one country to a party in another country is an export from the originating country, an import to the country receiving that product.

Imports and exports are accounted for in a country's current account in the balance of payments. Trading globally may give consumers and countries the opportunity to be exposed to new markets and products; every kind of product can be found in the international market, for example: food, spare parts, jewellery, stocks and water. Services are traded, such as in tourism, banking and transportation. Advanced technology, industrialisation and multinational corporations have major impacts on the international trade system. Increasing international trade is crucial to the continuance of globalisation. Countries would be limited to the goods and services produced within their own borders without international trade. International trade benefits many countries in various aspects. In the case of Vizio’s flat-panel TVs, the manufacturing leadership has been shifting from one country to another due to global economic growth. At first, Japan could assemble the components of this TV and sell it out to the other countries such as US.

However, recession affected Japan and South Korea took the lead in assembling the parts of this TV. Samsung played a critical role in the selling and manufacturing of the flat TV. Taiwan countries took the advantage of the recession that affected South Korea and the investors assembled electronic components of Vizio’s flat-panel TVs. At first the US suffered from this cycle because despite inventing this business idea, other countries implemented it in the international market. Chinese started manufacturing flat TVs at a lower cost compared to the previous investors, it is important to note that US benefited from the cycle because many investors could manufacture the TV at lower cost. China is another country that benefited from this business because it started manufacturing the product late at a lower price. South Korea and Japan suffered from the global recession because it was expensive to manufacture Vizio’s flat-panel TVs at the beginning. Despite the benefits that many countries enjoyed from selling Vizio’s flat-panel TVs, many nations suffered due to changes in international economy.

Some countries experienced recessions. For example, Japan became the first country to sell the flat-panel screens in 1990s but decade-long recession affected the business operations and surrendered to South Korea, it is important to note that South Korea suffered the same fate from the Asian crisis in 1997. Mexico is one lucky country; the country could assemble flat-panel TVs after sourcing the electronic parts from other countries. In this regard, it is clear that countries that took part in the manufacture of these TVs were affected in different ways; the US played a critical role in the manufacture of the flat-panel TVs. In this regard, the decision made by the US may affect the entrepreneurs at the local and international level. If the US government demands that flat-panel displays be sold in the country only, the investors will have to sell the products at lower prices, it is clear that the prices of these flat-panel displays are cheap in the US compared to the countries. In addition, the local investors will not have the opportunity to compete at international level.

The quality of the screens can be compromised because the local manufacturers do not encounter foreign competitors. The future production of these TVs will change. Technology is changing the mode of production from one year to another. For instance, the manufacture of these TVs began from assembling electronic parts from different countries. However, things have changed and every country is aiming at using the local resources to manufacture the screens. Singapore and Canada are two countries that are developed with high level of technology; the Telecommunication Infrastructure in Singapore covers the whole city-state making all people to be connected through the internet. The development of Internet in Singapore is high as it covers most of the inhabited parts of the island. For instance, in 2005, more than 90 million phone lines were connected through the telecommunication devices. In addition, the island has underwater telephone cables, which are laid down to connect Malaysia and Indonesia. Singapore is

Metalinguistics

Metalinguistics is the branch of linguistics that studies language and its relationship to other cultural behaviors. It is the study of dialogue relationships between units of speech communication as manifestations and enactments of co-existence. Jacob L. Mey in his book, Trends in Linguistics, describes Mikhail Bakhtin's interpretation of metalinguistics as "encompassing the life history of a speech community, with an orientation toward a study of large events in the speech life of people and embody changes in various cultures and ages." Metalinguistic skills involve understanding of the rules used to govern language. Scholar Patrick Hartwell points out how substantial it is for students to develop these capabilities heightened phonological awareness, a key precursor to literacy. An essential aspect to language development is focused on the student being aware of language and the components of language; this idea is examined in the article,'Metalinguistic Awareness and Literacy Acquisition in Different Languages', that centers on how the construction of a language and writing strategy shape an individual's ability to read.

It discusses the manner in which bilingualism increases particular elements of metalinguistic awareness. Published research studies by Elizabeth McAllister have concluded that metalinguistic abilities are associated to cognitive development and is contingent on metalinguistic awareness which relates to reading skill level, academic success and cultural environment that starts at infancy and continues through preschool. According to Text in Education and Society, some examples of metalinguistic skills include discussing, thinking about language and reading comprehension; the text states that a student's recognition or self-correction of language in verbal and written form helps them further advance their skills. The book illustrates manners in which literature can form connections or create boundaries between educational intelligence and practical knowledge. Gail T. Gillion wrote the book, Phonological Awareness, which illustrates the connection between phonological awareness and metalinguistic awareness's in literacy learning.

It states that a student's ability to understand the spoken word and their ability to recognize a word and decode it are dependent on each other. The text discusses ways in which students struggling with speech impairments and reading difficulties can improve their learning process. Linguists use this term to designate activities associated with metalanguage, a language composed of the entirety of words forming linguistic terminology Metalinguistics is used to refer to the language, whether natural or formalized, itself used to speak of language; the language itself must constitute the sole sphere of application for the entire vocabulary. Experts are undecided about the value of awareness of metalanguage to language learners, some "schools of thought" in language learning have been against it. Metalinguistic awareness refers to the understanding that language is a system of communication, bound to rules, forms the basis for the ability to discuss different ways to use language. In other words, it is the ability to consciously analyze language and its sub-parts, to know how they operate and how they are incorporated into the wider language system.

An individual with such ability is aware that linguistic forms and structure can interact and be manipulated to produce a vast variety of meanings. Words are only arbitrarily and symbolically associated with their referents, are separable from them. For example, a dog is named "Cat", it does not make the dog a cat. The term was first used by Harvard professor Courtney Cazden in 1974 to demonstrate the shift of linguistic intelligence across languages. Metalinguistic awareness in bilingual learners is the ability to objectively function outside one language system and to objectify languages’ rules and functions. Code-switching and translation are examples of bilinguals’ metalinguistic awareness. Metalinguistics awareness was used as a construct in research extensively in the mid 1980s and early 1990s. Metalinguistic awareness is a theme that has appeared in the study of bilingualism, it can be divided into four subcategories, namely phonological, word and pragmatic awareness. Amongst the four and word awareness are the two aspects of metalinguistic awareness that have garnered the greatest attention in bilingual literacy research.

Research has shown metalinguistic awareness in bilinguals to be a crucial component because of its documented relationship and positive effects on language ability, symbolic development and literacy skills. Indeed, many studies investigating the impact of bilingualism on phonological and word awareness have indicated a positive bilingual effect. Bilinguals are learning and switching between two languages, which may facilitate the development of stronger phonological awareness, it is postulated that bilinguals’ experiences of acquiring and maintaining two different languages aid them in developing an explicit and articulated understanding of how language works. Hence they are equipped with stronger metalinguistic awareness as compared to their monolingual counterparts. In their book Literacy

Los Prisioneros (album)

Los Prisioneros is the fifth studio album of the Chilean band Los Prisioneros, released in early June 2003. It had been 13 years since the last album recorded by the band, was much anticipated. Reception from the public was superb with the album reaching record sales in two days, all over the country; the album, like their predecessors, addressed political issues and social criticism, with most songs penned by band leader Jorge Gonzalez. Three months after the release, Claudio Narea left the band definitively due tensions with González; this raised inquisitiveness in the media, so much so that in a press conference, Jorge Gonzalez reacted to journalists' questions hitting and knocking microphones down. Therefore, the album was released amidst tensions, little promotional work was done, singles and video clips release was limited; because the band, without Narea, decided to focus on a new album and finding a replacement guitarist, this album ended up being the least known of the group's career.

"Canción del Trabajo" Model of the topic "Work Song", performed by guitarist and drummer Claudio Narea Miguel Tapia. This version trumpets, or has the same chorus of the original. "Fiesta Nuclear" composed by Claudio Narea topic. The song was not rejected by the style of the album, for failing to convince the band, it was recorded in 2010 by the duo Narea and Tapia, composed by guitarist and drummer of Los Prisioneros. Jorge González: Vocals, Acoustic Guitar, Keyboards, Synthesizer and Choir programs. Claudio Narea: Guitars, keyboards and choirs. Miguel Tapia: Drums, Drum, & Choral Programs. Coty: Keyboards, Synthesizers and Sequences