SS Léopoldville was a 11,509 GRT passenger liner of the Compagnie Belge Maritime du Congo. She was converted for use as a troopship in the Second World War, on December 24, 1944, while sailing between Southampton and Cherbourg, was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U-486; as a result 763 American soldiers died, together with 56 of her crew. Léopoldville was 478 feet 8 inches long, with a beam of 62 feet 2 inches, she had a depth of a draught of 25 feet 9.75 inches. She was assessed at 11,256 GRT, 6,521 NRT; the ship was propelled by a 1,019 nhp two 4-cylinder quadruple expansion steam engines which had cylinders diameters of 2825⁄16 inch, 337⁄8 inch, 487⁄16 inch and 687⁄8 inch diameter by 487⁄16 inch stroke. The engines drove twin screw propellers, she had 8,458 cubic feet of refrigerated cargo space. She was built for the Compagnie Maritime Belge as the fifth to bear the name Léopoldville and served on the route between Belgium and its African colony, the Belgian Congo, she was allocated the Belgian Official Number 120 and the Code Letters MLTP.
In 1934, her Code Letters were changed to ONLB. In 1937, she was reassessed as 11,509 GRT, 6,941 NRT. Léopoldville was chartered by the British Admiralty in 1939. After converting the cargo hold to austere ferry benches, the ship completed 24 cross-Channel crossings, transporting more than 120,000 troops. A 24-man DEMS detachment manned defensive guns; the ship's Belgian crew, including 93 Africans from the Belgian Congo, received orders in Flemish. Captain Charles Limbor, who assumed command in 1942, spoke no English. Léopoldville was hastily loaded for the Battle of the Bulge with 2,223 reinforcements from the 262nd and 264th Regiments, 66th Infantry Division of the United States Army; the soldiers' regimental command structure was fragmented by loading troops as they arrived rather than according to their units. There were an insufficient number of life jackets, few troops participated in the poorly supervised lifeboat drill as Léopoldville sailed from Southampton at 09:00 24 December as part of convoy WEP-3 across the English Channel to Cherbourg.
Léopoldville was in a diamond formation with four escorts. Léopoldville was within five miles from the coast of Cherbourg at 17:54 when one of two torpedoes launched by U-486 struck the starboard side aft and exploded in number 4 hold killing about three hundred men as compartments E-4, F-4 and G-4 flooded. Few American soldiers understood the abandon ship instructions given in Flemish. While some soldiers joined the crew in departing lifeboats, many did not realize the ship was sinking, stayed aboard anticipating the ship would be towed ashore by a tug. While the other escorts searched for the U-boat, HMS Brilliant came alongside the sinking ship. Soldiers on Léopoldville jumped down onto the smaller Brilliant; the destroyer could take only five hundred men and headed for the shore leaving some twelve hundred soldiers aboard. Jack Dixon was a young seaman on board HMS Brilliant. At just 21 years old, he and others crew members battled against the conditions to try and rescue as many of the soldiers as possible.
From his web site: "H. M. S. Brilliant went; the scrambling nets were hanging down the Léopoldville's port side and the American soldiers were coming down on to our upper deck. Some men had started to jump down from a height of 40 feet. Limbs were being broken when they landed on the torpedo tubes and other fixed equipment on the starboard side of the upperdeck. To avoid any further injuries, if possible, all our hammocks were brought up from our mess-decks below and laid on the starboard upper deck to cushion the fall of the soldiers as they landed." While the escorts focused on the searching for the U-boat and rescuing survivors, they failed to respond to blinking light signals from Cherbourg. Brilliant attempted radio communications, but could not communicate directly with the Americans at Fort L'Ouest in Cherbourg because the Americans used a different radio frequency and could not read the British code. Brilliant contacted Portsmouth telephoned Cherbourg, it took nearly an hour for Cherbourg to learn.
Several hundred Allied vessels in the harbor at Cherbourg might have served as rescue craft, but all had cold engines while many of their crewmen were ashore celebrating the holiday. Allied forces enjoying their Christmas Eve dinner in Cherbourg failed to mobilize a rescue effort before Léopoldville sank by the stern at 20:40. Belated efforts by ships including USS PC-1225 rescued some survivors. In 1998 the History Channel broadcast the documentary film "Cover Up: The Sinking of the SS Léopoldville" which included interviews with numerous survivors of the sinking of the ship from the 66th Infantry Division and sailors from the US Navy who attempted to save them by pulling them out of the water; the sailors claimed that they arrived after the sinking of the ship and that most of the men who they pulled out of the water had frozen to death in the water by the time they arrived on the scene. Of the 2,235 American servicemen on board 515 are presumed to have gone down with th
United German-Hungarians is an American social club, founded in 1910, as the Banater Männerchor. Although the club has been home to various auxiliary groups, the primary activities of the club remain soccer and cultural dancing; the first team was started in 1922. The current German Hungarian Cultural Group was founded in 1965; the original name of the organization, the Banater Männerchor, comes from the Hungarian birthplace of the founders and many members. The meaning of the current nomenclature, The United German Hungarians, refers to the fact that Banat Swabians were Germans living in Hungary, not a union of'Germans' and'Hungarians.' Although the hyphen is no longer used, its purpose was to show that these are one people, not a conglomeration of two groups. The shield is the group's logo; the official shield represents the unity of German Hungarians through their traditional values. The "1910" Represents the founding year of the organization; the "keystone," represents the Keystone State of Pennsylvania.
Collectively the "stars" represent members of the United German Hungarians and honor their individual and collective accomplishments. The stars represent national honors, particularly: US National Soccer Championships in 1965, 1999 and the Gauverband Nordamerika Preisplatteln Competition Gold Medals in 1999, 2007; the flag of the German Hungarians was obtained and blessed in 1994. It was created according to the specifications of the club. Emily Fricker served as fahnenmutter for the flag; the flag's contrasting sides represent the present. One side recognizes those who came from the original homelands of southeastern Europe, it depicts a fictional village and the common landscapes found in the farming regions of southern Germany, Hungary, Romania and the Czech Republic. The natural resources, architectural renderings and geographic details evoke life in the old country; the region's common flowers – Kornblumen, Edelweiss, MohnBlumen and Enzian – complete the circle topped by the flag's motto: "Treu, der Sitte, treu der Tracht, treu der Heimat".
The second side of the flag represents members today. Their roots are depicted at the top by a trio of national symbols. Philadelphia is home to the Liberty Bell and Independence Hall, is where William Penn's "Holy Experiment" began; the Banater Männerchor flagA "flag fund" was begun and members began collecting for the fund. On May 8, 1913 many members and friends celebrated at a festive fahneweihe; the Arbeiter Maennercor served as Margaretha Friedrich served as fahnen-mutter. Vereinigte Deutsch-Ungarn flagLittle is known about the circumstances that led to the purchase of the Vereinigte Deutsch-Ungarn Flag; this flag was carried proudly for 55 years. It was replaced when the club's name changed in 1939. In 1906, a group of nine men from the Banat region of Hungary founded the Banater Arbeiter Verein, they had a choral section, which for reasons now unknown, was suspended by the parent organization on November 13, 1910. The suspended section met three days on November 16 to discuss its future and it decided to form the Banater Maennerchor.
A temporary eight man board of directors was appointed for a three-month period. Peter Schock was elected President. August Beuchse was unanimously elected musical director and the first rehearsal was set for November 23, 1910 in Fred Schnabel’s "saloon" at Germantown Avenue and Oxford Street. On November 27, 1910 Banater Maennerchor with forty eight members, was accepted as a member by the Vereinigte Arbeiter Gesangverein von Nord Ost Staaten; the new organization acquired temporary quarters in the hall an Eighth Street and Columbia Avenue, occupied by Maennerchor Rheingold and on December 9, 1910 they held their Founders Day Festival with the Karpathan Saengerbund and the Arbeiter Maennerchor Philadelphia as guest performers. From 1910 through October 1939, the organization was called the Banater Männerchor. In 1922, the Bannater Athletic Club was formed and operated under the "mother club." Banater Maennerchor grew swiftly and the final result was that Banater Maennerchor purchased the hall at Eighth and Columbia from Rheingold and swallowed up its membership.
Banater quickly became the rendezvous for German Hungarians of Philadelphia, the site at Eighth and Columbia remained their "home" until 1923. In 1911 a school-section was created to teach the children the German language, basic sciences, mechanical drawing for the boys, sewing and embroidery for the girls. A children’s choral group was participated in a mass choral festival held at the Old Metropolitan Opera House at Broad and Popular Streets. All instruction was provided and willingly by the members of the organization. In 1912 a female choral group was assembled under the name "Banater Frauen-chor”. On May 8, 1914 amid much fanfare, a "fahnenweihe" of the new club flag was held; the officials of the Arbeiter Maennerchor of Philadelphia served as the godfathers. The flag made its first public appearance in 1914 at the Singersfest of the United Singers of Northeast United States in Baltimore, Maryland. On December 10, 1922 the Banater Athletic Club was organized. In March 1923 the Banater acquired the premises at 2007–13 N.
Second Street and the former Columbia Hall became the Banater Maennerchor Hall. A library, was instituted in this period, had been accumulated over the years; the sport group changed its name from the Banater Athletic Club to German Hungarian Sport Club nine years before the parent group changed its name along similar lines
Fritz Gustav Anton Kraemer was a German-American military educator and advisor. Kraemer was born in Essen, the eldest child of Jewish parents Georg Kraemer and Anna Johanna Kraemer, née Goldschmidt and studied at the famous Arndt Gymnasium in Berlin, the London School of Economics and the Universities of Geneva and Frankfurt before earning a doctorate in law at the University of Frankfurt in 1931 and a doctorate in Political Science at the University of Rome in 1934. During most of the 1930s he was Senior Legal Advisor to the League of Nations at the League’s Legal Institute in Rome. In 1933, he married Britta Bjorkander, a Swedish citizen. Kraemer, a Lutheran with a dislike for Nazis, escaped Nazi Germany for America in 1939, leaving behind his wife and son, he was drafted and became a U. S. citizen as an inductee and joined the United States Army in April 1943 as an infantryman in the 84th Infantry Division. Kraemer fought in the Battle of the Bulge and in the battles of the Ruhr and Rhineland, earning a Battlefield Commission and a Bronze Star in the liberation of his former homeland.
In 1945 Kraemer was reunited with his wife and son and returned to Washington, DC, in 1947. He left active duty in 1948 and retired from the Army Reserve in 1963 with the rank of lieutenant colonel. A gifted talent scout and teacher, in 1944 he discovered young Henry Kissinger, whom Kraemer had recruited into Army division. In 1961 Kraemer discovered Alexander Haig, in 1969 Kraemer recommended Haig as the Military Assistant to National Security Advisor Kissinger. Sven Kraemer, Fritz G. A. Kraemer's son served in the Nixon-Kissinger National Security Council. From the early 1950s until 1978, when Kraemer retired from civil service, he served as Senior Civilian Advisor to the U. S. influenced the Department of Defense during the Cold War. During his time at the Pentagon, he influenced Secretaries of Defense James R. Schlesinger and Donald Rumsfeld. A graduate of the U. S. National War College, Kraemer advised and inspired generations of officers, American Presidents, as well as private citizens. Kraemer died at the age of 95 on September 8, 2003, in Washington, D.
C. and was buried with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery on October 8. He was honored by former Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger and his former students Henry Kissinger and Alexander Haig. True Keeper of the Holy Flame - The Legacy of Pentagon Strategist and Mentor Dr Fritz Kraemer, by Hubertus Hoffmann with contributions from Henry Kissinger, Alexander Haig, Donald Rumsfeld, others. 384 pages, Verlag Inspiration Un Limited, London/Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-9812110-5-4. Fritz Kraemer on Excellence, by Hubertus Hoffmann with contributions from Henry Kissinger, Alexander Haig, Donald Rumsfeld, others. New York: World Security Network Foundation, 2004; the Forty Years War, by Len Colodny and Tom Shachtman. New York: Harper/Collins, 2009
The Conscience-in-Media Award is presented by the American Society of Journalists and Authors to journalists that the society deems worthy of recognition for their distinctive contributions. The award is not given out and is awarded to those journalists which the ASJA feels have demonstrated integrity to journalistic values, while enduring personal costs to themselves. Candidates are decided by an initial vote of the ASJA's First Amendment Committee, which must be confirmed by a separate vote of the ASJA's Board of Directors; the award has been presented a total of twelve times since the first award was given out in 1975. Notable recipients have included Jonathan Kozol, for work researching homelessness while writing his book Rachel and Her Children, Richard Behar and Paulette Cooper, for separate pieces investigating the Church of Scientology, Anna Rosmus, for her investigation into the Nazi history of her hometown in Passau, Germany. In 2005, the committee voted to present the Award to Judith Miller, but this vote was overturned by a unanimous decision of the board not to honor Miller with the award.
The award is given by the ASJA, to recognize "distinctive contributions by any journalist in any medium". The first award was given to Jerald F. terHorst in 1975, in total the award has been presented twelve times. The award criteria are stringent; the American Society of Journalists and Authors maintains that those honored must have knowingly taken risks in the course of researching their story, going beyond the normal call of duty. The award is given: "for singular commitment to the highest principles of journalism at notable personal cost". Jonathan Kozol was honored with the 1988 Award, for work done on his book Rachel and Her Children: Homeless Families in America. In order to research the plight of homeless people in New York City, Kozol spent the majority of a winter season at the Martinique Hotel in Manhattan, where he grew close with the residents of the government subsidized shelter. During his time spent learning about the experiences of the homeless, he most empathized with homeless mothers - who fear that sickness, poverty or intervention from the state of New York will result in the loss of their children.
Kozol attempted to analyze the causes of homelessness, to provide an estimate of what the future would be for the homeless. 1992 was the first time in ASJA history. The AJSA had decided to honor investigative journalist Richard Behar, for his Time magazine article about the Church of Scientology: "The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power". Paulette Cooper, a longtime member of the ASJA, had written about Scientology in her book The Scandal of Scientology, was the subject of a "Fair Game" tactic that the Church of Scientology Guardian's Office called "Operation Freakout"; as the award was not in existence at the time Cooper wrote her book, the ASJA decided that recognizing Cooper at the same time as Behar emphasized the commitment and courage both writers imbued in the face of risk to themselves. Anna Rosmus received the 1994 award, in honor of work related to her research on the Nazi past of her hometown in Bavaria. Rosmus researched anti-Semitism, opposed neo-Nazis and the extreme right in Germany.
She located and published artwork of Jews that had once lived in her hometown of Passau, Germany. As a result of her work, Rosmus endured threats against her life. In a 1996 Yom HaShoah ceremony, Rosmus recounted threats she faced after conducting her research: "Once-friendly neighbors threatened me - on the telephone, in person, in letters... They threatened to kidnap my children; some attacked me physically, a room where I was to speak in Munich was bombed just before I was to be there, several times I was sued. Nobody claimed I had said anything false or made mistakes, they just claimed all this would damage their reputations." Rosmus was profiled on 60 Minutes, her story was the subject of the 1990 West German drama film, The Nasty Girl. Rosmus was presented with the Conscience-in-Media Award in a special ceremony at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. In 2005, the ASJA's First Amendment Committee narrowly voted to present Judith Miller with the award, in recognition of her dedication to protecting sources.
However, the full board of the ASJA voted not to accept the decision of its committee, due to its opinion that her career as a whole and her actions in the Valerie Plame CIA leak case had cast doubt on her merits. ASJA president Jack El-Hai stated that the ASJA board's vote to reject the committee's recommendation had been unanimous; this decision sparked controversy, Jack El-Hai received correspondence both praising the board for its decision, accusing it of various political motives. In 2015 three freelance journalists, James Foley, Steven Sotloff, Austin Tice were honored with the award, presented at the National Press Club. "These three men represent the highest values of journalism: courage, sacrifice and a firm commitment to the truth," said Randy Dotinga, president of ASJA. "Their bravery and dedication are inspiring to us as fellow independent writers." In 2018 the award was bestowed upon Daphne Caruana Galizia, an influential Maltese journalist, threatened numerous times because of her investigative writing about people in high places, in 2017 was murdered by a bomb placed under her car seat.
“In her search for truth and tenacity in presenting it to the public, Daphne Caruana Galizia exemplifies the criteria for the Conscience in Media award,” says Sherry Beck Paprocki, ASJA president. 2018 - Daphne Caruana Galizia,for 30 years an investigative journalist and anti-corruption activist murdered in her native Malta o
A number of the male footballers who have reached international status with Spain were not born in the country. Some were born overseas and moved there at a young age while others became naturalised citizens of Spain after living there for the required period and never being selected by their homeland – for some countries, including those of Latin America, this process requires only a few years of residency, which has allowed several Brazil-born players to play for Spain having only moved there in the course of their professional careers. Prior to the 1960s, players were not tied to a single national team having appeared for them, some of the leading foreign players in the Spanish league in the 1950s thus were selected on residency grounds; this list does not include players born in non-Peninsular Spain, nor any internationals of other heritage who were born in Spain. List of Spain international footballers Oriundo Spanish nationality law Spain national team players at BDFutbol