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Oklahoma City

Oklahoma City shortened to OKC, is the capital and largest city of the U. S. state of Oklahoma. The county seat of Oklahoma County, the city ranks 27th among United States cities in population; the population grew following the 2010 Census, with the population estimated to have increased to 649,021 as of July 2018. The Oklahoma City metropolitan area had a population of 1,396,445, the Oklahoma City–Shawnee Combined Statistical Area had a population of 1,469,124 residents, making it Oklahoma's largest municipality and metropolitan area by population. Oklahoma City's city limits extend somewhat into Canadian and Pottawatomie counties, though much of those areas outside the core Oklahoma County area are suburban tracts or protected rural zones; the city ranks as the eighth-largest city in the United States by total area when including consolidated city-counties. Lying in the Great Plains region, Oklahoma City has one of the world's largest livestock markets. Oil, natural gas, petroleum products and related industries are the largest sector of the local economy.

The city is in the middle of an active oil field and oil derricks dot the capitol grounds. The federal government employs large numbers of workers at Tinker Air Force Base and the United States Department of Transportation's Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center. Oklahoma City is on the I-35 Corridor, one of the primary travel corridors south into neighboring Texas and Mexico and north towards Wichita and Kansas City. Located in the state's Frontier Country region, the city's northeast section lies in an ecological region known as the Cross Timbers; the city was founded during the Land Run of 1889 and grew to a population of over 10,000 within hours of its founding. The city was the scene of the April 19, 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, in which 168 people died, it was the deadliest terror attack in the history of the United States until the attacks of September 11, 2001, remains the deadliest act of domestic terrorism in U. S. history. Since the time weather records have been kept, Oklahoma City has been struck by thirteen strong tornadoes.

Since 2008, Oklahoma City has been home to the National Basketball Association's Oklahoma City Thunder, who play their home games at the Chesapeake Energy Arena. Oklahoma City was settled on April 22, 1889, when the area known as the "Unassigned Lands" was opened for settlement in an event known as "The Land Run"; some 10,000 homesteaders settled the area. The town grew quickly. Early leaders of the development of the city included Anton Classen, John Shartel, Henry Overholser and James W. Maney. By the time Oklahoma was admitted to the Union in 1907, Oklahoma City had surpassed Guthrie, the territorial capital, as the new state's population center and commercial hub. Soon after, the capital was moved from Guthrie to Oklahoma City. Oklahoma City was a major stop on Route 66 during the early part of the 20th century. Before World War II, Oklahoma City developed major stockyards, attracting jobs and revenue in Chicago and Omaha, Nebraska. With the 1928 discovery of oil within the city limits, Oklahoma City became a major center of oil production.

Post-war growth accompanied the construction of the Interstate Highway System, which made Oklahoma City a major interchange as the convergence of I-35, I-40, I-44. It was aided by federal development of Tinker Air Force Base. In 1950, the Census Bureau reported city's population as 8.6 % 90.7 % white. Patience Latting was elected Mayor of Oklahoma City in 1971. Latting was the first woman to serve as mayor of a U. S. city with over 350,000 residents. Like many other American cities, center city population declined in the 1970s and 1980s as families followed newly constructed highways to move to newer housing in nearby suburbs. Urban renewal projects in the 1970s, including the Pei Plan, removed older structures but failed to spark much new development, leaving the city dotted with vacant lots used for parking. A notable exception was the city's construction of the Myriad Gardens and Crystal Bridge, a botanical garden and modernistic conservatory in the heart of downtown. Architecturally significant historic buildings lost to clearances were the Criterion Theater, the Baum Building, the Hales Building, the Biltmore Hotel.

In 1993, the city passed a massive redevelopment package known as the Metropolitan Area Projects, intended to rebuild the city's core with civic projects to establish more activities and life to downtown. The city added a new baseball park. Water taxis transport passengers within the district, adding activity along the canal. MAPS has become one of the most successful public-private partnerships undertaken in the U. S. exceeding $3 billion in private investment as of 2010. As a result of MAPS, the population living in downtown housing has exponentially increased, together with demand for additional residential and retail amenities, such as grocery and shops. Since the MAPS projects' com

Nyƫgawa Station (Ehime)

Nyūgawa Station is a railway station in Saijō, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. It is operated by JR Shikoku and has the station number "Y36"; the station is served by the JR Shikoku Yosan Line and is located 126.8 km from the beginning of the line at Takamatsu. Yosan Line local trains which stop at the station only serve the sector between Iyo-Saijō and Matsuyama. Connections with other local or limited express trains are needed to travel further east or west along the line. In addition, the following JR Shikoku limited express services serve the station: Shiokaze - from Okayama to Matsuyama and Uwajima Ishizuchi - from Matsuyama to Takamatsu and Uwajima Midnight Express Matsuyama - in one direction only, from Matsuyama to Niihama Morning Express Matsuyama - in one direction only, from Niihama to Matsuyama The station consists of an island and a side platform serving three tracks; the station building houses a waiting room, a convenience store and a bakery, a JR ticket window. The island platform is accessed by means of a footbridge.

Car parking is available. A passing loop runs to the west of the island platform and several short sidings branch off the main tracks; the station opened on 1 May 1923 as the terminus of the Sanuki Line, extended westwards from Iyo-Saijō. It became a through-station on 1 October 1923. At that time the station was operated by Japanese Government Railways becoming Japanese National Railways. With the privatization of JNR on 1 April 1987, control of the station passed to JR Shikoku. List of Railway Stations in Japan Nyūgawa Station

Full circle ringing

Full circle ringing is a method of ringing a bell such that it swings in a complete circle from mouth upwards around to mouth upwards and back again repetitively. Full-circle tower bell ringing in England developed in the early 17th century, when bell ringers found that swinging a bell through a much larger arc than that required for swing-chiming gave control over the time between successive strikes of the clapper. Ordinarily a bell will swing through a small arc only at a set speed governed by its size and shape in the nature of a simple pendulum, but by swinging through a larger arc approaching a full circle, control of the strike interval can be exercised by the ringer; this culminated in the technique of full circle ringing, which enabled ringers to independently change the speeds of their individual bells to combine in ringing different mathematical permutations, known as "changes". Speed control of a tower bell is exerted by the ringer only when each bell is mouth upwards and moving near the balance point.

The tower bells involved range from a few hundredweight up to a few tons and are most associated with churches as a means of calling the congregation to worship. There are a few sets in secular buildings. However, smaller sets of bells known as "mini-rings" have come into existence for training, demonstration or leisure purposes, with bells weighing just a few kilogrammes. There are several variations of the means of exerting control of the bell by the ringers, but the fundamental principle of being able to control and alter the speed of the bell striking is common to all full circle techniques; the bell is attached to a headstock made of wood but now more steel. This has to withstand the dynamic force of the bell as it swings, up to three times its static weight. At each end of the headstock are protruding trunnions or bearing pins which are located in bearings attached to the frame; the frame itself is rigidly attached to the fabric of the tower. Within the bell is a clapper which consists of a solid shaft, a clapper ball and a flight.

The size of the flight determines the rate at which the clapper swings, therefore the point in time at which it strikes the bell. Bells are left mouth down Before ringing, the bells are swung in increasing arcs until the bell is mouth uppermost; when the ringer desires to make a stroke, the bell is swung around a full circle, the clapper striking once. In English full-circle ringing there is no counter-balancing, so the bell accelerates to its maximum velocity when mouth downwards, slows down as it rises to mouth upwards. In Veronese full-circle ringing there is a large amount of counter-balancing, so there is little net gravitation pull and the bell accelerates and rotates gracefully; the small out-of-balance weight makes it much easier than English bells to stop the bells mouth upwards. However, English full-circle ringing is capable of much better control of bell speed, as it is independent of the counter-balance effect; the Bolognese style of bell hanging does not have any counter-balancing.

In English full circle ringing "Mini-rings" are used to demonstrate how full-circle ringing on large bells works. These rings can be assembled but the bells are light and the ringing is fast. However, they demonstrate a difficult concept visually, as both the actions of the ringers and the bells can be seen simultaneously; the sound made by a bell rung full-circle has two unique subtle features: rapid strike decay and the doppler effect. Because the clapper strikes the bell as it rising to the mouth upwards position, it rests against the bell's soundbow after the strike, the peak strike intensity decays away when the clapper helps to dissipate the vibration energy of the bell; this enables rapid successive strikes of multiple bells, such as in change ringing, without excessive overlap and consequent blurring of successive strikes. In addition, the movement of the bell imparts a doppler effect to the sound, as the strike occurs whilst the bell is still moving. Both these effects give full circle ringing of bells in an accurate sequence a distinctive sound which cannot be simulated by stationary chimed bells.

The bells are mounted within a bellframe of steel or wood and each bell is suspended from a headstock fitted to bearings so that the bell may rotate. The headstock is fitted with a wooden stay, which, in conjunction with a slider, limits maximum rotational movement to just over a full circle, allows the bell to be set or rested mouth uppermost. A large wheel is fitted to the headstock and the rope wraps and unwraps as the bell rotates backwards and forwards. Within the bell is a clapper which strikes the thickest part of the bell mouth called the soundbow. In English ringing a set of bells is known as a "ring of bells" and an example of a ring of eight bells is shown mouth upwards in the rest position in the accompanying picture; the ringers stand in a ringing chamber below, the ropes pass through holes in the ceiling. The rope has a woollen grip called the sally while the lower end of the rope is doubled over to form an held tail-end. Bells hung in this fashion gave rise to the invention of English Change ringing in the 17th century because the striking interval of the bells could be controlled.

There are over 5,000 rings of bells in England, the vast majority in towers of the Anglican church, an estimated 40,000 bell ringers. At East Bergholt there is England's only bell cage, in the graveyard, where the bells are rung by the ringers standing beside the bells and pulling on the headstock directly, rather like the Bo