Great Falls, Montana
Great Falls is a city in and the county seat of Cascade County, United States. The 2017 census estimate put the population at 58,638; the population was 58,505 at the 2010 census. It is the principal city of the Great Falls, Montana Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Cascade County and has a population of 82,278. Great Falls was the largest city in Montana from 1950 to 1970. Great Falls remained the second largest city in Montana until 2000. Since Great Falls has been the third largest city in the state. Great Falls takes its name from the series of five waterfalls in close proximity along the upper Missouri River basin that the Lewis and Clark Expedition had to portage around over a ten-mile stretch; each falls sports a hydroelectric dam today, hence Great Falls is nicknamed "the Electric City". There are two undeveloped parts of their portage route; the city is home to the C. M. Russell Museum Complex, the University of Providence, Great Falls College Montana State University, Giant Springs, the Roe River, the Montana School for the Deaf and the Blind, the Great Falls Voyagers minor league baseball team, is adjacent to Malmstrom Air Force Base.
The local newspaper is the Great Falls Tribune. The first human beings to live in the Great Falls area were Paleo-Indians who migrated into the region between 9,500 BCE and 8,270 BCE; the earliest inhabitants of North America entered Montana east of the Continental Divide between the mountains and the Laurentide ice sheet. The area remained only sparsely inhabited, however. Salish Indians would hunt bison in the region on a seasonal basis, but no permanent settlements existed at or near Great Falls for much of prehistory. Around 1600, Piegan Blackfeet Indians, migrating west, entered the area, pushing the Salish back into the Rocky Mountains and claiming the site now known as Great Falls as their own; the Great Falls location remained the tribal territory of the Blackfeet until long after the United States claimed the region in 1803. Meriwether Lewis was the first white person to visit the area, which he did on June 13, 1805, as part of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. York, an African American slave owned by William Clark and who had participated in the Expedition, was the first black American to visit the site of the future city.
Following the return passage of Lewis and Clark in 1806, there is no record of any white person visiting the site of the city of Great Falls until explorer and trapper Jim Bridger reached the area in 1822. Bridger and Major Andrew Henry led a fur-trading expedition to the future city location in April 1823. British explorer Alexander Ross trapped around Great Falls in 1824. In 1838, a mapping expedition sent by the U. S. federal government and guided by Bridger spent four years in the area. Margaret Harkness Woodman became the first white woman to visit the Great Falls area in 1862; the Great Falls of the Missouri River marked the limit of the navigable section of the Missouri River for non-portagable watercraft, the non-navigability of the falls was noted by the U. S. Supreme Court in its 2012 ruling against the State of Montana on the question of streambed ownership beneath several dams situated at the site of the falls; the first steamboat arrived at future site of the city in 1859. Politically, the future site of Great Falls passed through numerous hands in the 19th century.
It was part of the unincorporated frontier until May 30, 1854, when Congress established the Nebraska Territory. Indian attacks on white explorers and settlers dropped after Isaac Stevens negotiated the Treaty of Hellgate in 1855, white settlement in the area began to occur. On March 2, 1861, the site became part of the Dakota Territory; the Great Falls area was incorporated into the Idaho Territory on March 4, 1863, into the Montana Territory on May 28, 1864. It became part of the state of Montana upon that territory's admission to statehood on November 8, 1889. Great Falls was founded in 1883. Businessman Paris Gibson visited the Great Falls of the Missouri River in 1880, was impressed by the possibilities for building a major industrial city near the falls with power provided by hydroelectricity, he returned in 1883 with friend Robert Vaughn and some surveyors and platted a permanent settlement the south side of the river. The city's first citizen, Silas Beachley, arrived that year. With investments from railroad owner James J. Hill and Helena businessman Charles Arthur Broadwater, houses, a store, a flour mill were established in 1884.
The Great Falls post office was established on July 10, 1884, Paris Gibson was named the first postmaster. A planing mill, lumber yard, bank and newspaper were established in 1885. By 1887 the town had 1,200 citizens, in October of that year the Great Northern Railway arrived in the city. Great Falls was incorporated on November 28, 1888. Great Falls became a thriving industrial and supply center. In 1894, naturalist Vernon Bailey passed through and described Great Falls as "a good town, appears prosperous and booming & I should judge contains 15000 inhabitants." By the early 1900s, Great Falls was en route to becoming one of Montana's largest cities. The rustic studio of famed Western artist Charles Marion Russell was a popular attraction, as were the famed "Great Falls of the Missouri", after which the city was named. James Jerome Hill, primary stockhold
Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States; the system is named for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Construction was authorized by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, the original portion was completed 35 years although some urban routes were cancelled and never built; the network has since been extended. In 2016, it had a total length of 48,181 miles; as of 2016, about one-quarter of all vehicle miles driven in the country use the Interstate system. In 2006, the cost of construction was estimated at about $425 billion; the United States government's efforts to construct a national network of highways began on an ad hoc basis with the passage of the Federal Aid Road Act of 1916, which provided for $75 million over a five-year period for matching funds to the states for the construction and improvement of highways.
The nation's revenue needs associated with World War I prevented any significant implementation of this policy, which expired in 1921. In December 1918, E. J. Mehren, a civil engineer and the editor of Engineering News-Record, presented his "A Suggested National Highway Policy and Plan" during a gathering of the State Highway Officials and Highway Industries Association at the Congress Hotel in Chicago. In the plan, Mehren proposed a 50,000-mile system, consisting of five east–west routes and 10 north–south routes; the system would include two percent of all roads and would pass through every state at a cost of $25,000 per mile, providing commercial as well as military transport benefits. As the landmark 1916 law expired, new legislation was passed—the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921; this new road construction initiative once again provided for federal matching funds for road construction and improvement, $75 million allocated annually. Moreover, this new legislation for the first time sought to target these funds to the construction of a national road grid of interconnected "primary highways", setting up cooperation among the various state highway planning boards.
The Bureau of Public Roads asked the Army to provide a list of roads that it considered necessary for national defense. In 1922, General John J. Pershing, former head of the American Expeditionary Force in Europe during the war, complied by submitting a detailed network of 20,000 miles of interconnected primary highways—the so-called Pershing Map. A boom in road construction followed throughout the decade of the 1920s, with such projects as the New York parkway system constructed as part of a new national highway system; as automobile traffic increased, planners saw a need for such an interconnected national system to supplement the existing non-freeway, United States Numbered Highways system. By the late 1930s, planning had expanded to a system of new superhighways. In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave Thomas MacDonald, chief at the Bureau of Public Roads, a hand-drawn map of the United States marked with eight superhighway corridors for study. In 1939, Bureau of Public Roads Division of Information chief Herbert S. Fairbank wrote a report called Toll Roads and Free Roads, "the first formal description of what became the interstate highway system" and, in 1944, the themed Interregional Highways.
The Interstate Highway System gained a champion in President Dwight D. Eisenhower, influenced by his experiences as a young Army officer crossing the country in the 1919 Army Convoy on the Lincoln Highway, the first road across America. Eisenhower gained an appreciation of the Reichsautobahn system, the first "national" implementation of modern Germany's Autobahn network, as a necessary component of a national defense system while he was serving as Supreme Commander Of Allied Forces in Europe during World War II, he recognized that the proposed system would provide key ground transport routes for military supplies and troop deployments in case of an emergency or foreign invasion. The publication in 1955 of the General Location of National System of Interstate Highways, informally known as the Yellow Book, mapped out what became the Interstate Highway System. Assisting in the planning was Charles Erwin Wilson, still head of General Motors when President Eisenhower selected him as Secretary of Defense in January 1953.
The Interstate Highway System was authorized on June 29, 1956 by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956. Three states have claimed the title of first Interstate Highway. Missouri claims that the first three contracts under the new program were signed in Missouri on August 2, 1956; the first contract signed was for upgrading a section of US Route 66 to what is now designated Interstate 44. On August 13, 1956, Missouri awarded the first contract based on new Interstate Highway funding. Kansas claims. Preliminary construction had taken place before the act was signed, paving started September 26, 1956; the state marked its portion of I-70 as the first project in the United States completed under the provisions of the new Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. The Pennsylvania Turnpike could be considered one of the first Interstate Highways. On October 1, 1940, 162 miles of the highway now designated I‑70 and I‑76 opened between Irwin and Carlisle.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania refers to the turnpike as the Granddaddy of the Pikes. Milestones in the construction of the Interstate Highway System include: October 17, 1974: Nebraska becomes
U.S. Route 95
U. S. Route 95 is a north–south U. S. highway in the western United States. Unlike many other US highways, it has not seen deletion or replacement on most of its length by an encroaching Interstate highway corridor, due to its rural course; because of this, it still travels from border to border and is a primary north–south highway in both Nevada and Idaho. This is one of the only US Interstate highways to cross from Mexico to Canada; as of 2010, the highway's southern terminus is in San Luis, Arizona, on the Mexico–US border, where Calle 1, a short spur leads to Mexican Federal Highway 2 in San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora. Its northern terminus is in Boundary County, Idaho, at the Canada–US border in Eastport, where it continues north as British Columbia Highway 95. US 95 begins in the United States at the border with Mexico at Mexico's Federal Route 2, it follows the Colorado River northward to San Luis and on to Yuma, where it goes through town and crosses I-8. As it leaves Yuma, US 95 is an undivided two-lane highway which passes through the U.
S. Army's Yuma Proving Ground, it travels northward between the proving ground to the west and the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge to the east until Quartzsite. Here it merges with I-10 and runs concurrent, heading westward for 17 miles until the Colorado River, where it enters California, just shy of Blythe. In all, US 95 spends 123.16 miles in Arizona. U. S. 95 enters California at Blythe through a concurrency with Interstate 10. It travels parallel to the west bank of the Colorado River until it joins Interstate 40 in Needles; the route travels north from Goffs to the Nevada line. The total distance in California is about 130 miles, it is the only U. S. highway to enter California but not terminate there. US 95 in Nevada is a divided highway between Cal-Nev-Ari and Boulder City, it joins US 93 near Railroad Pass. Upon entering the Las Vegas Valley, it becomes a multi-lane divided freeway and is concurrent with I-515 between Henderson and Downtown Las Vegas, it crosses I-15 at the Spaghetti Bowl, where US 93 continues on I-15.
The highway continues as a freeway for several miles until again becoming a divided highway outside the Las Vegas urban area. Shortly after entering Nye County, US 95 becomes an undivided two-lane highway, as it meanders northwestward through the state paralleling the California border. Along this route it runs through the Amargosa Valley serving Beatty before heading north into Goldfield and Tonopah; the highway is concurrent with US 6 for several miles north of Tonopah before it heads north towards Hawthorne and Fallon. North of Fallon it meets and runs concurrently with I-80 for 93 miles, from Exit 83 west of Lovelock to Exit 176 at Winnemucca, it heads north to the border with Oregon at McDermitt, a distance of 73 miles. In Oregon, US 95 is an undivided two-lane highway in the sparsely populated high desert in the southeastern corner of the state, running in rural Malheur County. From the Nevada state line at McDermitt, the highway heads north and climbs to its crest at Blue Mountain Pass, at an elevation of 5293 feet above sea level.
US 95 descends to Basque Station and Burns Junction at 3960 feet eastward down to Rome and up to Jordan Valley. The highway heads north-northeastward to the Idaho state line, entering southwest of Marsing in Owyhee County; the speed limit on US 95 in Oregon was 55 miles per hour until March 2016, when it was raised to 70 miles per hour in order to match the limits set by Nevada and Idaho. US 95 is designated the I. O. N. Highway No. 456, with the I. O. N. for Idaho-Oregon-Nevada. This section of highway is a primary commercial route between Boise and northern California, connecting to Interstate 80 at Winnemucca, Nevada. US 95 crosses into the Mountain Time Zone 35 miles north of Nevada. US 95 is an undivided two-lane highway during most of its length in Idaho, over 538 miles. US 95 enters Idaho from Oregon in Owyhee County, about 50 miles southwest of Boise, it passes through Homedale and crosses the Snake River before a junction with concurrent US 20 and US 26, which run together for eight miles. As it proceeds north, US 95 crosses US 30 before going through the Payette National Forest.
After Riggins, the highway re-enters the Pacific Time Zone as it crosses the Salmon River. US 95 follows the descending river climbs over White Bird Hill to the Camas Prairie descends the Lapwai Canyon to the Clearwater River. In August 2015, milepost 420 was replaced with one reading 419.9, to prevent the sign being stolen by marijuana enthusiasts. US 95 becomes a four-lane divided highway after crossing the river east of Lewiston; the highways split as US 12 continues west to Lewiston, US 95 turns northwest and climbs a steep grade up to the rolling Palouse. At a junction with US 195, US 95 proceeds north to Moscow as a completed divided highway, it becomes an undivided highway in Moscow and continues north to Coeur d'Alene, crossing I-90. US 95 goes north to Sandpoint, where it joins with US 2, after which the highways run concurrent until after Bonners Ferry, where US 2 heads east to Montana and US 95 continues north to Canada, meeting BC 95 at the border. U. S. Route 95 was one of the original U.
S. highways proposed in the 1925 Bureau of Public Roads numbering plan. Under the original proposal, the highway would only exist in Idaho, from Payette to the Canada–US border north of Eastport; when the plan w
Interstate 10 is the southernmost cross-country Interstate Highway in the American Interstate Highway System. It stretches from the Pacific Ocean at California State Route 1 in Santa Monica, California, to I-95 in Jacksonville, Florida. Major cities connected by I-10 include Los Angeles, Tucson, El Paso, San Antonio, Baton Rouge, New Orleans, Mobile and Jacksonville; this freeway is part of the planned Interstate Highway network, laid out in 1956, its last section was completed in 1990. I-10 is the fourth-longest Interstate Highway in the United States, following I-90, I-80, I-40. About one-third of its length is within the state of Texas, where the freeway spans the state at its widest breadth. Between its west terminus in Santa Monica and the major East Los Angeles Interchange, I-10 is known as the Santa Monica Freeway; the Santa Monica Freeway is called the Rosa Parks Freeway for the segment beginning at I-405, ending at I-110/SR 110. The segment between the East Los Angeles Interchange and the city of San Bernardino, 63 miles long, is called the San Bernardino Freeway.
Other names exist for I-10. For example, a sign near the western terminus of the highway in Santa Monica proclaims this highway the Christopher Columbus Transcontinental Highway. I-10 is known to a lesser degree as the Veterans Memorial Highway, it is listed as a Blue Star Memorial Highway. In Palm Springs, I-10 is named the Sonny Bono Memorial Freeway as a tribute to the late entertainer who served both as the mayor and as a U. S. Congressman. Another stretch a short distance east in Indio is proclaimed the Doctor June McCarroll Memorial Freeway. In Arizona, the highway is designated the Pearl Harbor Memorial Highway; the portion through Phoenix is named the Papago Freeway, it is a vital piece of the metropolitan Phoenix freeway system. This designation starts at Loop 101, near 99th Avenue, it continues eastward to the interchange southeast of downtown, the terminus of I-17. Near Buckeye, the freeway has mile markers posted every 0.2 miles from 112.2 to 110.8 with the interstate shield and direction of travel posted on the westbound lanes.
On the eastbound lanes, mile markers from 110.8 to 112.2 do not include the I‑10 shield and direction of travel. From the southern terminus of I-17 to the southernmost junction with Loop 202, the highway is signed as the Maricopa Freeway; this name holds true as well for I-17 from its southern terminus to the Durango Curve south of Buckeye Road. From Loop 202 south to the eastern terminus of I-8 just southeast of Casa Grande, the highway is declared the Pearl Harbor Memorial Highway; the Arizona Department of Transportation has maps that show it as the Maricopa Freeway, while the American Automobile Association and other sources show it as the Pima Freeway. The latter's name is used on a stretch of Loop 101 from Loop 202 to I-17. Between I-17 in Phoenix and the I-19 interchanges in Tucson, I-10 is included in the federally designated CANAMEX Corridor, extending from Mexico City to Edmonton, Alberta. In Tucson, between I-10 mileposts 259 and 260 are interchange ramps connecting I-10 with the northern terminus of I-19.
The highest elevation along I-10 occurs just east of Tucson, 20 miles west of Willcox, at the mile marker 320 exit for the Amerind Foundation and Museum. The westbound lanes of I-10 cross above 5,000 feet above sea level. In New Mexico, I-10 more or less follows the former path of U. S. Route 80 across the state, although major portions of old US 80 were bypassed in Western New Mexico's Bootheel and in Doña Ana County. I-10 passes through three Southern New Mexico municipalities of regional significance before the junction with I-25: Lordsburg and Las Cruces. Most of I-10 in New Mexico, between Exit 24 and Exit 135, is concurrent with US 70. At Lordsburg is the western junction of US 70 and a concurrency. Several exits between Lordsburg and Deming lack any town at all. At Deming is the western junction of US 180, which forms a concurrency with I-10 all the way to El Paso. One mile north of Deming on US 180 is New Mexico State Road 26 which serves as a short cut to north I-25 and Albuquerque. I-10/US 70/US 180 continue east to Las Cruces, the southern end of I-25.
US 70 leaves I-10, passing through the north side of Las Cruces. The junction with I-25 occurs just south of the New Mexico State University campus, on the southern end of Las Cruces. I-10/US 180 becomes concurrent with US 85 at the junction with I-25. I-10/US 85/US 180 turns south to the Texas state line, crossing it at Anthony. From the state line with New Mexico to State Highway 20 in west El Paso, I-10 is bordered by frontage roads South Desert for lanes along I-10 East and North Desert for lanes along I-10 West; the interstate has no frontage roads for nine miles but regains them east of downtown and retains them to Clint. In this stretch, the frontage roads are Gateway East for the eastbound lanes and Gateway West for the westbound lanes. All four frontage roads are one-way streets. Gateway East and Gateway West are notable, in particular, for TxDOT's liberal usage of the Texas U-turn at most underpasses of I-10 on this stretch. I-10 is the western terminus for Interstate 20, the two highways intersect at Scroggins Draw, about 41 miles Southwest of Pecos, at mile marker 186.
A small portion of I-10 from Loop 1604 to Downtown San Antonio is known as
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
U.S. Route 93
U. S. Route 93 is a major north–south United States highway in the western United States; the southern terminus is at US 60 in Arizona. The northern terminus is at the Canada–US border north of Eureka in Lincoln County, where the roadway continues into Roosville, British Columbia, as Highway 93. Major cities that US 93 travels through include: Las Vegas, Nevada. US 93 begins at US 60 in a small town about 50 miles northwest of Phoenix. 30 miles northwest of Wickenburg, it passes through a large forest of Joshua trees, is thus labeled the Joshua Forest Parkway of Arizona until it reaches Wikieup. From there it heads north merging with I-40 to head west to Kingman. US 93 splits from I-40 in Kingman and heads north to the Hoover Dam. Chloride is located off this highway, Santa's Land remains are on the west side about 15 miles before the Chloride Road intersection; this highway was known to be one of the deadliest highways in America until recently. The years of improvement have made it a much safer road to travel, according to the Federal Highway Administration.
US 93 enters Nevada on the Hoover Dam Bypass winds its way west-southwest through Boulder City before it merges with U. S. Route 95 and curves northwest towards Las Vegas; these combined routes join and run concurrent with the Interstate 11 and Interstate 515 freeway through Henderson and southeastern Las Vegas, before US 93 exits at the Las Vegas Spaghetti Bowl interchange just northwest of downtown, heading northbound concurrently with Interstate 15. Those two routes run in a northeasterly direction through the city of North Las Vegas until they exit the metro area, where US 93 diverges from I-15 to head north towards Great Basin National Park. Near there, the highway joins with the combined U. S. Route 6 and U. S. Route 50 to run northwest towards Ely. At that city, US 6 first departs to the west shortly thereafter US 93 leaves US 50 to continue north. Upon reaching Lages Station, Alternate US 93 splits off in a northeasterly direction toward West Wendover; the main route of US 93 continues north from there, intersecting Interstate 80 at Wells before crossing the Idaho state line near Jackpot.
Between State Route 318 and Majors Junction, US 93 is designated a Nevada Scenic Byway. From Ely to Schellbourne Ranch, US 93 is part of the Lincoln Highway, the first road across the United States. Shortly after entering Idaho at Jackpot, Nevada, US 93 passes US 30. North of here, the highway crosses the Snake River Canyon via the Perrine Bridge en route to an interchange with Interstate 84. US 93 runs concurrently with both US 26 and US 20 before reaching Arco; the highway turns northwest to enter the Big Lost River valley through Mackay. Just south of Challis, US 93 becomes the northern leg of the Salmon River Scenic Byway as it heads towards the town of Salmon. From there, the highway follows portions of the Lewis and Clark Trail and passes through the Salmon-Challis National Forest before entering Montana. US 93 enters Montana from Idaho at Lost Trail Pass and travels north descending through the Bitterroot National Forest; the highway continues along the Lewis and Clark Trail into the Bitterroot Valley toward Missoula, passing through Darby and Hamilton.
At Lolo, US 12 joins from the west and they run concurrenly northeast for 7.537 miles, where US 93 heads due north on Reserve Street in Missoula. US 93 joins I-90 and runs concurrently westward for 5.352 miles to Wye, where it heads north. From Wye, US 93 continues north through the Flathead Indian Reservation, where its signage includes the historic Salish and Kutenai names for towns and streams. Portions of this section run along the National Bison Range. North of the reservation, US 93 traverses the western shore of Flathead Lake, the largest freshwater lake west of the Mississippi River. North of the lake the highway runs through the cities of Kalispell and Whitefish, traveling through the Flathead National Forest and the Stillwater State Forest before reaching its terminus at the Canada–US border near Eureka; the portion north of Hamilton travels through one of the most densely populated areas in Montana. This section serves as a popular north–south connection between Yellowstone National Park and Glacier National Park.
As a result, the road tends to become more congested between Whitefish. A popular bumper sticker in Montana reads, "Pray for me, I drive Hwy 93!"Total US 93 mileage in Montana as of 2013 is 287.919 miles: 90.763 miles from the Idaho line to Reserve Street in Missoula via corridor N-7, 5.369 miles via corridor N-92, 5.384 miles concurrent with I-90 and MT 200, 186.403 miles from Wye to the Canadian border via corridor N-5. British Columbia Highway 93 continues the numbering from the US version, with the highway continuing north and into Alberta as Alberta Highway 93 terminating just outside the town of Jasper, Alberta. U. S. Route 93 was not one of the original U. S. highways proposed in the 1925 Bureau of Public Roads plan. However, the revised numbering plan approved by the American Association of State Highway Officials on November 11, 1926, established US 93 from the Canada–US border near Eureka, south through Montana and Idaho to a southern terminus at Wells, Nevada. US 93's original northern terminus was a few miles west of its current terminus, along the Kootenai River at the
Orange County, California
Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,010,232, making it the third-most populous county in California, the sixth-most populous in the United States, more populous than 21 U. S. states. Its county seat is Santa Ana, it is the second most densely populated county behind San Francisco County. The county's four largest cities by population, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach, each have a population exceeding 200,000. Several of Orange County's cities are on the Pacific Ocean western coast, including Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Dana Point, San Clemente. Orange County is included in Metropolitan Statistical Area. Thirty-four incorporated towns and cities are in the county. Anaheim was the first city, incorporated in 1870 when the region was still part of neighboring Los Angeles County. Whereas most population centers in the United States tend to be identified by a major city with a large downtown central business district, Orange County has no single major downtown / CBD or dominant urban center.
Santa Ana, Costa Mesa, Irvine all have smaller high-rise CBDs, other, older cities like Anaheim, Huntington Beach, Orange have traditional American downtowns without high-rises. The county's northern and central portions are urbanized and dense, despite the prevalence of the single-family home as a dominant land use, its southern portion is more suburban, with limited urbanization. There are several "edge city"-style developments, such as Irvine Business Center, Newport Center, South Coast Metro. Orange County is part of the "Tech Coast"; the county is a tourist center, with attractions like Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, several popular beaches along its more than 40 miles of coastline. Throughout the 20th century and up until 2016, it was known for its political conservatism and for being a bastion for the Republican Party, with a 2005 academic study listing three Orange County cities as among America's 25 most conservative. However, the county's changing demographics have resulted in a shift in political alignments.
In 2016, Hillary Clinton became the first Democrat since 1936 to carry Orange County in a presidential election and in the 2018 midterm elections the Democratic Party gained control of every Congressional seat in the county. Members of the Tongva, Juaneño, Luiseño Native American groups long inhabited the area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish expedition led by Junipero Serra named the area Valle de Santa Ana. On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the area's first permanent European settlement. Among those who came with Portolá were José Manuel Nieto and José Antonio Yorba. Both these men were given land grants—Rancho Los Nietos and Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, respectively; the Nieto heirs were granted land in 1834. The Nieto ranches were known as Rancho Los Alamitos, Rancho Las Bolsas, Rancho Los Coyotes. Yorba heirs Bernardo Yorba and Teodosio Yorba were granted Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana and Rancho Lomas de Santiago, respectively. Other ranchos in Orange County were granted by the Mexican government during the Mexican period in Alta California.
A severe drought in the 1860s devastated the prevailing industry, cattle ranching, much land came into the possession of Richard O'Neill, Sr. James Irvine and other land barons. In 1887, silver was discovered in the Santa Ana Mountains, attracting settlers via the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific Railroads. After several failed attempts in previous sessions, the California legislature passed a bill authorizing the portion of Los Angeles County south of Coyote Creek to hold a referendum on whether to remain part of Los Angeles County or to secede and form a new county to be named “Orange” as directed by the legislature; such referendum required a 2/3 vote for secession to take place, subsequently on June 4th, 1889, the residents south of Coyote Creek voted 2,509 to 500 in favor of secession. After such referendum, Los Angeles County filed three lawsuits in the courts to stall and stop the secession from occurring, but such attempts were futile. On July 17, 1889, a second referendum was held south of the Coyote Creek to determine if the county seat of the to-be county to be in either Anaheim or Santa Ana, along with an election for every county officer.
In the end, Santa Ana defeated Anaheim in such referendum and elected right leaning officers, with some, including one of the primary lobbyists for the creation of the county, Henry W. Head, elected to the Board of Supervisors while being a member of the Ku Klux Klan, with Head’s son, Horace Head, elected as District Attorney of the soon to be county, known to, as stated by the OC Weekly, threaten “...any Mexicans who walked in front of their homes with shotguns when not burning crosses on front lawns,” along with Horace Head supporting and defending his fathers affiliation with the Ku Klux Klan. With the referendum taken place, the County of Orange was incorporated on August 1st, 1889, as prescribed by state law. Since the date of the incorporation of the county, the only geographical changes to have occurred which affected Orange County was when the County and Los Angeles County agreed to trade land around Coyote Creek to adjust the border of the two counties to conform with city blocks.
The county is said to have been named for the