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Interstate 44

Interstate 44 is a major Interstate Highway in the central United States. Although it is nominally an east-west road as it is even-numbered, it follows a more southwest-northeast alignment, its western terminus is in Wichita Falls, Texas at a concurrency with U. S. Route 277, US 281, U. S. Route 287 in Texas. I-44 is one of five Interstates built to bypass U. S. Route 66; the entire length of I-44 east of Springfield, Missouri was once US 66, upgraded from two to four lanes from 1949 to 1955. The section of I-44 west of Springfield was built farther south than US 66 in order to connect Missouri's section with the completed Will Rogers Turnpike, which Oklahoma wished to carry their part of I-44. In the U. S. state of Texas, I-44 has a short, but regionally important, 14.77 miles stretch, connecting Wichita Falls with Oklahoma. The route runs due north to the Texas–Oklahoma state line at the Red River. In Wichita Falls, I-44 runs concurrent with US 277, US 281, US 287, is known locally as the "Central Freeway".

I-44 provides access to Sheppard Air Force Base. I-44 in Oklahoma is three separate toll roads. In southwestern Oklahoma, I-44 is the H. E. Bailey Turnpike and is south–north. In the Oklahoma City area, I-44 is either eight lanes. From Oklahoma City, I-44 becomes southwest–northeast as the Turner Turnpike towards Tulsa. After I-44 leaves Tulsa, it becomes the Will Rogers Turnpike to the Missouri state line. I-44 enters Missouri southwest of Joplin near the tripoint of Oklahoma and Kansas, it misses the Kansas border by less than 200 yards. The first exit in Missouri is for US-166. I-44 continues through the southern part of Joplin, where it becomes concurrent with the new Missouri segment of I-49. East of Joplin, I-49 splits off on its own alignment to Kansas City. I-44 continues east on the former US-166 to Mount Vernon. At the northeast part of Mount Vernon, I-44 heads northeast, while old US-166 continued east on Missouri Route 174; the section of road to Halltown is a new road, not bypassing any previous highways.

At Halltown, the road follows the general pathway of US-66 all the way to downtown St. Louis. I-44 continues northeast. At Waynesville, I-44 enters a hilly and curvy area until it passes Rolla. Although the road still passes through some hilly areas, none are as steep as that particular stretch. At Pacific, I-44 widens to six lanes to eight lanes; the interstate passes through the suburbs of St. Louis and into downtown St. Louis, passing the Gateway Arch before terminating near the Mississippi River, continuing from there as I-70 from the west end of the Stan Musial Veterans Memorial Bridge; until a future second span of the new bridge is completed, there will be no way for I-44 traffic to utilize the new Stan Musial Veterans Memorial span without first exiting to surface streets. I-44 traffic wishing to continue northeast and east must use the Poplar Street Bridge and I-55/I-64 to cross the Mississippi River. At some places, an "Alternate I-44" is posted. One such ran between Rolla and Springfield via US-60 and US-63 and another ran via US-63 and US-50 between Rolla and Union.

These were completed to provide traffic relief during road work. The latter of these alternate routes detoured traffic around three-hour delays due to road work near Cuba. I-44 was signed in 1958 as an Interstate designation of the Turner Turnpike linking Oklahoma City and Tulsa and the Will Rogers Turnpike linking Tulsa and the Missouri state line southwest of Joplin, along with the US-66 bypass in Tulsa that linked that city with the two turnpikes and the continued four-lane highway from the Missouri border to an interchange with US-71 south of Joplin designated as US-166; as US 66 was being bypassed by I-44, the Route 66 Association requested the designation Interstate 66 for I-44 from St. Louis to Oklahoma City. AASHTO rejected the request. At the time the I-44 designation was assigned in Oklahoma in the 1950s, Oklahoma signed the mile markers west to east starting at Turner Turnpike's Oklahoma City terminus at the I-44/I-35 interchange. I-44 was extended in 1982 southwest of Oklahoma City along the existing H. E. Bailey Turnpike, thus raising the mile markers by about 100.

The addition of the new section was unusual in that it is a more south–north segment, didn't directly connect to the previous western end at I-35. It now extends south of I-40. What was once I-244 around St. Louis is part of that city's I-270/I-255 beltway. During the historic 1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak, an F5 tornado crossed I-44; this particular tornado had the fastest tornado wind speeds on record. The interstate was damaged where the tornado crossed it. In the end, this tornado was blamed for 36 deaths. A section of I-44 was moved north between Powellville and Doolittle; the old road is visible for eastbound traffic near Powellville. As of April 2006, the rocks carved away for the new roadbed have no lichen, reflecting that this construction occurred rather recently; the original eastern terminus of I-44 was at the intersection with I-55, I-64, I-70, US-40, by the Poplar Street Bridge. However, when I-70 was rerouted to cross the Mississippi River at the newly constructed Stan Musial Veteran's Memorial Bridge, I-44 was extended about a mile and a ha

Afon Cefni

Afon Cefni is one of the major rivers on the island of Anglesey, Wales. It is 16.9 kilometres long. The river starts at the Llyn Cefni in the centre of the island and runs south through the county town of Llangefni. Just north of the A55 the river flows south-west, it passes through the flatlands of the Malltraeth Marshes, where the river course was altered in 1824, creating a canal-like straight stretch. This part of the river and the surrounding marshes, part of, a RSPB reserve, are frequented by a variety of wetland birds which in their turn are preyed on by falcons and harriers. A cycle trail follows the straightened course of the river, it flows under a bridge carrying the North Wales Coast Railway Line at Malltraeth Sands in the south-west of the island and into the Irish Sea. The viaduct has nineteen arches. An embankment carries the A4080 across the estuary at the village of Malltraeth, half a mile below the railway bridge. Another RSPB reserve is to be found in Newbourough Warren. Malltraeth Pool at the north end of the estuary is a place visited by many waterbirds during their spring and autumn migrations, other wildfowl and waders are to be seen on the estuary all winter.

Newborough Forest on the southern shore is used by large numbers of ravens as a winter roost, a peninsular and a rocky islet in the estuary are a breeding ground for shags and cormorants. Migration of fish and eels is blocked by the dam at the Cefni water treatment works, holding back the Cefni reservoir. Attempts to prompt the installation of a fish pass have proven unsuccessful to date. There was a ship named after the river built in Glasgow in 1890 by a company based in Menai Bridge. There is a tug named'Afon Cefni', operated by Holyhead Towing, it can be tracked on Ship AIS websites

La Pita

La Pita is an emerald mine located in the western belt of the Colombian emerald mining area. It is operated by the Colombian company, Zuliana De Esmeraldas Ltda. La Pita is one of Colombia's largest emerald mines in Colombia, tantamount to its competitor called Puerto Artuto, at present known as the Muzo Mine. La Pita has been one of the biggest contributors to Colombia's emerald production at times producing more than 80% of the total output of emeralds in Colombia. La Pita was discovered when an access road was being built, the workers and owners of the land descended towards Río Minero and noticed a yellowish patch of earth accompanied by the black carbonate altered shales of the Muzo Formation; this area marked the establishment of La Pita Mine. The entrance of the mine was first opened in a ravine at the bottom of the mountain near Río Minero and extends approximatelt 500 metres until the tunnel makes contact with the principle fault line running through the length of the La Pita property.

La Pita is north of neighboring mine Cunas. A dispute between the two mines existed and both groups founded a mining agreement, defunct today; the agreement proposed that mining 35 metres north and south of the border between the mining districts was allowed by both parties. Today, the building structures and campsite are located on the property of Cunas. La Pita had entered into an agreement with a publicly traded company, FURA Emeralds Inc; this has since been terminated. Following that, a Canadian company entered into a non-binding agreement and was unable to close on the contract. In 2016, a third company was entering into agreements for full operation at La Pita Mine and to acquire a stake in Zuliana De Esmeraldas Ltda. La Pita mine is mining emeralds from the Muzo Formation, operations are focused wholly in the footwall of the Río Minero Fault; the property lies on a productive portion of the fault, with ~1 km of the NNE, moderate to steeply dipping fault running along the long-axis of the property.

The Rio Minero fault is characterized by an ~80m wide irregular, but sharp contact breccia zone. This breccia is a carbonate altered, with minor content kaolinite altered clasts, localized fluorite matrix, polymicitic carbonate altered shale and carbonate vein clasts, laminated to massive euhedral to anhedral carbonate matrix, chaotic order, clast-supported to matrix-support, fine to coarse unsorted sharp clast contacts, sub-angular to angular. At present the mine is focused only on the footwall of the fault, exploiting oblique fractures in the Muzo Formation shales of the western flank of the fault. There appears to be a periodicity to the occurrence of variable thickness calcite veins, that are the primary target for emerald production; the intersections of vein sets may represent an upgrading feature. Where these secondary fractures intersect with the primary vein orientation, anecdotally it has been observed that there appears to be an improvement in both quality as well as, quantity/size.

These oblique vein sets represent the primary source of emeralds in the current operations at La Pita. These vein sets are productive up to several meters away from the fault itself. Muzo Formation, outcropping in the sector of Las Pavas, Peñas Blancas, Coscuez appears in Vélez, Chiquinquirá and La Palma, it is part of the flanks of La Chapa-Borbur Anticlinal observed in the syncline of Otanche, in the sector of Coscuez. In the region of Muzo and Calcetero, the formation is part of the syncline of El Almendro and forms the nucleus of the Pauna Anticlinal; this unit houses most of the emerald-producing mines in the region such as Coscuez. The Muzo Formation is a calcareous sequence, while to the north of the Ibacapí Fault it is observed to be weathered and its calcareous composition is not recognized. To the north of Pauna the formation has a siliceous character. In general it is composed of dark gray calcareous claystones with lenses and limestone concretions. Additionally, it is common to find calcite veins.

These claystones are interspersed with sandy siltstones and quartz sandstones. Towards the middle of the segment albitized limestone, somewhat calcareous. At this level appear a brecciated and mineralized zone with veins of calcite and sheets of oxidized sulphides; the upper part of the segment is interspersed with layers of gray claystones with layers of siltstones containing fauna depicted in ammonite molds. At the bottom of this unit is the La Marina Mine and to the south the emerald mines of La Pita, Totumos and others; the first calcareous package becomes thicker towards the south, it has a thickness of 2 metres, in the sector of Totumos and Polveros reaches 45 metres, is composed of intercalations of limestone and sandy siltstones. The zone of hydrothermal breccias, above the calcareous rocks, in the La Pita Mine has a thickness of 30 metres, at the Totumos Mine can reach to 50 metres; this unit in the area of Coscuez and Muzo presents emeralds. To the south of the area, this unit presents similar characteristics.

A stratigraphic column along the La Palma-Yacopí road, shows that this unit is composed of a black marl with a solid appearance with black calcareo