U.S. Route 72
U. S. Route 72 is an east–west United States highway that travels for 337 miles from southwestern Tennessee, North Mississippi, North Alabama, southeastern Tennessee; the highway's western terminus is in Memphis and its eastern terminus is in Chattanooga. It is the only U. S. Highway to begin and end in the same state, yet pass through other states in between. Prior to the U. S. Highway system signage being posted in 1926, the entire route was part of the Lee Highway; the highway passes through Tennessee and Mississippi. Most of the original eastern and western portions of the route through follows the path of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, a railroad that predated the American Civil War and now operated by Norfolk Southern Railway as their Memphis-Chattanooga, Tennessee mainline. US 72 ALT follows the Charleston route through North Alabama. US 72 begins at Bellevue Boulevard in Memphis. From Memphis, the route follows Union Poplar Avenue into Collierville. Just south of Collierville, US 72 junctions State Route 385, a freeway which links Collierville with I-240.
The route enters Mississippi 3 miles southeast of SR 385. This segment of the highway is concurrently designated Tennessee State Route 86. US 72 enters Mississippi in western Marshall County; the route follows rolling hills across the extreme northern part of the state, passing through Walnut and Corinth as it heads east. Near Burnsville, US 72 crosses the Divide Cut of the Tennessee–Tombigbee Waterway. Farther east, the route enters the Tennessee Valley and heads through Iuka before crossing into Alabama. Most of US 72 in Mississippi has been upgraded to four-lane highway; the Mississippi section of US 72 is defined in Mississippi Code § 65-3-3. US-72 enters Alabama just west of Cherokee; the route parallels the Tennessee River east to Muscle Shoals, where US-72 Alternate splits from US-72. The mainline turns north, passing through Muscle Shoals and crossing the Tennessee River, entering Florence on the opposite bank. From Florence to Huntsville, the route heads through areas dominated by farmland.
Between the two locales, however, US-72 enters Athens. After passing through Athens and an overpass with Interstate 65, US-72 approaches Huntsville from the west. Part of this section has the local name University Drive. At an interchange with Memorial Parkway, the route turns northward joining the routes of US-231 and US-431, until it breaks off from the Parkway and heads eastward again. Northeast of downtown Huntsville, US-72 interchanges with I-565. I-565/US-72 Alternate, part of Corridor V of the Appalachian Development Highway System, terminates at the interchange while US-72 takes over the freeway alignment, joining Corridor V. I-565 is mentioned as the eastbound route and AL-20 is mentioned as the westbound route. Signs for I-565 east at this interchange were changed to remove any mention of AL-20 east. Most of the US-72 portion of Corridor V is a four-lane divided expressway with at-grade intersections. Past Huntsville, US-72 follows several mountain valleys to Scottsboro. From Scottsboro, the route follows a northeasterly routing similar to that of the Tennessee River as it enters Tennessee for the second time.
All of US-72 within Alabama is four lanes in width. Additionally, much of US-72 has been upgraded through northeast Alabama, with interchanges at the major state highways. Just west of Moores Mill Road in Huntsville, US-72 becomes limited access over Chapman Mountain. Throughout Alabama, US-72 is paired with unsigned AL-2; the stretch of U. S. 72 paralleling I-59 to the far northwest in between Scottsboro and South Pittsburg contains multiple freeway-style Interchanges. US 72 enters Tennessee for the second time just south of South Pittsburg. At South Pittsburg, Corridor V ends at an interchange with Interstate 24. US 64, concurrent with I-24 west of the exit, departs the expressway and forms an overlap with US 72 through Kimball to Jasper, where US 41 joins the concurrency. Just east of Jasper, the highways cross the Tennessee River on Nickajack Lake; the route follows a cut in the Cumberland Plateau made by the Tennessee River to the western outskirts of Chattanooga, where it interchanges with I-24 once more.
Just east of the interchange, US 11 joins the overlap. Together, US 11, US 41, US 64, US 72 follow the bluffs on Lookout Mountain above the Tennessee River to Chattanooga, where the routes follow Broad Street north into downtown. At the corner of Main Street and Broad Street, US 72 comes to an end. US 72 went through downtown South Pittsburg on Cedar Avenue. US 72 followed US 45 to Selmer and followed a route west to Memphis. In 1931, US 64 replaced US 72 between Selmer. In 1935, US 72 was routed to Memphis through Mississippi from Corinth removing the extension on US 45 to Selmer; as late as the early 1970s, US 72 followed State Route 57 from Collierville to its western terminus at East Parkway N.. During the mid-1980s until the early 2000s, U. S. 72's westbound route in midtown Memphis was changed to switch from Poplar Avenue to a westbound off-ramp connection with Union Avenue, instead of following Poplar west to East Parkway North. Some signs still remain from this route change. In Tishomingo County, US 72 originally
Hernando is a city in and the county seat of DeSoto County, on the northwest border of Mississippi, United States. The population was 14,090 at the 2010 census, up from 6,812 in 2000. DeSoto County is the second-most-populous county in the Memphis metropolitan area. U. S. Route 51 and the I-55 freeway traverse the city from north to south, the I-69 freeway crosses the city from east to west. Hernando's historic downtown square, which surrounds the county courthouse, is located at the intersection of Commerce Street and what is now U. S. 51. At the time of encounters by French and Spanish colonists, the Chickasaw people had long inhabited this area. France had developed colonial settlements along the Gulf Coast, as well as to the north in what was called the Illinois Country. An 18th-century French colonial log house in Hernando is a reminder of their settlements higher along the Mississippi area as well; the French and French Canadians had a wide trading network with various American Indian tribes along this river, for instance in Natchez.
Following the Indian Removal Act of 1830 and under pressure from the United States, the Chickasaw signed a treaty to cede most of their lands in this area. Most of the tribe were removed to west of the Mississippi River in Indian Territory; this town was called Jefferson when it was settled by European Americans. It was renamed as Hernando after the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto, he was the first European to discover the Mississippi River. Like other floodplain areas along the Mississippi, the area of the county was developed by European Americans during the antebellum years for cotton plantations, dependent on the enslaved labor of African Americans. During the early 20th century, many blues musicians came from Hernando. African Americans had developed a strong musical tradition in areas along the Mississippi River, where many had grown up in families working as sharecroppers on cotton plantations. During the Great Migration of the first half of the 20th century, many blues musicians migrated north, taking their music to Chicago and helping create the culture of that city.
Hernando is in the center of DeSoto County, bordered to the north by the city of Southaven. Via Interstate 55 or US 51, it is 25 miles north to the center of Memphis and south 15 miles to Senatobia. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Hernando has a total area of 25.8 square miles, of which 25.7 square miles is land, 0.1 square miles, or 0.39%, is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Hernando has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 6,812 people, 2,482 households, 1,809 families residing in the city. The population density was 603.0 people per square mile. There were 2,720 housing units at an average density of 240.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 76.35% White, 21.48% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.78% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.04% of the population.
There were 2,482 households out of which 35.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 13.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.1% were non-families. 22.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.05. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $43,217, the median income for a family was $51,155. Males had a median income of $39,706 versus $25,685 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,731. About 6.5% of families and 9.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 16.3% of those age 65 or over.
Hernando is served by the DeSoto County School District. DeSoto Times-Tribune Garfield Akers, blues musician George "Mojo" Buford, blues musician Louis Bullard, professional football player Seattle Seahawks Paul Burlison and member of The Rock and Roll Trio Melissa Cookston, chef and 7-time World Barbecue Champion Kevin Dockery, professional football player, New York Giants Nathan Bedford Forrest, Confederate general in Civil War Marshall Grant, former bass player for Johnny Cash Jim Jackson, blues musician Jerry Lee Lewis, musician.
Sam Cooper Boulevard
Sam Cooper Boulevard is an urban freeway in Memphis, Tennessee, U. S. A.. The more recent western segment of the road follows a parkway design, the older eastern portion, proposed and constructed as a segment of Interstate 40 is built as an expressway, without at-grade intersections and traffic lights; the western terminus of Sam Cooper Boulevard is at East Parkway North. At the western termination point of the road there is a short concurrency of East Parkway North with U. S. Route 64, U. S. Route 70, U. S. Route 79. From its western end, Sam Cooper Boulevard continues east for 5.8 miles to reach its eastern terminus at the Interstate 40/Interstate 240 interchange. The road was planned in the 1950s, it was proposed as a segment of I-40 that would intersect the center of Memphis and continue west to Arkansas. The proposed route would have cut through an old forest public park in Memphis. Following a United States Supreme Court decision in 1971 the route was revised, I-40 was routed around Memphis in the north and plans of routing an Interstate highway through the city were abandoned.
Ownership of the completed segments of the highway was transferred to the City of Memphis. As a road, owned and maintained by the City of Memphis, no route number is assigned to Sam Cooper Boulevard. In the 1950s, Interstate 240 was planned as a complete loop around Memphis, consisting of a southern leg and a northern leg. Interstate 40 was proposed to be routed through the center of the City of Memphis and to continue west into Arkansas over the Hernando de Soto Bridge, opened in 1973 and carries the traffic on modern I-40 over the Mississippi River; the I-240 loop was planned to route traffic not destined for Memphis around the city and to improve the flow of increasing traffic. The proposed I-240 loop would connect westbound and eastbound traffic to I-40 and southbound and northbound traffic to Interstate 55. What is now known as Sam Cooper Boulevard was planned as an extension of I-40, intersecting Memphis and distributing eastbound and westbound traffic with a destination in Memphis within the city.
After a U. S. Supreme Court ruling stopped the plans to complete the section of I-40 cutting through Memphis in 1971, I-40 was re-routed; the routing of modern I-40 coincides with the proposed routing of the northern leg of I-240. Instead of the proposed I-240 loop around Memphis, the modern routing designates I-240 as the southern leg of the loop and I-40 as the northern leg of the loop. From the west to the east, the proposed routing of Sam Cooper Boulevard coincides with the route of modern I-40 from the Hernando de Soto Bridge in downtown Memphis to the modern I-40/I-240 interchange west of North Bellevue Boulevard in midtown Memphis. East of the I-40/I-240 interchange, the proposed route of Sam Cooper Boulevard would have been routed due east for circa 1.2 miles, parallel to and south of Overton Park Avenue and north of Peach Avenue until it reached Evergreen Street. From there, it would have continued northeast for about 0.5 miles to reach the intersection of Galloway Avenue and North McLean Boulevard.
From there, the route would have continued to the east, parallel to and about.2 miles south of North Parkway, just south of the Memphis Zoo and cutting through the northern portion of Overton Park, to connect to the western terminus of modern Sam Cooper Boulevard at East Parkway North. At the western terminus of Sam Cooper Boulevard there is a concurrency of East Parkway North with U. S. Route 70, U. S. Route 79 for 1.2 miles south of Summer Avenue and north of Union Avenue. East Parkway North concurs with Tennessee State Route 277. In 1968, the road was named after Sam Cooper, a Memphis businessman and longtime president of the Humko Corporation, a refinery of vegetable oils, he was the vice president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Memphis. Cooper used his wealth to support St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and the University of Tennessee Medical School. In 1971, the United States Supreme Court in the case of Citizens to Preserve Overton Park v. Volpe stopped an extension of I-40 through Overton Park.
Sam Cooper Boulevard was planned as an extension of I-40 to intersect the City of Memphis. The proposed route was completed as proposed east of North Highland Street and west of I-240 in Berclair, in the northeastern quadrant of Memphis; the portion of Sam Cooper Boulevard west of North Highland Street was never built as planned. The unbuilt portion west of East Parkway North was not completed because it was proposed to go through Overton Park, the Memphis Zoo, several historic neighborhoods of Memphis. Citizens residing in the neighborhoods of midtown Memphis along the route of the proposed highway were able to stop the route cutting through the old forest of Overton Park in the lawsuit Citizens to Preserve Overton Park v. Volpe. Once the case was decided by the United States Supreme Court, the ownership of the completed segments of Sam Cooper Boulevard was given to the City of Memphis. Instead of following the planned route cutting through the center of Memphis, I-40 was routed around Memphis in the north.
The new routing of I-40 to the north of Memphis follows the proposed northern leg of the I-240 loop. Construction of the route segment of Sam Cooper Boulevard west of North Highland Street and east of East Parkway North began in 2001 and was completed in 2003; the construction did not follow the proposed expressway design for the road but implemented a parkway design with at-grade intersections, a raised median, traffic lights and sidewalks for pedestrians. In 2001, the City of Memphis began construction on an extension of Sam Cooper Boulevard west of the North Highland Street exit. After completion of the first phase of construction, Sam C
Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States; the system is named for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Construction was authorized by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, the original portion was completed 35 years although some urban routes were cancelled and never built; the network has since been extended. In 2016, it had a total length of 48,181 miles; as of 2016, about one-quarter of all vehicle miles driven in the country use the Interstate system. In 2006, the cost of construction was estimated at about $425 billion; the United States government's efforts to construct a national network of highways began on an ad hoc basis with the passage of the Federal Aid Road Act of 1916, which provided for $75 million over a five-year period for matching funds to the states for the construction and improvement of highways.
The nation's revenue needs associated with World War I prevented any significant implementation of this policy, which expired in 1921. In December 1918, E. J. Mehren, a civil engineer and the editor of Engineering News-Record, presented his "A Suggested National Highway Policy and Plan" during a gathering of the State Highway Officials and Highway Industries Association at the Congress Hotel in Chicago. In the plan, Mehren proposed a 50,000-mile system, consisting of five east–west routes and 10 north–south routes; the system would include two percent of all roads and would pass through every state at a cost of $25,000 per mile, providing commercial as well as military transport benefits. As the landmark 1916 law expired, new legislation was passed—the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921; this new road construction initiative once again provided for federal matching funds for road construction and improvement, $75 million allocated annually. Moreover, this new legislation for the first time sought to target these funds to the construction of a national road grid of interconnected "primary highways", setting up cooperation among the various state highway planning boards.
The Bureau of Public Roads asked the Army to provide a list of roads that it considered necessary for national defense. In 1922, General John J. Pershing, former head of the American Expeditionary Force in Europe during the war, complied by submitting a detailed network of 20,000 miles of interconnected primary highways—the so-called Pershing Map. A boom in road construction followed throughout the decade of the 1920s, with such projects as the New York parkway system constructed as part of a new national highway system; as automobile traffic increased, planners saw a need for such an interconnected national system to supplement the existing non-freeway, United States Numbered Highways system. By the late 1930s, planning had expanded to a system of new superhighways. In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave Thomas MacDonald, chief at the Bureau of Public Roads, a hand-drawn map of the United States marked with eight superhighway corridors for study. In 1939, Bureau of Public Roads Division of Information chief Herbert S. Fairbank wrote a report called Toll Roads and Free Roads, "the first formal description of what became the interstate highway system" and, in 1944, the themed Interregional Highways.
The Interstate Highway System gained a champion in President Dwight D. Eisenhower, influenced by his experiences as a young Army officer crossing the country in the 1919 Army Convoy on the Lincoln Highway, the first road across America. Eisenhower gained an appreciation of the Reichsautobahn system, the first "national" implementation of modern Germany's Autobahn network, as a necessary component of a national defense system while he was serving as Supreme Commander Of Allied Forces in Europe during World War II, he recognized that the proposed system would provide key ground transport routes for military supplies and troop deployments in case of an emergency or foreign invasion. The publication in 1955 of the General Location of National System of Interstate Highways, informally known as the Yellow Book, mapped out what became the Interstate Highway System. Assisting in the planning was Charles Erwin Wilson, still head of General Motors when President Eisenhower selected him as Secretary of Defense in January 1953.
The Interstate Highway System was authorized on June 29, 1956 by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956. Three states have claimed the title of first Interstate Highway. Missouri claims that the first three contracts under the new program were signed in Missouri on August 2, 1956; the first contract signed was for upgrading a section of US Route 66 to what is now designated Interstate 44. On August 13, 1956, Missouri awarded the first contract based on new Interstate Highway funding. Kansas claims. Preliminary construction had taken place before the act was signed, paving started September 26, 1956; the state marked its portion of I-70 as the first project in the United States completed under the provisions of the new Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. The Pennsylvania Turnpike could be considered one of the first Interstate Highways. On October 1, 1940, 162 miles of the highway now designated I‑70 and I‑76 opened between Irwin and Carlisle.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania refers to the turnpike as the Granddaddy of the Pikes. Milestones in the construction of the Interstate Highway System include: October 17, 1974: Nebraska becomes
U.S. Route 64
U. S. Route 64 is an east–west United States highway that runs for 2,326 miles from Nags Head in eastern North Carolina to just southwest of the Four Corners in northeast Arizona; the western terminus is at U. S. Route 160 in Arizona; the highway's eastern terminus is at NC 12 and U. S. Route 158 at North Carolina. US 64's western terminus is Teec Nos Pos, Arizona, at US 160, it enters New Mexico. US 64 runs through Farmington, Angel Fire, Eagle Nest and Raton; as it runs through Raton, it is co-signed with U. S. Route 87, it continues through to Clayton, where US 87 is replaced by U. S. Routes 56 and 412; the three routes run concurrently into Oklahoma. Twenty-eight miles northeast of Cimarron is Raton Municipal Airport, it is one of the roads on the Trails of the Ancients Byway, one of the designated New Mexico Scenic Byways. At Angel Fire, US 64 runs past the Vietnam Veterans Memorial State Park. Although US 64 does not technically cross into Texas, the New Mexico-Texas border does reach the shoulder of US 64 outside of Clayton at 36.500352°N 103.041922°W / 36.500352.
Heading into the Oklahoma Panhandle, the three conjoined routes pick up a fourth two miles southwest of Boise City, as US-385 merges from the south. In Boise City, US-385 departs to the north along with U. S. 287, which replaces US-385 in the four-way concurrency on the way out of town to the east, before departing itself to the southeast two miles outside of town. Shortly thereafter, US-56 departs the route, heading northeast into Kansas, while US-64 and US-412 continue their journey due east toward Guymon. Near Guymon, the route turns due south to approach the town. US-412 heads due east, while US-64 veers from due south to northeast, joining up with US-54; these two routes remain together for about 20 miles, splitting at Hooker, with US-54 continuing northeast into Kansas while US-64 again veers due east. At Turpin, US-64 turns left, running north with US-83. Twenty miles to the east, US-270 departs to the south, US-64 runs solo for a significant stretch save for short concurrencies with US-283 near Rosston, US-183 through Buffalo, US-281 in Alva.
Near Pond Creek, US-64 turns south, joined by US-60 and US-81. US-64 splits off just north of Enid, jogging through the city before rejoining US-412 on the east side of town; the two routes remain together until they meet Interstate 35, which US-64 joins southbound while US-412 continues east, becoming the Cimarron Turnpike. US-64 departs I-35 at Perry. On either side of Morrison the route intersects US-177 and US-412 before passing through Pawnee and Cleveland, it veers southeast, rejoining US-412 yet again to head into Tulsa. In downtown Tulsa, the route diverges from US-412 for the final time, it is concurrent with Interstate 244 and US-75 before bearing southeast through the city, intersecting Interstate 44 before joining the southernmost five miles of US-169 running southbound on the eastern edge of the city. It proceeds south, crossing the Creek Turnpike crosses the Arkansas River in Bixby before turning to the southeast. After passing through Haskell, US-64 and US-62 meet head-on, north–south.
The routes disengage at the intersection with US-69, with US-64 bearing south out of the center of town. At Warner, the route turns eastward again, where it will run parallel to Interstate 40 for the remainder of its path through Oklahoma, it passes through Webbers Falls, Vian, Sallisaw and Roland before leaving the state. The route crosses the Arkansas River; the route continues following Interstate 40 through Clarksville and Conway, where I-40 turns south and US 64 continues east. US 64 runs with US 167 near Searcy before passing through rural Eastern Arkansas fields. US 64 runs east to Marion and West Memphis, where it meets I-40 and Interstate 55 to continue east over the Mississippi River on the Memphis & Arkansas Bridge to Memphis, Tennessee. A segment of US 64 in Crittenden County is known as Military Road and is the oldest road in the state, it was surveyed for the removal of Native Tribes known of as the Trail of Tears. A historical marker in Marion notes this information. US-64 enters Tennessee on the Memphis-Arkansas Bridge at Memphis.
The route shares the bridge with Interstate 55 and U. S. Routes 61, 70, 79; the route traverses several streets in Memphis before becoming a rural divided highway in eastern Shelby County. The highway runs directly to the east through the county seats of Tennessee's most southern counties. US 64 continues on past Lawrenceburg, the largest city on the State line between Memphis and Interstate 65, to Chattanooga. Then US 64 runs from Chattanooga to Cleveland, where it duplexes with US 74 to the North Carolina state line; the Tennessee Department of Transportation is working to expand the highway to four lanes across the state. The easternmost portion of the highway in Tennessee is the Ocoee Scenic Byway, a winding, two-lane road through the Ocoee River gorge in Polk County; the steep terrain around the highway is subject to landslides, such as the massive slide in November 2009 that closed the highway for several months. US 64 enters North Carolina in west of Murphy; the highway serves the cities of Hendersonville, Rutherfordton, Statesville
Memphis International Airport
Memphis International Airport is a civil-military airport seven miles southeast of downtown Memphis in Shelby County, United States. Memphis International Airport is home to the FedEx Express global hub, which processes many of the company's packages. Nonstop FedEx destinations from Memphis include cities across the continental United States, Europe, the Middle East and South America. From 1993 to 2009, Memphis had the largest cargo operations of any airport worldwide. MEM dropped to the second position in 2010, just behind Hong Kong. In 2016 MEM had over 4 million passengers, up from 2015; the airport was a hub for Northwest Airlines and Delta Air Lines. As of June 2017, MEM averaged 83 passenger flights per day on all of the airlines serving the city. In recent years the airport added several airlines, including Air Canada, Allegiant Air, Frontier Airlines, Southwest Airlines. Since Delta's departure as a hub operation, average round trip prices have declined; the July–September 2014 quarter saw a 4.7% decline from the quarter a year earlier.
The 164th Airlift Wing of the Tennessee Air National Guard is based at the co-located Memphis Air National Guard Base, operating C-17 Globemaster III transport aircraft. Memphis Municipal Airport, dedicated in 1929, opened on a 200-acre plot of farmland just over seven miles from downtown Memphis. In its early years the airport had an unpaved runway. In 1939 Eastern Air Lines arrived. During World War II the United States Army Air Forces Air Transport Command 4th Ferrying Group used Memphis while sending new aircraft overseas. In April 1951 the runways were 6000-ft 2/20, 6530-ft 9/27, 4370-ft 14/32 and 4950-ft 17/35 The April 1957 OAG shows 64 weekday departures: 25 on Delta, 18 American, 7 Southern, 5 Eastern, 4 Braniff, 3 Trans-Texas and 2 Capital. American DC-6s flew nonstop to Washington and New York, but westward nonstops didn't reach beyond Ft Worth and Kansas City until American started Los Angeles in 1964; the first scheduled jets were Delta 880s ORD-MEM-MSY and back, starting in July–August 1960.
The current terminal cost $6.5 million. It opened on June 7, 1963 and Memphis Municipal changed its name to Memphis International in 1969. In 1985–86 Republic Airlines began flights to Mexico; the terminal was expanded for $31.6 million in 1974, adding two new concourses and extending the others, which were designed by Roy P. Harrover & Associates. Southern Airways was an important regional carrier at Memphis in the 1960s. With the dismantling of the Civil Aeronautics Board flight approval requirements, airlines began developing around a large hub model as opposed to the former point-to-point networks that were common before deregulation. Republic established Memphis as a hub operation in 1985 before merging into Northwest Airlines in 1986. Northwest operated around 300 daily flights at the peak of the hub, including international flights to Canada, the Caribbean as well as a transatlantic flight to Amsterdam. Federal Express began operations in Memphis in 1973, it opened its current "SuperHub" facility on the north side of the airport in 1981, maintains a large presence to the present day.
In 2008 the airport began expanding its control parking garages. The new tower cost $72.6 million and is 336 feet tall, more than double the old tower height. An $81 million, 7-story parking garage replaced two surface lots adding 6,500 parking spaces. $11 million was spent on a covered moving walkway between the terminal. After the acquisition of Northwest by Delta Air Lines in 2008, flights were scaled back until Delta closed the hub in 2013. Passenger traffic in Memphis declined from 11 million in 2007 to 4 million in 2017. In 2014 the Memphis-Shelby County Airport Authority announced a planned $114 million renovation of the airport; this renovation included demolishing the largely-vacant south ends of concourses A and C, which would allow aircraft to more access the larger B concourse. The remainder of the A and C concourses would remain and be ready to use for any potential growth in the future. In addition, the plan called for the widening and modernization of the B concourse, which most flights would be directed to when the renovation was complete.
The renovation, expected to start in late 2015 and end around 2020, would leave the airport with about 60 gates. The initial project was only completed, with the south end of the A concourse demolished. Memphis officials decided to rethink the modernization plans. Several aspects of the project changed; the first plan called for renovating and widening Concourse B, the updated plan includes a full redesign of most of the concourse. The B Concourse will be closed during construction, airlines and tenants will move to the A and C Concourses during that time; the south end of the C Concourse will remain intact until the B Concourse is completed and airlines have moved from C to B. The southwest leg of the B Concourse will be updated in a future phase, will only be utilized in the near term for passengers from inbound international flights. On
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (