Interstate 57 is an Interstate Highway in Missouri and Illinois that parallels the old Illinois Central rail line for much of its route. It runs from Sikeston, Missouri, at Interstate 55 to Chicago, Illinois, at Interstate 94. I-57 serves as a shortcut route for travelers headed between the south and Chicago, bypassing St. Louis, Missouri. Between the junction of I-55 and I-57 in Sikeston and the junction of I-55 and I-90/94 in Chicago, I-55 travels for 436 miles, while the combination of I-57 and I-94 is only 396 miles long between the same two points. In fact, both the control cities on the overhead signs, as well as destination mileage signs, reference Memphis, Tennessee along southbound I-57 as far north as its northern origin at I-94 in Chicago. At its southern end, Chicago is the control city listed for I-57 on signs on northbound I-55 south of Sikeston, Missouri though I-55 goes to Chicago; as of 2015, I-57 are any planned for the near future. At a length of just over 386 miles, it is the second longest two-digit Interstate Highway without an auxiliary route, behind I-49.
I-57 has one business loop in Missouri. In the state of Missouri, Interstate 57 runs northbound from Sikeston to the Cairo I-57 Bridge over the Mississippi River south of Cairo, Illinois. After ending southbound at Interstate 55, the highway continues as U. S. Route 60, which meets U. S. Route 67 at Poplar Bluff and from there U. S. Route 67 goes south to Arkansas. From the start of I-57 northbound, the US 60 concurrency goes about 12 miles. In the state of Illinois, Interstate 57 runs from the bridge over the Mississippi River north to Chicago. I-57 is the longest Interstate Highway in Illinois, its route follows the earlier route of US 51 in southernmost Illinois before taking a northeastward diagonal to Illinois 37, which remains intact as a town-to-town through route, past its interchange with Interstate 24 near Pulleys Mill and a short duplex with Interstate 64 near Mount Vernon north to Effingham, where it has a short concurrence with Interstate 70. It follows US 45 bypassing Champaign, heads north to Onarga whereafter it follows the duplex path of US 45 and old US 54 to Kankakee.
At Kankakee it heads northward parallel to the now decommissioned route of old US 54 into the Chicago area, meeting Interstate 80 in Hazel Crest, Interstate 294 in Blue Island, feeding Interstate 94 on Chicago's South Side. Although I-57 serves as a long-distance bypass of St. Louis, the section between Mount Vernon and Pulleys Mill contains the most direct Interstate route between St. Louis and cities to the southeast of St. Louis, it serves as the northwestern terminus of Interstate 24 that leads southeastward to those cities and as the eastern terminus of Interstate 72 near Champaign. The route is an easy way for Chicagoans to reach Shawnee National Forest in the southern tip of the state, it serves as a major artery for college students in the state, running near Shawnee Community College in Ullin, the main campus of Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, John A. Logan College in Carterville, Morthland College in West Frankfort, Rend Lake College in Ina, Lake Land College in Mattoon, Eastern Illinois University in Charleston, Parkland College in Champaign, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in Urbana–Champaign, Kankakee Community College in Kankakee, Olivet Nazarene University in Bourbonnais, Governors State University in University Park.
Interstate 57 and Interstate 294 did not have an intersection for a long time, though phase one opened on October 25, 2014. It was one of only a few examples where Interstates cross but didn't have interchanges with each other. Vehicles were directed to use Interstate 80 to access Interstate 294 instead, though U. S. Route 6 was another option. I-57 remains the only Chicago expressway that does not have a used name, its Chicago-area portion was known as the Dan Ryan Expressway–West Leg. I-57 was named the Ken Gray Expressway in southern Illinois after former U. S. Congressman Ken Gray for his work on getting the route planned through southern Illinois. A 20-mile segment from Wentworth to Sauk Trail has been designated the Tuskegee Airmen Memorial Trail but this is not intended as a navigational name; the oldest segment of I-57 is a 6.2-mile strip running east of Bradley to Kankakee labeled on the 1959 Illinois state highway map. Two years a 30-mile stretch of I-57 from Dongola north to Marion, Illinois opened on September 26, 1961.
Another portion between the IL 121/US 45 exit and the Watson–Mason exit was completed and opened prior to July 1965, linking I-57 to I-70, running in tandem with I-70 for several miles, with access to Indianapolis to the east, St. Louis to the west. A 21.5-mile section of I-57 in Jefferson County from Bonnie to IL 161 opened on December 9, 1969. The portion of I-57 in Chicago was constructed and opened in segments between 1963 and 1970, it remains the most recent Interstate Highway to be established within the city. The final section of I-57 in Illinois opened in December 1971 at Paxton; the portion of I-43 from Milwaukee to Green Bay was numbered as Interstate 57. The
Sport Club Corinthians Paulista is a Brazilian sports club based in the city of São Paulo. Although they compete in a number of different sports, Corinthians is known for its professional association football team; the football team plays in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, the top tier of the Brazilian football, as well as in the Campeonato Paulista Série A1, the first division of the traditional in-state competition. Founded in 1910 by five railway workers, Corinthians was inspired by the London-based club Corinthian Football Club. Since 1910, Corinthians has become one of the most successful Brazilian clubs, having won the national title seven times, in addition to three Copa do Brasil trophies. Corinthians has a record 30 state championships. In 2000 the club won the FIFA Club World Cup's first edition as the host team and in 2012 the club won the FIFA Club World Cup for the second time after winning the Copa Libertadores de América for the first time; the club was listed by Forbes as the most valuable football club in the Americas, worth $576.9 million.
The club is one of the most supported teams in the world and the second most in Brazil, with over 30 million fans. Since 2014, Corinthians has played its home matches at the Arena Corinthians, one of the venues in the 2014 FIFA World Cup, having hosted six matches during the tournament, including the opener on 12 June 2014; the club's home kit traditionally features white shirts and black shorts, accompanied by white socks, since 1920. Their traditional crest was introduced in 1939, by modernist painter Francisco Rebolo featuring the São Paulo state flag in a shield, two oars, an anchor, they hold many longstanding rivalries, most notably against Palmeiras, São Paulo, Santos. In 1910, football in Brazil was an elitist sport; the top clubs were formed by people. Among them were Club Athletico Paulistano, São Paulo Athletic Club, & Associação Atlética das Palmeiras. Lower-class society excluded from larger clubs founded their own minnow clubs and only played "floodplain" football. Bucking the trend, a group of five workers of the São Paulo Railway, more Joaquim Ambrose and Anthony Pereira, Rafael Perrone, Anselmo Correia and Carlos Silva, residents of the neighborhood of Bom Retiro.
It was August 31, 1910 when these workers were watching a match featuring a London-based club touring Brazil, Corinthian F. C.. After the match, while the group returned home, The men spoke of partnerships, business ideas, general dreams of grandeur. In the mind of each one surfaced a great idea: the foundation of a club, after several exchanges in a lively argument, a common ground led those athletes the same dream; the arguments led to the conclusion. September 1, 1910. In anticipation of heavy rains, the group agreed to meet after sundown in public sight; that night at 8:30pm, on Rua José Paulino ("Rua dos Imigrantes", underneath the glow of an oil lamp the five workers reunited alongside their guest and neighbors from Bom Retiro. That night the club was founded, alongside its board of directors, who elected Miguel Battaglia as the first Club President. Corinthians played their first match on September 10, 1910, away against União da Lapa, a respected amateur club in São Paulo. On September 14, Luis Fabi scored Corinthians' first goal against Estrela Polar, another amateur club in the city, Corinthians won their first game 2–0.
With good results and an increasing number of supporters, Corinthians joined the Liga Paulista, after winning two qualifying games, played in the São Paulo State Championship for the first time, in 1913. Just one year after joining the league, Corinthians was crowned champion for the first time, were again two years later. There were many fly-by-night teams popping up in São Paulo at the time, during the first practice held by Corinthians a banner was placed by the side of the field stating "This One Will Last"; the year of 1922, the Centennial of Brazilian Independence, marks the start of Corinthians hegemony in the São Paulo State Championship. As football was exclusively played at Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo by that time, the two state champions were considered to be the two top clubs in Brazil. After defeating the Rio de Janeiro State Championship champion of that year, América, Corinthians joined the company of the great teams in Brazil; the same year marked the first of three State Championships in a row, something that happened again in 1928–30 and 1937–39.
Corinthians seemed destined to win State Championships in threes. The 1940s were a more difficult time. At the beginning of the 1950s Corinthians made history in the São Paulo Championship. In 1951, the team composed of Carbone, Cláudio, Baltasar and Mário scored 103 goals in thirty matches of the São Paulo Championship, registering an average of 3.43 per game. Carbone was the top goalscorer of the competition with 30 goals; the club would win the São Paulo Championships of 1952 and 1954. In this same decade, Corinthians were champions three times of the Rio-São Paulo Championship, the tournament, becoming most important in the country with the increased participation of the greatest clubs from the two most important footballing states in the country. In 1953, in a championship in V
The Society of the Atonement known as the Friars and Sisters of the Atonement or Graymoor Friars and Sisters is a Franciscan religious congregation in the Latin Rite branch of the Catholic Church. The friars and sisters were founded in 1898 as a religious community in the Episcopal Church; the religious order is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary under the Marian title of Our Lady of Atonement. Lewis Thomas Wattson was born in Millington, Maryland January 16, 1863 to the Reverend Joseph Newton Wattson and his wife, Mary Electa. Reverend Wattson, a former Presbyterian, was an Episcopalian minister. Lewis received his B. A. and his M. A. from St. Stephen's College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York, he was ordained to the diaconate in 1885, by special dispensation, at the age of twenty-three, he was made a presbyter. Wattson was graduated with a Bachelor of Divinity from the General Theological Seminary in New York City in 1887. After serving for a time in Port Deposit, Maryland, he became a popular preacher in the New York and New Jersey area and became rector of St. John's Episcopal Church in Kingston, New York.
In 1891, he established the Church of the Holy Cross Church as a mission of St. John's, to serve working-class families living near the West Shore Railroad. Holy Cross had a particular mission to the poor. Rev. Wattson resigned the rectorship in Kingston to accept a position as superior of an Episcopal mission in Omaha. Lurana Mary White was born in New York City on April 12, 1870. On Oct. 17, 1894 she became a postulant in the Episcopal community of the Sisters of the Holy Child Jesus in Albany, New York, where she made her vows on Sept. 25, 1896. That same year, White began corresponding with Rev. Wattson, whom she had heard was "very High Church". Wattson was at the time the superior of a small community of Episcopal priests in Omaha. Both were part of the Anglo-Catholic Movement known as the Oxford Movement, which had developed in the Church of England in the early 19th century. Sister Lurana asked Father Wattson's help in finding an Episcopal community of religious which practised corporate poverty in the Catholic Franciscan tradition.
Father Wattson was unaware of any such community, but began corresponding with her regarding his desire to see the Anglican and Catholic Churches reunited under the leadership of the Bishop of Rome. In October 1898, White and Wattson met at her family's home in Warwick, New York and made a spiritual covenant to form a new religious community with the aim of re-establishing Franciscan life in the Anglican Communion. To this end, Sister Lurana spent a year in training with the Society of the Sisters of Bethany in Clerkenwell, London. Before her return, she made a pilgrimage to Assisi. Rev. Albert Zabriskie Gray, rector of St. Philip's Church in the Highlands in Garrison, New York, was serving St. James' Chapel at Highlands and the Chemical Works on the border with Westchester when he erected the mission Chapel of St. John's in the Wilderness in the southeastern portion of the parish. In 1882, Gray left Garrison to take a position at Racine College; the chapel fell into disuse and disrepair, but the trustees of St. Philip's gave Sister Lurana leave to use it and a nearby farmhouse until a convent should be built.
On December 15, 1898, Sister Lurana and two companions took up residence in the area of Garrison, New York, at a farmhouse near the abandoned chapel of St. John's-in-the-Wilderness, she named the place "Graymoor", combining the names of Rev. Gray, who had founded the chapel, with that of a Mr. Moore, a generous supporter of its restoration. Meanwhile Father Wattson had spent some time at the Anglicam Monastery of the Order of the Holy Cross at Westminster, Missouri to gain some experience of religious life in community. Wattson joined the sisters in the spring of 1899 and took up residence in a paint/carpenter's shed about a mile distant. With the formal establishment of the Society of the Atonement, they embraced religious life in the Episcopal Church. In taking religious vows, Miss White became known as Mother Lurana, while Father Wattson took the name of Father Paul James Francis. Mother Lurana became head of the Franciscan Sisters of the Atonement, the women's branch of the society. Frederick Joseph Kinsman, third Bishop of Delaware, was chosen as Episcopal Visitor.
The Society preached the primacy of the Roman pontiff, while keeping its Episcopal allegiance, as they worked to realize a corporate reunion between the two bodies. Due to this, the founders and their small number of disciples came to find themselves not only criticised but ostracised by their co-religionists, who saw them as walking an impossible tightrope between the two bodies. In 1909 both the men's and women's societies chose to seek union with the Holy See and full membership in the Catholic Church. In October 1909, the Vatican took the unprecedented step of accepting the members of the Society as a corporate body, allowing the Friars and Sisters to remain in their established way of life. Now in union with the Bishop of Rome, the Friars of the Atonement continued their work of advocating the reconciliation and eventual reunion of the various Christian denominations with the Pope as spiritual leader, known as ecumenism. A major part of this effort was the Octave of Christian Unity, an eight-day p
Xia Peisu or Pei-su Hsia was a Chinese computer scientist and educator known for her pioneering research in computer science and technology. The leading developer of Model 107, China's first indigenously designed general-purpose electronic computer, she has been called the "Mother of Computer Science in China", she and her husband Yang Liming were both elected academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1991. In 2010, she was honoured with the inaugural Lifetime Achievement Award from the China Computer Federation. In 2015, the China Computer Federation in memory of academician Xia, the predecessor of computer science in China, awards the Xie-Piesu Award annually to female scientists and engineers recognised for their "outstanding contributions and achievements in the computer science, engineering and industry." Xia was born on 28 July 1923 in Sichuan, to a literary family. Her grandfather, Xia Fengxun, who had passed the imperial examination for the xiucai degree during the late Qing dynasty, spent forty years as a teacher.
Her father, Xia Hongru, who had passed the provincial imperial examination for the juren degree, ran a school in Jiangjin County, Chongqing. Her mother, Huang Xiaoyong, was a teacher at the Jiangjin Girls' Middle School and headmistress of Jiangjin Girls' Primary School. Under the private tutelage of her family, Xia built a solid foundation in ancient Chinese prose and mathematics at a young age. At fourteen years old, Xia was accepted into Nanyu Secondary School, where she placed at the top of her class and excelled in mathematics. In 1939, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, Xia was forced to transfer to the National No. Nine Middle School in Jiangjin County, she graduated high school in 1940 at the top of her class and began her undergraduate degree in electrical engineering at the National Central University the same year. After attaining her bachelor's degree, Xia pursued postgraduate studies at the Telecommunications Research Institute of National Chiao Tung University from 1945 to 1947.
In 1947, Xia began a PhD in electrical engineering at the University of Edinburgh in the United Kingdom, where she earned her doctorate with a thesis entitled "On Parametric Oscillations in Electronic Circuits. A Graphical Analysis for Non-Linear Systems" in 1950. Two years after the founding of the People's Republic of China and her husband Yang Liming returned to China in 1951, she took up an appointment as an associate researcher in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Tsinghua University. In the fall of 1952, mathematician Hua Luogeng initiated the development of China's first electronic computer, recruited Xia and two other scientists to lead the project at the Chinese Academy of Sciences; this became the turning point in her career. Four years she became a founding professor of the Institute of Computing Technology of the CAS, where she spent the remainder of her career. After the two other scientists, Min Naida and Wang Chuanying, both left the project, Xia led the development of China's first indigenously designed general-purpose electronic computer, Model 107, in 1958.
She has been acclaimed as the "Mother of Computer Science in China". Xia made numerous contributions to the design of high-speed computers in China, she is credited with designing a high-speed array processor and a range of multiple parallel computers. She helped establish the Chinese Journal of Computers in 1978 and the Journal of Computer Science and Technology, the only English language journal in the computer field published in China, in 1986. In March 1956, Xia taught China's first course in computer theory, wrote Principles of the Electronic Computer, the first systematic computer science textbook in China; when the University of Science and Technology of China was founded in 1958, Xia was in charge of establishing its computer science department. She taught more than 700 students from 1956 to 1962. Xia advised more than 60 graduate students, two of whom won top national prizes for Ph. D. dissertations. Her students included Li Guojie; when Loongson unveiled China's first indigenously designed CPU in 2002, Hu named it Xia-50 to celebrate her five-decade-long career in computer science.
In 1991, Xia Peisu and her husband Yang Liming were both elected as academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In recognition of her contributions to China's computer industry, the China Computer Federation honoured Xia with its inaugural Lifetime Achievement Award in 2010, along with Zhang Xiaoxiang. In 1945, Xia met an alumnus of National Central University, they married in 1950. Yang became a prominent theoretical physicist; the couple had Yang Yuenian and Yang Yuemin. The children followed the footsteps of their parents: Yuenian became a computer scientist, Yuemin a physicist. Xia died on 27 August 2014, aged 91. Hsia, Pei-Su. I. On parametric oscillations in electronic circuits. A graphical analysis for non-linear systems. University of Edinburgh. Xia Peisu at the National Museum for Modern Chinese Scientists
Wrestling at the 2012 Summer Olympics were held between 5 and 12 August, the final day of the Games, at ExCeL London. It was split into two disciplines and Greco-Roman which were further divided into different weight categories. Men competed in both disciplines whereas women only took part in the freestyle events, with 18 gold medals awarded. Wrestling has been contested at every modern Summer Olympic Games, except Paris 1900. 19 men or 18 women competed in each division, plus 6 others allocated either to the host country or by the tripartite commission into divisions yet to be determined prior to the Olympics. Wrestlers determined by lot competed in qualification rounds to reduce the number to 16, thereafter proceeding by simple knockout to determine the finalists who competed for gold and silver; the two groups of wrestlers defeated in the 3 or 4 bouts of the two finalists competed in two serial elimination repechages, with the victor in each repechage being awarded bronze. All times are British Summer Time Source: 344 wrestlers from 71 nations participated at the 2012 Olympics Men's freestyle 60 kg Besik Kudukhov of Russia won the silver medal, while a retest of his 2012 sample tested positive for banned substances in 2016, the IOC closed the proceedings after learning that Kudukhov died in a car accident in December 2013.
Men's freestyle 74 kg Soslan Tigiev of Uzbekistan won the bronze medal, but he was disqualified in 2016 after a retest of his 2012 sample tested positive for banned substances. Men's freestyle 120 kg Davit Modzmanashvili of Georgia won the silver medal, but was disqualified in January 2019 after a retest of his 2012 sample tested positive for banned substances. Artur Taymazov of Uzbekistan won the gold medal, but was disqualified in July 2019 after a retest of his 2012 sample tested positive for banned substances. "Wrestling at the 2012 Summer Olympics". Archived from the original on 28 February 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2018. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown Wrestling at the 2012 Summer Olympics at SR/Olympics International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles
The German 5th Infantry Division was formed in October 1934 and mobilized on 25 August 1939. The division's troops were garrisoned in Konstanz and Freiburg; when formed, the division consisted of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd battalions of the 14th, 56th, 75th Infantry Regiments, the 1st, 2nd, 3rd Battalions of the 5th Artillery Regiment, the 1st battalion of the 41st Artillery Regiment, assorted 5th Division support units. The division sat out the Invasion of Poland on the western front and first saw battle with the Second Army during the Campaign for France in 1940. Thereafter, the division was engaged in occupation duties in France until March 1941. In April 1941, the division was sent to East Prussia and took part in the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, fighting in the vicinity of Vyazma until the end of the year, when the division was pulled back to France for a two-month refit. In 1942, the division returned to the Eastern Front, took part in the fighting around Demyansk in March and April 1942 and fought in the area of Staraja Russa until the close of 1943.
In July 1942, the division was reorganized as a Jäger division and renamed the 5. Jäger-Division; the division retreated through the areas of Vitebsk and Narev during 1944. In early 1945, the division fought in the vicinities of Neustettin and Dramburg, with its last battles fought around Freienwalde near the Oder River during the Battle of Berlin in April 1945; the division surrendered to the Red Army at Wittenberge. The main purpose of the German Jäger Divisions was to fight in adverse terrain where smaller, coordinated units were more facilely combat capable than the brute force offered by the standard infantry divisions; the Jäger divisions were more equipped than mountain division, but not as well armed as a larger infantry division. In the early stages of the war, they were the interface divisions fighting in rough terrain and foothills as well as urban areas, between the mountains and the plains; the Jägers relied on a high degree of training, superior communications, as well as their not inconsiderable artillery support.
In the middle stages of the war, as the standard infantry divisions were downsized, the Jäger structure of divisions with two infantry regiments, became the standard table of organization. In 1943, Adolf Hitler declared that all infantry divisions were now VolksGrenadier Divisions except for his elite Jäger and Mountain Jaeger divisions. Generalmajor Eugen Hahn, 1 October 1934 – 10 August 1938 Generalleutnant Wilhelm Fahrmbacher, August 1938 – 25 October 1940 Generalmajor Karl Allmendinger, 25 October 1940 – renamed to 5. Leichte Infanterie-Division General der Infanterie Karl Allmendinger, November 1940 – June 1942 Oberst Walter Jost, June 1942 – redesignated to 5. Jäger-Division General der Infanterie Karl Allmendinger, July 1942 – 4 January 1943 General der Infanterie Helmut Thumm, 4 January 1943 – 1 March 1944 Generalmajor Johannes Gittner, 1 March 1944 – 30 June 1944 General der Infanterie Helmut Thumm, 30 June 1944 – 1 November 1944 Generalleutnant Friedrich Sixt, 1 November 1944 – 19 April 1945 Generalleutnant Edmund Blaurock, 19 April 1945 – April 1945 Order of battle of the German Ninth Army, October 1941 Hitler's Legions, Samuel W. Mitcham, Jr. Briarcliff Manor: Stein and Day, 1985.
Burkhard Müller-Hillebrand: Das Heer 1933–1945. Entwicklung des organisatorischen Aufbaues. Vol. III: Der Zweifrontenkrieg. Das Heer vom Beginn des Feldzuges gegen die Sowjetunion bis zum Kriegsende. Mittler: Frankfurt am Main 1969, p. 285. Georg Tessin: Verbände und Truppen der deutschen Wehrmacht und Waffen-SS im Zweiten Weltkrieg, 1939–1945. Vol. II: Die Landstreitkräfte 1–5. Mittler: Frankfurt am Main 1966