Internet Protocol

The Internet Protocol is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, establishes the Internet. IP has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host based on the IP addresses in the packet headers. For this purpose, IP defines packet structures, it defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information. IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in 1974, complemented by a connection-oriented service that became the basis for the Transmission Control Protocol; the Internet protocol suite is therefore referred to as TCP/IP. The first major version of IP, Internet Protocol Version 4, is the dominant protocol of the Internet, its successor is Internet Protocol Version 6, in increasing deployment on the public Internet since c.

2006. The Internet Protocol is responsible for addressing host interfaces, encapsulating data into datagrams and routing datagrams from a source host interface to a destination host interface across one or more IP networks. For these purposes, the Internet Protocol defines the format of packets and provides an addressing system; each datagram has two components: a payload. The IP header includes source IP address, destination IP address, other metadata needed to route and deliver the datagram; the payload is the data, transported. This method of nesting the data payload in a packet with a header is called encapsulation. IP addressing associated parameters to host interfaces; the address space is divided into subnetworks. IP routing is performed by all hosts, as well as routers, whose main function is to transport packets across network boundaries. Routers communicate with one another via specially designed routing protocols, either interior gateway protocols or exterior gateway protocols, as needed for the topology of the network.

In May 1974, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers published a paper entitled "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication". The paper's authors, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn, described an internetworking protocol for sharing resources using packet switching among network nodes. A central control component of this model was the "Transmission Control Program" that incorporated both connection-oriented links and datagram services between hosts; the monolithic Transmission Control Program was divided into a modular architecture consisting of the Transmission Control Protocol and User Datagram Protocol at the transport layer and the Internet Protocol at the internet layer. The model became known as the Department of Defense Internet Model and Internet protocol suite, informally as TCP/IP. IP versions 0 to 3 were experimental versions, used between 1977 and 1979; the following Internet Experiment Note documents describe versions of the Internet Protocol prior to the modern version of IPv4: IEN 2, dated August 1977 describes the need to separate the TCP and Internet Protocol functionalities It proposes the first version of the IP header, using 0 for the version field.

IEN 26, dated February 1978 describes a version of the IP header. IEN 28, dated February 1978 describes IPv2. IEN 41, dated June 1978 describes the first protocol to be called IPv4; the IP header is different from the modern IPv4 header. IEN 44, dated June 1978 describes another version of IPv4 with a header different from the modern IPv4 header. IEN 54, dated September 1978 is the first description of IPv4 using the header that would be standardized in RFC 760; the dominant internetworking protocol in the Internet Layer in use is IPv4. IPv4 is described in RFC 791. Version number 5 was used by an experimental streaming protocol; the successor to IPv4 is IPv6. IPv6 was a result of several years of experimentation and dialog during which various protocol models were proposed, such as TP/IX, PIP and TUBA, its most prominent difference from version 4 is the size of the addresses. While IPv4 uses 32 bits for addressing, yielding c. 4.3 billion addresses, IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses providing ca. 340 undecillion, or 3.4×1038 addresses.

Although adoption of IPv6 has been slow, as of June 2008, all United States government systems have demonstrated basic infrastructure support for IPv6. The assignment of the new protocol as IPv6 was uncertain until due diligence revealed that IPv6 had not yet been used previously. Other Internet Layer protocols have been assigned version numbers, such as 7, 8 and 9. Notably, on April 1, 1994, the IETF published an April Fools' Day joke about IPv9; the design of the Internet protocol suite adheres to the end-to-end principle, a concept adapted from the CYCLADES project. Under the end-to-end principle, the network infrastructure is considered inherently unreliable at any single network element or transmission medium and is dynamic in terms of availability of links and nodes. No central monitoring or performance measurement fa

Singapore Armoured Regiment

The Singapore Armoured Regiment is a formation of the Singapore Army responsible for armoured warfare. Armour provides mobile firepower support and rapid mobility for the Army by helping to spearhead an advance past the enemies defences and seizing and holding key objectives on the battlefield. Armour acts as an active deterrent towards any possible aggressors. Armour is known to act swiftly as they can be deployed at a moment's notice to dominate the battlefield, hence their motto: Swift and Decisive; the Singapore Army's first armoured unit, 40 Singapore Armoured Regiment, was formed in November 1968. In that year, the Army decided to purchase AMX-13 tanks. 41 SAB was formed to operate AMX-13 tanks in 1969 and was the first armour unit to be equipped with the tanks. The V-200 Commando vehicles were shared between 40 and 41 SAB; that same year, 40 SAB thrilled the crowd at the Singapore National Day Parade in a drive-past of 18 tanks to salute the President of Singapore. HQ Armour has since organised armour column drive-pasts during the National Day Parades of 1978, 1982, 1984, 1993, 2002 & 2010.

Additionally, during every National Day Parade, men of the formation are given the honour of the Presidential Lance Guards who will form up upon the President's arrival and departure. They carry lances with a pennon that features the insignia of the Armour formation attached beneath the spearhead; this tradition is modelled after the knights of old. The AMX-13, acquired back in 1969 was upgraded to the AMX-13 SM1 in 1988. In July 1970, with the creation of 4 SAB, 40 & 41 were re-flagged as 40 41 SAR respectively. Two further armoured units were created: 42 SAR in 1971 & 46 SAR in 1976. With the inception of full-time national service in 1967, 40 SAR received her first mono intake in March 1970 while 41 SAR received hers in July 1970. In 1973, the formation acquired the M113 to replace the V-200 Commando, further upgraded to the M113A2 Ultra IFV in 1993 to keep up with the modern age; the Regimental Colours of 40, 41 and 42 SAR were presented by President Benjamin Sheares at Selarang Camp on 6 September 1977.

46 SAR’s Regimental Colours were presented to them on 29 October 1991. 48 SAR's Regimental Colours was presented by President Tony Tan on 1 July 2013 at that year's SAF day parade. In 2006, it was announced that the AMX-13 SM1 Tanks would be replaced with Germany's Leopard 2A4 Main Battle Tanks; the formation adopted the Black Beret as its official headdress, recognised traditionally as a symbol of an armoured unit. In the Singapore Armed Forces Best Unit Competition, only 5 Armour units have won the title of Best Combat Unit: 41 SAR, 42 SAR & 40 SAR. There are 3 armoured infantry battalions in its operational structure: 40 SAR, 41 SAR & 42 SAR. There is another additional tank battalion, 48 SAR. There are a number of NS Reserve battalions that are activated during reservist recalls. NS SAR units are numbered in three-digit formats to distinguish them from active units. An armoured infantry battalion is made up of 5 companies: 3 combat coys and a support coy; the HQ company encompasses the battalion's Intelligence Branch, Manpower Branch, Training & Operation Branch, Logistics Branch, Signal Branch, Quartermaster Branch, Motor Transport, Tracked Vehicle Maintenance Branch and Medical Platoon.

The combat companies are made up of three platoons and a company HQ platoon The Support Company encompasses the following elements: Mortar, Pioneer/Engineer, ATGM and Reconnaissance. While on operation, each combat team will be attached with a vehicle maintenance and Pioneer section; the ATGM & Mortar elements can be attached to either combat company at their commanders direction depending on mission profiles. Armoured Infantry battalions share similar traits with their regular infantry counterparts. However, each section of an A. I. platoon has their own individual armoured tracked platform and A. I. platoons carry more firepower. A. I platoons specialise in conducting water-body crossing with their armoured platforms by flotation devices. During training or operations, external units, such as the Combat Engineers' Armoured vehicle-launched bridge and mine clearance vehicles or the Artillery's self-propelled howitzers, can be attached to the armour battalions as needed; when required by the nature of operations, heavy tanks can be attached to the A.

I. battalions. Brigades HQ 4th Singapore Armoured Brigade Motto: Terror On Tracks Sungei Gedong Camp HQ 8th Singapore Armoured Brigade Motto: Valiant Thrust Keat Hong Camp, under HQ 3 DIV HQ 54th Singapore Armoured Brigade Motto: We Spearhead Kranji Camp II, under HQ 6 DIV HQ 56th Singapore Armoured Brigade Motto: Bold and Decisive Selarang Camp, under HQ 9 DIVBattalions 40th Battalion, Singapore Armoured Regiment Motto: Victory Unto Victory Yellow Frills on its Battalion's Regemental Color with the number'40' on the top left corner Keat Hong Camp 41st Battalion, Singapore Armoured Regiment Motto: Pressure Forward Red Frills on its Battalion's Regemental Colors with the number'41' on the top left corner Keat Hong Camp 42nd Battalion, Singapore Armoured Regiment Motto: The Cutting Edge Green Frills on its Battalion's Regemental Colors with the number'42' on the top left corner Sungei Gedong Camp 48th Battalion, Singapore Armoured Regiment Motto: Rapid Dominance Yellow Border on Black Shield with the number'48' on the top right corner Sungei Gedong Camp The Armour Creed details the motto of the Armour "Swift and Decisive" and the roles Armour plays within the Army.

Units withi


Eckernförde is a German town in Schleswig-Holstein, Kreis Rendsburg-Eckernförde, on the coast of the Baltic Sea 30 km north-west of Kiel. The population is about 23,000. Eckernförde is a popular tourist destination in northern Germany; the name of Eckernförde is of mixed origin, but derived from the name of a Danish castle located near the current town, reflected in the name of the town district of Borby. This fortification is listed in the 13th century Liber Census Daniæ as Ykærnæburgh. In 1441, the town used an official seal listing its name as Eherneborgh; the first syllable corresponds to the modern Danish word "egern" meaning squirrel while "-förde" is Low German meaning fjord. The -förde ending is documented in Latinized form on two official seals used by the town in 1602 and 1624; the etymology of the town's name is reflected in the presence of a squirrel in the town's coat of arms, a feature first documented by the 1441 seal. In 1197 Eckernförde was mentioned for the first time. Eckernförde was mentioned in the year 1302 for the first time explicitly as a city, but in 1288 the inhabitants were called oppidani.

In 1628 it was taken by Christian IV of Denmark from the troops of the Holy Roman Empire. During the First War of Schleswig two Danish ships, the Christian VIII and the frigate Gefion tried to land in Eckernförde in April 1849, they were cannonaded from the shore. The Christian VIII exploded, while the Gefion was captured. Theodor Preusse, the commander in chief of the southern troops, died while rescuing Danish troops from the Christian VIII. On November 13 the 1872 Baltic Sea flood hit the coast of the Baltic Sea from Denmark to Pomerania. Of all the German coastal settlements, Eckernförde was most damaged due to its location on Eckernförde Bay, wide open to the north-east; the entire town was flooded, 78 houses were destroyed, 138 damaged and 112 families became homeless. The Count Saint-Germain was buried in Eckernförde near the St. Nicolai Church, his grave was destroyed by the 1872 storm surge. In 1934 the seaside resort Borby was incorporated. After the Second World War a United Nations displaced persons camp for Estonians was located near Eckernförde, where a section of the Hohenstein mansion was converted into a maternity ward.

1906–1914: Karl Heldmann 1920–1921: Willers Jessen 1921–1926: Curt Pönitzsch July–September 1926: Wilhelm Kuhr 1926–1931: Walther Heinn 1931–1933: Wilhelm Sievers, NSDAP 1933–1938: Helmut Lemke, NSDAP 1938–1943: Friedrich Böhm, NSDAP 1943–1945: Heinz Loewer, NSDAP since June 1945: Hans Ohm since August 1945 Ewald Wendenburg since April 1946: Heinrich Schumacher KPD since September 1946: Daniel Hinrichsen, CDU April 1950–September 1952: Ewald Wendenburg, CDU 1952–1966 Werner Schmidt, independent FDP 1966–1969: Hans Wiedemann, independent 1969–1987: Kurt Schulz, SPD 1987–1998: Klaus Buß, SPD 1998–1999: Ingrid Ehlers, SPD 1999–2006: Susanne Jeske-Paasch, SPD since 2007: Jörg Sibbel, independent In the early 20th century, Eckernförde was known for its harbour, trade in agricultural products, manufacture of salt and iron goods. All German Navy submarines are stationed in Eckernförde, it is the home of BEHN, an alcoholic beverage family company, founded in 1792. The headquarters of SIG Sauer are located there.

Schools in the city include the Richard-Vosgerau-Schule. The Richard Vosgerau School is a public elementary school in Eckernförde; the address is 24340 Eckernförde. The current head of the school is Mrs. Koepke; the school building consists of a white main house and a small outbuilding as well as a football field and a sports hall. In the schoolyard, the school children enjoy various activities. Other schools in Eckernförde include: Fritz-Reuter-Schule Waldorf School Gudewerdt Schule Pestalozzi Schule Schule am Noor Jungmannschule Peter-Ustinov-Schule Sprottenschule The Kiel–Flensburg railway runs through the town with trains stopping at Eckernförde station, situated to the west of the town centre; the town's main bus station, central omnibus station, is directly connected to the train station. The operating company of the railway network is Deutsche Bahn. Eckernförde has 4 bus routes for urban connections operated by single-deck buses. Eckernförde has no trolley-buses. For transportation, the statewide Schleswig-Holstein-fare applies.

A taxi stand is located at the bus station. Eckernförde has two bike rental outlets, one is located near the beach and one is in the pedestrian area; the nearest international Airport is Hamburg Airport. Eckernförde is twinned with: The Comte de Saint Germain, wealthy aristocrat with name unknown, died here on 27 February 1784 while in the employ of Prince Charles of Hesse-Kassel Christian Otte wholesaler, founder Lorenz von Stein a German economist and public administration scholar Karl Wilhelm Valentiner a German astronomer Frederick G. Clausen, German-American architect Friedrich Rathgen a German Chemist and a founder of the field of Conservation science Walter von Bülow-Bothkamp, a fighter pilot in World War I, winner of Pour le Mérite Ruth Halbsguth a German swimmer, silver medallist at the 19