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Interstate 93

Interstate 93 is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States. It begins in Canton, Massachusetts, in the Boston metropolitan area, at I-95, it is one of three mainline Interstate highways located wholly within New England, the other two being I-89 and I-91. The largest cities along its route are Manchester, New Hampshire, Boston, Massachusetts, it passes through the New Hampshire state capital of Concord. For most of its length, I-93 indirectly parallels U. S. Route 3. In New Hampshire, the two highways have several interchanges with each other, as well as a concurrency through Franconia Notch State Park. I-93 follows the Southeast Expressway south of downtown Boston, the Central Artery through Boston, the Northern Expressway from Boston to the New Hampshire state line. Interstate 93's southern terminus is at exit 12 of I-95 in Canton, co-signed with U. S. Route 1 North. At this junction, I-95 North heads to the northwest, to serve as the beltway around Boston, while I-95 South runs by itself southwest through Boston's southwestern suburbs toward Rhode Island.

This violates the numbering plan for the highway system of the United States, which dictates that the signed number for odd-numbered interstates increase from west to east, therefore I-95 should be farther east than I-93. The southernmost 3 miles of I-93 run east through Boston's southern suburbs, passing through Canton and Randolph. In Randolph, I-93 meets the northern end of Route 24 at Exit 4. I-93 continues east into Braintree, interchanging with Route 3, the major freeway linking Boston to Cape Cod, at Exit 7. Route 3 North joins I-93 and US-1, the highway turns north toward Boston; these first 7 miles of I-93 follows what was part of Massachusetts Route 128 before it was truncated at the I-95/I-93 junction and many locals still refer to this section of roadway as part of Route 128. Upon turning northward, the highway is known as the Southeast Expressway passing through Quincy and Milton before crossing into the city of Boston over the Neponset River. After the Massachusetts Avenue connector exit, the highway becomes the John F. Fitzgerald Expressway, known as the Central Artery, passes beneath downtown Boston.

A major intersection with the Massachusetts Turnpike/Interstate 90 takes place just south of downtown Boston. After the massive interchange, motorists use the Thomas P. O'Neill Jr. Tunnel to travel underneath the city and use Zakim Bunker Hill Bridge to cross the Charles River. Two exits are located in the tunnel. Route 3 leaves the Artery just before the Zakim bridge via Exit 26, U. S. Route 1 leaves the Artery just after the bridge, via Exit 27. From Boston through the rest of Massachusetts, Concord, NH appears as the control city on northbound overhead signs; the Artery ends. I-93 continues through the northern suburbs of Boston, coming in Woburn to a second intersection with Interstate 95 and Route 128, which run in a concurrency. Travelers going north can either change over to I-95 north to reach Maine, or remain on I-93 toward New Hampshire. Farther north, in Andover, I-93 meets I-495, providing access to Worcester to the southwest and New Hampshire's seacoast region to the northeast. Just south of the state line, I-93 crosses the Merrimack River into Methuen, where it interchanges with Routes 110 and 113 at exit 46 just north of the river crossing.

Prior to August 2016, the Route 110 and 113 junction beneath I-93 was a rotary, but current construction routes the highways straight under I-93. While two new ramps are being built at the interchange to complete the new partial cloverleaf format, there are temporary signals and inlets at the end of two existing ramps to serve traffic that will soon be using the new loop ramps. Work began in July 2014, on the project, with the rotary closed, demolition of the rotary will be underway in late 2016; the full project is scheduled for completion in June 2018. I-93 interchanges with the western end of Route 213, a connector between I-93 and I-495. I-93 crosses into New Hampshire after about 1 mile. In all, I-93 has 48 numbered exits in Massachusetts, although several numbers are skipped in and near Boston. One noteworthy reason that some exits were removed from I-93 is to further address traffic problems in addition to converting the Central Artery from six to eight to ten lanes, by reducing the combined number of on- and off-ramps from 27 to 14.

Exit 48 in Methuen, just before the New Hampshire state line, is the highest-numbered exit along the entire route. I-93 once had only 22 exits prior to the re-routing of I-95 onto MA 128. Due to the highway being one of the two major Interstates that enter Boston directly, nearly the entire length of the highway in Massachusetts carries four lanes in each direction. Average daily traffic volumes on I-93 in the state range from 100,000 vehicles at the New Hampshire border and 150,000 vehicles at the southern end at I-95 to over 200,000 vehicles through Braintree and Quincy. Interstate 93 travels just over 131 miles in the Granite State, around two-thirds of the highway's total distance. Serving as the main interstate route in New Hampshire, it connects the state capital and its largest city, Manchester. Beyond Concord are the towns of Tilton and Littleton. I-93 is designated as the Alan B. Shepard Highway, from the Massachusetts line to Hooksett (just north of Manchester at


Krikor is a Western Armenian given name, equivalent to Eastern Armenian given name Grigor and the English equivalent Gregory and its variants in different languages. A diminutive of the name is Koko. Notable people with the name include: Gregory of Narek, or Krikor Naregatsi, Armenian monk, mystical philosopher and saint of the Armenian Apostolic ChurchCatholicoiGregory the Illuminator, patron saint and first official head of the Armenian Apostolic Church Gregory II the Martyrophile, Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church Gregory IV the Young Gregory V of Cilicia Gregory VI of Cilicia Gregory VII of Cilicia Gregory VIII of Cilicia Gregory IX of Cilicia Gregory X Gregory XI Gregory XII Armenian Patriarchs of JerusalemKrikor Yetesattzi of Jerusalem Patriarch Krikor of Jerusalem Patriarch Krikor of Jerusalem Patriarch Krikor Kantzagehtzee of Jerusalem Krikor Shiravantzee Armenian patriarchs of ConstantinoplePatriarch Krikor I of Constantinople Patriarch Krikor II of Constantinople Patriarch Krikor III of Constantinople Patriarch Krikor IV of Constantinople ContemporaryKrikor Bedros XV Agagianian or Grégoire-Pierre Agagianian, Patriarch Catholicos of Cilicia of the Armenian Catholic Church and Catholic cardinal.

Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples Krikor Balakian, Armenian bishop Krikor Bedros XX Gabroyan, Patriarch-Catholicos of the Armenian Catholic Church Krikor Agathon, Egyptian sport shooter and Olympian Krikor Agopian, Lebanese Armenian painter Krikor Alozian, Lebanese Armenian footballer Krikor Amirian, Armenian Revolutionary, who participated in the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia Krikor Ayvazian, Armenian Catholic Bishop of Qamishli Krikor Azaryan, Bulgarian Armenian theatre director Krikor Balyan, Armenian architect Krikor Beledian, Lebanese-born Armenian writer, literary critic, translator living in France Krikor Kalfayan, Armenian writer, lecturer and musicologist Krikor Mekhitarian, Brazilian Armenian chess grandmaster Krikor Odian, Ottoman Armenian jurist and writer Krikor Ohanian, original name of Mike Connors, American actor Krikor Peshtimaldjian, Ottoman Armenian philosopher, educator and linguist Krikor Zohrab, Ottoman Armenian writer Kirkor Kirkorov or Krikor Kirkorian, Bulgarian Armenian boxer Grégoire Aslan born Krikor Aslanian, Swiss ethnic Armenian actor and musician Gregor, born Krikor Kélékian, jazz bandleader Grigor Krikorian Gregory and variant Gregor

The Monkey and the Cat

The Monkey and the Cat is best known as a fable adapted by Jean de La Fontaine under the title Le Singe et le Chat that appeared in the second collection of his Fables in 1679. Although there is no evidence that the story existed before the 15th century, it began to appear in collections of Aesop's Fables from the 17th century but is not included in the Perry Index. There are popular idioms derived from it in both English and French with the general meaning of being the dupe of another. Usage of these and reference to the fable have been employed in political contexts. In La Fontaine's telling, Bertrand the monkey persuades Raton the cat to pull chestnuts from the embers amongst which they are roasting, promising him a share; as the cat scoops them from the fire one by one, burning his paw in the process, the monkey gobbles them up. They are disturbed by a maid entering and the cat gets nothing for its pains, it is from this fable that the French get their idiom Tirer les marrons du feu, meaning to act as someone's dupe or, deriving from that, to benefit from the dirty work of others.

It is the source of the English idiom'a cat's paw', defined in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary as'one used by another as a tool'. There are earlier idiomatic allusions in 15th century Burgundian sources. Jean Miélot records the saying c'est un bon jeu de chat et singe in his Proverbes and there is another apparent reference to the story in a poem in Jean Molinet's Faictz et dictz. In the following century, Jean-Antoine de Baïf has the version faire comme le singe, tirer les marrons du feu avec la patte du chat in his Mimes, enseignements et proverbes and John Florio includes the saying in his collection of idioms Second Frutes. However, the earliest surviving texts relating the story date from the mid-16th century and some of these have a puppy in place of a cat as the monkey's victim. Johannes Sambucus reports it as happening in the Dutch town of Bergen op Zoom in his Emblemata; the Latin poem there continues,'A small monkey gave us an example noteworthy and amusing for its cunning. For, when he saw the chestnuts buried in the hearth, he began to brush the ash aside but, afraid of the burning coals, he seized the foot of a sleeping puppy and stole it out.'

The same story involving a sleeping dog appeared in other emblem books, including the Choice of Emblemes by the English poet Geoffrey Whitney, who draws a political lesson from it in common with the other emblematists: Which shewes, when as ambition fowle doth prick The hartes of kinges there is no remorce, But oftentimes, to aunswere theire desire, The subjectes feele both famine and fire. A version in which a cat figures is in Marcus Gheeraerts the Elder's illustrated book of fables, De warachtighe fabulen der dieren, with Flemish verse provided by the foremost Netherlandic emblematist Edewaerd de Dene. A French version of the Fabulen was published in 1578 under the title Esbatement moral des animaux. There were several adaptations of Gheeraert's figure in the following century; the Dutch poet Joost van den Vondel published an emblematic collection based on his prints, Vorstelijke Warande der Dieren, in which the poem Den aap en de katte appears. In England the scene was reused as one of twelve circular engravings, intended for trenchers, made in 1630-36.

The text around the edge of the picture reads: "The Monkey seing nuts in fire Doth force the Cat to plucke them neir. In Germany it was incorporated into a view of the Schloss Johannisberg wine estate in Daniel Meisner's Thesaurus Philopoliticus of 1623. In this combination of the Emblem book and collection of town plans, the scene of the fable takes place on the lower right and is accompanied by verses illustrating the Latin moral, Alterius Damno Quaeris Lucrum Elsewhere in Europe, the monkey and cat version appears in Simone Majoli's Latin work Dies caniculares, where it is told of the antics of the pet monkey of Pope Julius II at the start of the century, it is from other of these last two that La Fontaine is said to have adapted his story. Before he popularised it, the earlier version had been used by two artists: the Roman painter Tommaso Salini and the Dutch animal painter Abraham Hondius. Both of these illustrate the detail that La Fontaine chose to modify, in which the monkey uses the cat's paw to poke out the chestnuts against its will.

A third version of the story, yet again quoted as happening was contained in Gemelli Careri's Voyage round the world and related by'the admiral of the Portuguese fleet in India' as witnessed by him. One of the channels through which the fable was taken to be Aesop's was its inclusion among the hydraulic statues in the labyrinth of Versailles in 1669; these were accompanied by quatrains by Isaac de Benserade, which subsequently appeared in Les fables d'Ésope, mises en françois, avec le sens moral en quatre vers, & des figures à chaque fable. Here the initial quatrain refers to the version where force is used while the prose telling which follows is of La Fontaine's version; the statue accompanied by De Benserade's verse is described in Daniel Bellamy's 18th centur

Romanian Front

The Romanian Front was a moderate fascist party created in Romania in 1935. Led by former Prime Minister Alexandru Vaida-Voevod, it originated as a right-wing splinter group from the mainstream National Peasants' Party. While in power, Vaida had an ambiguous approach to the Iron Guard, constructed his own radical ideology, it was subsumed to the policies of King Carol II, maneuvering between the mainstream National Liberals, the PNȚ's left-wing, the more radically fascist Guardists. Vaida tried to compete with the former two and appease the latter, assuming fascist trappings such as the black-shirted uniform. Like the Guard, he supported aligning Romania with the Axis powers, though he hoped to obtain their guarantees for Greater Romania's borders; the FR's lower echelons included Viorel Tilea and other opponents of Vaida's approach, who believed in Romania's attachments to the League of Nations and the Little Entente. Albeit invested with the king's trust and counting experienced politicians among its cadres, the FR was always a minor force in Romanian politics, was habitually defeated in by-elections.

Its peak influence was recorded during the local elections of June 1937, when it emerged as the second most popular party in Ilfov County. Early on, it was courted by other radical groups, narrowly failing to absorb the National Agrarian Party, it came to depend on the more powerful National Christian Party, with which it formed a political alliance in 1935. Called "National Bloc", it too failed to produce a full merger between its components, as Vaida had qualms about the unchecked Germanophilia of his partners. In years, the FR made several sustained efforts to reunite with, or to absorb, the "centrist" wing of the PNȚ; the FR's hostility toward successive National Liberal governments gave way to cooperation after the latter embraced ethnic discrimination. This rapprochement resulted in a cartel, formed by the two parties during the 1937 general election; this controversial move bled the FR of members and supporters, including a massive defection by D. R. Ioanițescu and his supporters. After the country witnessed a descent into political violence with clashes between monarch and the Guardists, the Front allowed itself to be absorbed into Carol's sole legal party, the National Renaissance Front in 1938.

From 1940, Vaida served as the Front's Chairman. The Front had its roots in the second and third governments of Vaida-Voevod, which were characterized by growing levels of antisemitism and discussions regarding the possibility of barring Jews from a number of public posts; as an ideologue shaped by the Transylvanian school of nationalism, Vaida-Voevod found inspiration in the work of economic antisemites and authoritarians such as Karl Lueger and Aurel Popovici. In the late 1920s, his views were shaped by eugenics and biopolitics, leading him to demand the state-managed preservation of a pure peasant stock, against "biological competition"; the antisemitic measures were taken to the background of agitation by another homegrown fascist movement, the Iron Guard, which Vaida-Voevod had protected and supported in his terms as Interior Minister. Against the Guard and other violent organizations, Vaida-Voevod passed laws limiting political freedoms and establishing curfews. Vaida was in turn attacked by the Guardist press as a "Freemason" though, Vaida claimed, his attachment to the Lodge was purely formal and instrumental.

This issue had been highlighted during the 1920s by A. C. Cuza's National-Christian Defense League. According to its manifestos, "the Freemason Vaida" had acquiesced to the Minority Treaties, which "delivered us, arms tied, legs tied, to the Kikes". Another accusation brought up against Vaida was his partnership in Jewish-owned businesses, in particular the Marmorosch Blank Bank. In defending himself and reclaiming a similar discourse, Vaida argued that his brief experience with the Lodge had cemented in him the belief that Masons were "Jewified". Rival politicians regarded Vaida as a man who secretly cultivated the Guard, who thus refrained from intensifying its persecution; this accusation was voiced by Armand Călinescu, Victor Iamandi and Victor Moldovan. At the time, Vaida had emerged as the leader of a distinct, radical-right, faction of the PNȚ, he backed the authoritarian King Carol II, while the moderates, under Iuliu Maniu, supported liberal democracy, calling the right-wing "extra-constitutional".

For his part, Vaida wanted. Party unity was maintained courtesy of Maniu's Transylvanian supporters, including a centrist group led by Zaharia Boilă and Corneliu Coposu. Writing at the time, the left-wing radical journalist Petre Constantinescu-Iași claimed that the conflict reflected differences in global orientation: Maniu's Francophile support base against Vaida's Anglo–Germanophilia; the latter, he proposed, was aiming for "the complete and definitive, fascization" of Romania. Vaida still viewed himself as a moderate Francophile, chiding other figures for being in complete "subservience to France". Overall, he declared his sympathy for his French conservatism, his praise for a "Christian France" puzzled commentators, who noted that this political culture no longer existed in the form imagined by Vaida, or that it was reduc


Exaile is a cross-platform free and open-source audio player, tag editor and library organizer. It was conceived to be similar in style and functions to KDE's Amarok 1.4, but uses the GTK+ widget toolkit rather than Qt. It utilizes the GStreamer media framework. Exaile incorporates many features from Amarok like automatic fetching of album art, handling of large libraries, lyrics fetching, support, advanced tag editing, optional iPod and MSC device support via plugins. Compared to typical music players, Exaile is able to handle large music libraries without requiring a massive importing of all music files into its own organizational structure. To facilitate this, Exaile allows users to organize their music library in a wide variety of ways; such as by tags, group tags, smart playlists, storage location, more. In addition, Exaile supports plugins that provide features such as ReplayGain support, an equalizer with presets, previewing tracks via a secondary soundcard, Moodbar integration.

Quod Libet Comparison of free software for audio#Players NotesReview: Exaile Makes Playing Music Simple and Stress-Free, by Review: Exaile Media Player, by Official website exaile on GitHub Exaile documentation

Reductions with hydrosilanes

Reductions with hydrosilanes are chemical reactions that involve the combination of an organosilane with an organic substrate containing unsaturated or electron-withdrawing functionality. Products in which the electron-withdrawing group has been replaced by hydrogen or the unsaturated group has been hydrogenated result. Silicon is less electronegative than hydrogen. In the presence of a strong electrophile, organosilanes containing an Si-H bond can serve as hydride donors to electrophilic organic substrates. Alcohols, alkyl halides, orthoesters, aldehydes and carboxylic acid derivatives may be reduced in good yield using hydrosilanes in conjunction with either a Brønsted or Lewis acid or an activating nucleophile; because only reactive electrophiles undergo reduction, selectivity is possible in reactions of substrates with multiple reducible functional groups. Chiral Lewis acids and metal complexes may be used for the enantioselective reduction of ketones with hydrosilanes. Hydrosilanes are not intrinsically nucleophilic.

However, many resonance-stabilized carbocations are insufficiently electrophilic to react with hydrosilanes. Upon the generation of a carbocation, rate-determining hydride transfer from the organosilane occurs to yield a reduced product and a neutral silane in which the counterion of the carbocation has replaced hydrogen. Prior to hydride transfer, the carbocation intermediate is liable to undergo Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements; this simple picture is complicated by experimental observations that point to more complex mechanisms. For instance, retention of configuration at silicon has been observed in silane reductions of chiral triaryl methyl chlorides in benzene; this result suggests that the exchange of chlorine for hydrogen occurs through σ-bond metathesis, without the formation of a planar silicenium ion. Reductions in more polar solvents may involve silicenium ions, although the extent of racemization at silicon depends on the polarity of the solvent. Hypervalent silicon species are the active reducing agent when nucleophiles with a high affinity for silicon, such as fluoride, are added to the reaction mixture.

Coordination of an anionic nucleophile such as fluoride to silicon increases its reducing power such that reductions of aldehydes and ketones can occur without the help of a Lewis acid. In organosilane reductions of substrates bearing prostereogenic groups, diastereoselectivity is high. Reduction of either diastereomer of 2-phenyl-2-norbornanol leads to the endo diastereomer of 2-phenylnorbornane. None of the exo diastereomer was observed. Enantioselective reductions of ketones may be accomplished through the use of catalytic amounts of chiral transition metal complexes. In some cases, the transition metal serves as a Lewis acid that coordinates to the ketone oxygen. In the presence of rhodium catalyst 1 and rhodium trichloride, 2-phenylcyclohexanone is reduced with no diastereoselectivity but high enantioselectivity. Organosilanes are used to reduce alcohols to alkanes in the presence of a strong Lewis acid. Brønsted acids may be used, although cationic, skeletal rearrangements, nucleophilic attack of the conjugate base on the carbocation may be problematic.

The rate of reduction increases with increasing substitution at the alcohol carbon—tertiary alcohols undergo facile reduction with boron trifluoride etherate but primary alcohols require an excess of the silane, a stronger Lewis acid, longer reaction times. Allylic alcohols may be deoxygenated in the presence of tertiary alcohols when ethereal lithium perchlorate is employed. Reductions of alkyl halides and triflates give poorer yields in general than reductions of alcohols. A Lewis acid aluminium chloride or bromide, is required regardless of the substitution pattern of the alkyl halide. Benzyl halides may be reduced with trifluoroacetic acid in high yield. Hydrosilanes are useful for the reduction of 1,1-disubstituted double bonds, which form stable tertiary carbocations upon protonation. Trisubstituted double bonds may be reduced selectively in the presence of 1,2-disubstituted or monosubstituted alkenes. Notably, aromatic compounds may triethylsilane. Substituted furans are reduced to tetrahydrofuran derivatives in high yield.

Esters may be reduced to alcohols under conditions of nucleophilic activation with caesium or potassium fluoride. Aldehydes undergo hydrosilylation in the presence of hydrosilanes and fluoride; the resulting silyl ethers can be hydrolyzed with 1 M hydrochloric acid. Optimal yields of the hydrosilylation are obtained when the reaction is carried out in polar solvents. Solvent Yield CH 2 Cl 2 1 THF 9 Me 2 NCOH 56 DMPU 89 HMPA 91 Acetals and aminals are reduced in the presence of hydrosilanes and acid. Site-selectiv