The internment of Japanese Americans in the United States during World War II was the forced relocation and incarceration in concentration camps in the western interior of the country of about 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry, most of whom lived on the Pacific Coast. Sixty-two percent of the internees were United States citizens; these actions were ordered by President Franklin D. Roosevelt shortly after Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor. Of 127,000 Japanese Americans living in the continental United States at the time of the Pearl Harbor attack, 112,000 resided on the West Coast. About 80,000 were Sansei; the rest were Issei immigrants born in Japan who were ineligible for U. S. citizenship under U. S. law. Japanese Americans were incarcerated based on regional politics. More than 112,000 Japanese Americans living on the West Coast were forced into interior camps. However, in Hawaii, where 150,000-plus Japanese Americans composed over one-third of the population, only 1,200 to 1,800 were interned.
The internment is considered to have resulted more from racism than from any security risk posed by Japanese Americans. California defined anyone with more Japanese lineage as sufficient to be interned. Colonel Karl Bendetsen, the architect behind the program, went so far as saying anyone with "one drop of Japanese blood" qualified. Roosevelt authorized Executive Order 9066, issued on February 19, 1942, which allowed regional military commanders to designate "military areas" from which "any or all persons may be excluded." Although the executive order did not mention Japanese Americans, this authority was used to declare that all people of Japanese ancestry were required to leave Alaska and the military exclusion zones from all of California and parts of Oregon and Arizona, except for those in government camps. Internment was not limited to those of Japanese ancestry, but included a smaller number—though still totalling well over ten thousand—of people of German and Italian ancestry and Germans deported from Latin America to the U.
S. 5,000 Japanese Americans relocated outside the exclusion zone before March 1942, while some 5,500 community leaders had been arrested after the Pearl Harbor attack and thus were in custody. The United States Census Bureau assisted the internment efforts by spying and providing confidential neighborhood information on Japanese Americans; the Bureau denied its role for decades despite scholarly evidence to the contrary, its role became more acknowledged by 2007. In 1944, the U. S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the removal by ruling against Fred Korematsu's appeal for violating an exclusion order; the Court limited its decision to the validity of the exclusion orders, avoiding the issue of the incarceration of U. S. citizens without due process. In 1980, under mounting pressure from the Japanese American Citizens League and redress organizations, President Jimmy Carter opened an investigation to determine whether the decision to put Japanese Americans into concentration camps had been justified by the government.
He appointed the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians to investigate the camps. The Commission's report, titled Personal Justice Denied, found little evidence of Japanese disloyalty at the time and concluded that the incarceration had been the product of racism, it recommended. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed into law the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 which apologized for the internment on behalf of the U. S. government and authorized a payment of $20,000 to each camp survivor. The legislation admitted that government actions were based on "race prejudice, war hysteria, a failure of political leadership." The U. S. government disbursed more than $1.6 billion in reparations to 82,219 Japanese Americans, interned and their heirs. Due in large part to socio-political changes stemming from the Meiji Restoration—and a recession caused by the abrupt opening of Japan's economy to the world market—people began emigrating from the Empire of Japan in 1868 in order to find work to survive.
From 1869 to 1924 200,000 immigrated to the islands of Hawaii laborers expecting to work on the islands' sugar plantations. Some 180,000 went to the U. S. mainland, with the majority settling on the West Coast and establishing farms or small businesses. Most arrived before 1908, when the Gentlemen's Agreement between Japan and the United States banned the immigration of unskilled laborers. A loophole allowed the wives of men in the US to join their husbands; the practice of women marrying by proxy and immigrating to the U. S. resulted in a large increase in the number of "picture brides."As the Japanese-American population continued to grow, European Americans on the West Coast resisted the new group, fearing competition and exaggerating the idea of hordes of Asians keen to take over white-owned farmland and businesses. Groups such as the Asiatic Exclusion League, the California Joint Immigration Committee, the Native Sons of the Golden West organized in response to this "Yellow Peril." They lobbied to restrict the property and citizenship rights of Japanese immigrants, as similar groups had organized against Chinese immigrants.
Several laws and treaties attempting to slow immigration from Japan were introduced beginning in the late 19th century. The Immigration Act of 1924, following the example of the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act banned
Jafet Lindeberg was a gold prospector and co-founder of the city of Nome, Alaska. Jafet Isaksen Lindeberg was born in Troms county, in Norway. In his youth, he tried prospecting for gold in northern Norway. Lindeberg's father, was a farmer and fisherman, he had come to the region from the valley of Norrbotten, an ancient iron mining region in Norrbotten County, Sweden. In the autumn of 1897, the U. S. Congress decided to send help to the gold miners in Klondike; the gold rush had escalated. Thousands of people rallied to the area, most of them unfamiliar with the harsh climate; the authorities feared a humanitarian disaster, with famine and lawless conditions. It was difficult to send supplies, it was therefore decided that able keepers were to be shipped from Norway to Klondike. Reindeer were known as versatile animals, that could be used for food and transport. On February 4, 1898, Lindeberg left Alta with the ship SS Manitoba, he had been hired as a reindeer keeper. There were 113 people, 535 reindeer, 250 tons of reindeer lichen on the ship.
Upon arriving, he learned that the crisis was not as big as anticipated, he was freed from his contract. On the Seward Peninsula at the Bering Strait he met the Swedish immigrants Erik Lindblom and John Brynteson; the three formed Pioneer Mining Company. Lindeberg was elected president of the new venture; the three partners founded the city of Nome, where they made a big find of gold. The rumors about "The Three Lucky Swedes" spread quickly; the following year, Nome experienced. In 1899, Lindeberg joined in the development of Moonlight Springs, founded by James M. Davidson to supply water to the City of Nome. Late-comers tried to "jump" the claims of the Pioneer Mining Company by filing mining claims over the same ground. A federal judge ruled that the Pioneer Mining Company claims were valid, but some of the claim jumpers gave partial interests in their claims to Washington politicians, including Alexander McKenzie, who engineered the naming of their own federal judge in the District of Alaska, Arthur Noyes.
Noyes handed. William W. Morrow, United States District Judge for the Northern District of California on the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco, subsequently reversed Noyes' rulings, ordered the gold mines restored to their rightful owners. After Noyes left Nome in disgrace, Lindeberg joined a group of masked vigilantes to seize their properties back from the claim jumpers; the claim-jumping incident was the basis for Rex Beach's best-selling novel The Spoilers, made into a stage play and five times into movies. Japhet Lindeberg lived long enough to see the character based on himself played on the big screen by John Wayne, although Lindeberg modestly said that he didn't see much resemblance between himself and Wayne's character in The Spoilers. Lindeberg sold out his share in the Pioneer Mining Company to Wendell P. Hammon in the 1920s. During a subsequent visit to Norway, Lindeberg convinced his old friend Leonhard Seppala to come work for him in America. Seppala became a renowned musher, a hero of the 1925 serum run to Nome, the foremost breeder of Siberian Husky of his time.
Lindeberg was married to Josephine Elizabeth Metson, sister of William Henry Metson, attorney for Pioneer Mining. Lindeberg died in San Francisco, California in 1962. A statue of Jafet Lindeberg, together with Erik Lindblom and John Brynteson stands in Alaska. Jafet Lindeberg, Erik Lindblom and John Brynteson are all listed in the Alaskan Mining Hall of Fame Norwegian County Road 362 is named Jafet Lindebergs vei after Lindeberg Nome mining district Plazak, Dan A Hole in the Ground with a Liar at the Top Harrison, Edward Sanford Nome and Seward Peninsula Photographs of Jafet Lindeberg and Nome, Alaska Discoverers of the Nome Gold Fields in 1898: John Brynteson, Jafet Lindeberg, E. O. Lindblom Alaska Mining Hall of Fame - Jafet Lindeberg The Spoilers
A clearance diver was a specialist naval diver who used explosives underwater to remove obstructions to make harbours and shipping channels safe to navigate, but the term "clearance diver" was used to include other naval underwater work. Units of clearance divers were first formed during and after the Second World War to clear ports and harbours in the Mediterranean and Northern Europe of unexploded ordnance and shipwrecks and booby traps laid by the Germans. In some navies, including Britain's Royal Navy, work divers, which includes ship's divers, must have a line and a linesman when possible; the first units were Bomb Disposal Units. They were succeeded by the "Port Clearance Parties"; the first operations by P Parties included clearing away the debris of unexploded ammunition left during the Normandy Invasion. Six groups of Clearance Divers including Commonwealth and European allied forces were in operation by 1945. Naval work diver training is much longer and harder than sport diver training and has much stricter entry requirements.
For a long time navies used the heavy standard diving dress for underwater work. During and after World War II some of them started using frogman-type gear when frogman's kit became available, they started using open-circuit scuba gear for work diving. The Royal Australian Navy Clearance Diving Branch clearance divers serve as combat divers; the French Navy clearance divers are known as plongeurs démineurs. The French Army has clearance divers as well named plongeurs de combat du génie. To avoid redundancy, they only operate in freshwater environments. Although they are trained in demolition and explosives clearance, they survey banks and possible crossing areas, may make offensive interventions; the Royal New Zealand Navy Operational Diving Team are clearance divers and serve as combat divers. Canada: Canadian armed forces divers US: Underwater Demolition Team - US Navy, 1943–1967 Estonia: EOD Tuukrigrupp France: France's Clearance Divers are called the Plongeurs Démineurs. Germany: Minentaucher is Germany's Clearance Diver force.
Ireland: Naval Service Diving Section. Lithuania: EOD Diving unit Norway: Minedykkerkommandoen Norway's naval work divers and Clearance Diver force, "Norwegian Naval EOD commando". Portugal: the Sapper Divers Group, which serve as combat divers unit. Sweden: Swedish Navy EOD division British Royal Navy naval work divers are called Clearance Divers. During WWII they at first used the Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus and no diving suit, no swimfins and they swam by breaststroke. On 1942 December 17, 6 Italians on three manned torpedoes attacked. A British patrol boat killed one torpedo's crew with a depth charge, their bodies were recovered, their swimfins were taken and used by two of Gibraltar's British guard divers. This was the first known British frogman use of swimfins, rather than a Sladen suit and weighted boots riding a Chariot. In 1944 November in Livorno in Italy an Italian frogman called Vago came over and joined the British frogman team and brought them two Decima Flottiglia MAS issue oxygen rebreathers, which proved better in use than the Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus and lasted longer on a dive.
He brought them an Italian light 2-piece frogman's drysuit: before they dived with their skin exposed. For many years Clearance Divers used the Siebe Gorman CDBA rebreather. In 1982 Clearance Divers were involved in the Falklands War, in which Britain recaptured the Falkland Islands from Argentina, they received many awards and medals for their work on mines and disposing of 1000-pound bombs lodged in British warships. In the 1990s they used a type of automatic mixture rebreather, so heavy that on surfacing after a dive a physically fit naval diver preferred to remove the rebreather while still in the water and have it craned out separately. Other combinations of kit used in the past by British Clearance Divers were: Sladen suit and weighted boots and Siebe Gorman Salvus. Sladen suit and weighted boots and aqualung. According to a 1950s British naval diving manual, this was the only approved way to use the aqualung. Presently, the Royal Navy's elite Clearance diving branch is made up of a number of diving teams and clearance diving elements, that serve aboard mine hunters as part of the ships weapons system.
The core of the "branch", as it is referred to by its members is made up of the following land based diving units: Southern Diving Units 1 and 2 and Northern Diving group. These units provide 24/7 domestic mine disposal and IED disposal cover. SDU1 covers the South West of the UK. SDU2 covers the South East of the UK, Northern diving group covers the North, including Scotland and Northern Ireland; the units operate like their counterparts from the Army, with the added skill set of being able to deal with water based munitions. Fleet Diving Group, made up of Fleet Diving Units 1, 2 and 3; each unit requires new members to undergo further training depending on the specialisation of the unit they're joining. FDU1 provides an elite team of Clearance Divers. New members are trained in maritime counter terrorism tactics and SDV operations. FDU2 comes under 3 Commando Brigade, specialises in Very Shallow Water beach reconnaissance operations. New members to FDU2 receive further training in VSW operations tactics.
They are required to complete additional weapons training, Survival Eva
Dust to Ashes is the debut studio album by American metalcore band Bleeding Through. The album was planned to be released as a 7" on The Association of Welterweights Records, but moved to Prime Directive Records. After recording more songs than planned at Doubletime Studios in 2000 it was expanded to a full-length 12", but after only a few test press, it was decided to be released onto compact disc format; the album is still available through distributors such as Revelation Records. Tracks "Turns Cold to the Touch", "Just Another Pretty Face", "Ill Part 2" and "I Dream of July" were re-recorded on band's second album, Portrait of the Goddess along with track "Shadow Walker" on their third album, This is Love, This is Murderous. Brandan Schieppati - vocals Scott Danough - guitar Chad Tafolla - guitar Vijay Kumar - bass Molly Street - keyboards Troy Born - drums Bleeding Through website Bleeding Through biography on starpulse.com
The Men's Hammer Throw event at the 2009 World Championships in Athletics was held at the Olympic Stadium on August 15 and August 17. With reigning champion Ivan Tsikhan banned from competition for doping offences, the 2008 Olympic gold and silver medallists Primož Kozmus and Krisztián Pars were the favourites in the event. Pars entered the competition with a world-leading throw of an 18 competition win-streak. Belarusian Yuriy Shayunov and Russian Aleksey Zagornyi, the only other athletes to have thrown over eighty metres twice that season prior to the championships, were identified as possible podium finishers. Nicola Vizzoni, Igor Sokolov, Olli-Pekka Karjalainen, Szymon Ziółkowski, Koji Murofushi, Libor Charfreitag were all predicted to have an outside chance of a medal. On the first day of competition, Kozmus was the first to pass the automatic qualifying mark of 77.50 m. Pars had the best effort of the day with 78.68 m, while former world champion Ziółkowski led group A with a throw of 77.89 m.
Aspiring medallists Sokolov and Karjalainen all failed to progress to the final of the competition. On the final day of the hammer throw, the favourite Kozmus delivered a best of 80.15 m to take the gold medal, Slovenia's first in the World Championships. Ziółkowski's 79.30 m, the best of his season, was enough to take the silver – his first medal at a major championships since 2005. The level of the competition, failed to live up to expectations: the world-leader Pars started poorly and, after a number of fouls, he never regained ground and finished in fourth place. Furthermore, the performance of bronze medallist Zagornyi was the shortest-ever distance of a medal winner in championship history. All results shown are in metres Qualification: Qualifying Performance 77.50 or at least 12 best performers advance to the final. Key: NM = no mark, Q = qualification by place in heat, q = qualification by overall place Key: NM = no mark, SB = Seasonal best 2009 Hammer Throw Year Ranking GeneralHammer throw results.
IAAF. Retrieved on 2009-08-15. Hammerthrow.wzSpecific
NORD Ch. Topscore Contradiction known as King, is a standard sized Poodle, the winner of the title of Best In Show at the Crufts dog show in 2002, he was the first overseas dog and the first undocked dog from a breed, docked in the UK to win the title. Topscore Contradiction is owned by Mrs Glenna, of Porsgrunn, Norway. King was never docked. King won a number of shows in his native Norway, in Sweden prior to 2002. Topscore Contradiction was entered into Crufts in 2002, the year after British quarantine laws were relaxed and foreign dogs were allowed to enter the competition; some 21,000 dogs were entered in the competition that year, 343 of which were dogs brought from overseas to enter the competition. Handled by Michael Nilson, he competed in the Best in Show round against a Flat-Coated Retriever, a Giant Schnauzer, an Old English Sheepdog, a Saluki, a Wire Fox Terrier and a Pekingese, he was named Best in Show, with the Pekingese dog Ch. Yakee A Dangerous Liaison being named Reserve Best in Show.
The Pekingese would go on to win the event in the following year. He was the first foreign dog to win Crufts, Topscore Contradiction was entered and the undocked dog from a traditionally docked breed, having won the competition a year before it became illegal to dock a dog in the UK. One of his owners, "I don't believe it. I am excited and nervous, he is just a family pet, not a show dog. I never expected this." The Best in Show judge, Pamela Cross, called him a "poodley poodle", that "Constructionally he was well made. He epitomised his breed." His victory completed a winning year for the Poodle breed, with miniature Ch. Poodle Surrey Spice Girl winning Best in Show at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show in New York earlier in the year. Crufts Official Website