In astronomy, the interstellar medium is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy. This matter includes gas in ionic and molecular form, as well as dust and cosmic rays, it fills interstellar space and blends smoothly into the surrounding intergalactic space. The energy that occupies the same volume, in the form of electromagnetic radiation, is the interstellar radiation field; the interstellar medium is composed of multiple phases distinguished by whether matter is ionic, atomic, or molecular, the temperature and density of the matter. The interstellar medium is composed of hydrogen, followed by helium with trace amounts of carbon and nitrogen comparatively to hydrogen; the thermal pressures of these phases are in rough equilibrium with one another. Magnetic fields and turbulent motions provide pressure in the ISM, are more important, than the thermal pressure is. In all phases, the interstellar medium is tenuous by terrestrial standards. In cool, dense regions of the ISM, matter is in molecular form, reaches number densities of 106 molecules per cm3.
In hot, diffuse regions of the ISM, matter is ionized, the density may be as low as 10−4 ions per cm3. Compare this with a number density of 1019 molecules per cm3 for air at sea level, 1010 molecules per cm3 for a laboratory high-vacuum chamber. By mass, 99% of the ISM is gas in any form, 1% is dust. Of the gas in the ISM, by number 91% of atoms are hydrogen and 8.9% are helium, with 0.1% being atoms of elements heavier than hydrogen or helium, known as "metals" in astronomical parlance. By mass this amounts to 70% hydrogen, 28% helium, 1.5% heavier elements. The hydrogen and helium are a result of primordial nucleosynthesis, while the heavier elements in the ISM are a result of enrichment in the process of stellar evolution; the ISM plays a crucial role in astrophysics because of its intermediate role between stellar and galactic scales. Stars form within the densest regions of the ISM, which contributes to molecular clouds and replenishes the ISM with matter and energy through planetary nebulae, stellar winds, supernovae.
This interplay between stars and the ISM helps determine the rate at which a galaxy depletes its gaseous content, therefore its lifespan of active star formation. Voyager 1 reached the ISM on August 25, 2012, making it the first artificial object from Earth to do so. Interstellar plasma and dust will be studied until the mission's end in 2025, its twin, Voyager 2 entered the ISM in November 2019. Table 1 shows a breakdown of the properties of the components of the ISM of the Milky Way. Field, Goldsmith & Habing put forward the static two phase equilibrium model to explain the observed properties of the ISM, their modeled ISM consisted of a cold dense phase, consisting of clouds of neutral and molecular hydrogen, a warm intercloud phase, consisting of rarefied neutral and ionized gas. McKee & Ostriker added a dynamic third phase that represented the hot gas, shock heated by supernovae and constituted most of the volume of the ISM; these phases are the temperatures where cooling can reach a stable equilibrium.
Their paper formed the basis for further study over the past three decades. However, the relative proportions of the phases and their subdivisions are still not well known; this model takes into account only atomic hydrogen: Temperature larger than 3000 K breaks molecules, lower than 50 000 K leaves atoms in their ground state. It is assumed. Pressure is assumed low, so that durations of free paths of atoms are larger than the ~ 1 nanosecond duration of light pulses which make ordinary, temporally incoherent light. In this collisionless gas, Einstein's theory of coherent light-matter interactions applies, all gas-light interactions are spatially coherent. Suppose that a monochromatic light is pulsed scattered by molecules having a quadrupole resonance frequency. If “length of light pulses is shorter than all involved time constants”, an “impulsive stimulated Raman scattering ” works: While light generated by incoherent Raman at a shifted frequency has a phase independent on phase of exciting light, thus generates a new spectral line, coherence between incident and scattered light allows their interference into a single frequency, thus shifts incident frequency.
Assume that a star radiates a continuous light spectrum up to X rays. Lyman frequencies are absorbed in this light and pump atoms to first excited state. In this state, hyperfine periods are longer than 1 ns, so that an ISRS “may” redshift light frequency, populating high hyperfine levels. Another ISRS “may” transfer energy from hyperfine levels to thermal electromagnetic waves, so that redshift is permanent. Temperature of a light beam is defined from spectral radiance by Planck's formula; as entropy must increase, “may” becomes “does”. However, where a absorbed line reaches Lyman alpha frequency, redshifting process stops and all hydrogen lines are absorbed, but the stop is not perfect if there is energy at frequency shifted to Lyman beta frequency, which produces a slow redshift. Successive redshifts separated by Lyman absorptions generate many absorption lines, frequencies of which, deduced from absorption process, obey a law more dependable than Karlsson's formula; the previous process excites more and more atoms because a de-excitation obeys Einstein's law of coherent interactions: Variation dI of radi
Great Grandson of Morris On, produced by Ashley Hutchings, recorded and released in 2004, is the fourth volume in the series of Morris dance tunes. Spiers and Boden experienced a blaze of publicity shortly after recording their contribution to this album, which appeared on the compilation album The Magic of Morris. There are more amateur musicians on this album than on the previous volumes in the series. Roger Wilson, Ken Nicol, Simon Care, Ashley Hutchings, Guy Fletcher, Bryony Griffith, John Spiers, Jon Boden, Neil Wayne, John Shepherd, Lawrence Wright, Mark Rogers, Dogrose Morris The Outside Capering Crew William Hampson. "Occasional Brass" (consisting of Martin Battersby, Peter Broadbent, Darryl Jackson, Matthew Challender, Mark Wardle, James Pickering, Judy Dunlop. Produced by Ashley Hutchings. Running time 55 minutes 12 seconds. "At the May Day celebrations" "Swaggering Boney " "Banbury Bill /Shepherd's Hey " "Winster Morris Reel " "London Pride " "Now mind you this " "Highland Mary " "The field and the farm" "The Devil's Details/ The Low Down " "Comes the morris dancer in " "Bonny Green garters " "Every year when the Wakes come along" "First day at t'mill" "The Godley Hill set " "Happy the Age " "The Rose " "Jack-in-the-green on Saturday night" "Under the old myrtle tree/ Morning star/ Billy Boy/ Banks of the Dee " "Washing day "
The Pentagon Police Division is the principal law enforcement arm of the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. PPD's role is to provide law enforcement and protective security services for The Pentagon and other Office of the Secretary of Defense activities in the National Capital Region; these services include patrol and investigation of criminal activity as well as protection of designated Defense officials. Prior to 1971, the General Service Administration's United States Special Policeman conducted law enforcement and security functions at the Pentagon; the protection programs were a "guard-watchman" operation, where USSP were concerned with the protection of property. However, in response to a growing number of disruptive incidents throughout the country affecting federal facilities under GSA control, attention to the security program had to be re-examined; as a result of mass demonstrations and bomb threats within the country and region, the Federal Protective Service was established and the comprehensive protection of Pentagon personnel rather than the previous policy of concentration on property were developed.
On October 1, 1987, the GSA Administrator delegated authority for protecting the Pentagon Reservation to the Department of Defense. In order to carry out the new mission, DoD established the Defense Protective Service as a new organization within the Washington Headquarters Service. Known as the Defense Protective Service until 2002, the Pentagon Police has exclusive jurisdiction within the Pentagon Reservation and has concurrent jurisdiction with other law enforcement agencies in an area of 275 acres around the complex. Pentagon Police officers have jurisdiction at Department of Defense leased property throughout the National Capital Region, at the US Military Court of Appeals in Washington, D. C. Additionally, they are charged with the protection of various Department of Defense executive officers. Through a Memorandum of Understanding with Arlington County, Pentagon Police possess conditional police authority throughout Arlington County. On March 4, 2010, a gunman, identified as John Patrick Bedell, who espoused anti-government views and wounded two officers at a security checkpoint in the Pentagon Metro station.
The officers returned fire. He died a few hours the following day. Officer and agents of USPPD are sworn federal officers, appointed under Title 10 §2674 of the United States Code and possess full federal authority, as authorized by Section 2674, they receive basic and advanced law enforcement training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers location in Glynco, Georgia. The Pentagon Police has an assortment of career specialties including: Emergency Response Team, K-9, Mobile Patrol, Protective Services Unit, Criminal Investigation, Training Division and Court Liaison, Recruiting Division; as of April 2015 the Motorcycle Unit was disbanded. The mission of the PPD Criminal Investigation and Internal Affairs Division is to investigate criminal acts occurring within the Pentagon and certain other designated DoD buildings, both U. S. Government owned and leased located within the National Capital Region; the CI/IAD is the investigative arm of the PPD and as such, is responsible to respond to and investigate felony offenses committed in the mentioned area of responsibility.
PPD CI/IA has three distinct investigative missions: Criminal Investigations Internal Affairs Investigations, Special Crimes UnitPPD CI/IAD personnel are series 1811. They are trained in the full spectrum of criminal investigation matters, including forensic topics such as crime scene processing, interview/interrogation, crime scene photography, surveillance, among others; the Investigators receive specialized and the most up-to-date forensic and interview/interrogation training conducted at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers and from military and local courses. PPD Criminal Investigators are responsible for investigating violations of Title 18 United States Code, Title 21 United States Code as it pertains to Drug Enforcement, Code of Federal Regulations 32, Section 40b as it pertains to conduct on the Pentagon reservation, Code of Federal Regulations 41 as it pertains to conduct in locations under the purview of the Department of Defense. Investigators are required to have a working knowledge of the Criminal Code of the Commonwealth of Virginia, the Criminal Code of the State of Maryland, the Criminal Code of the District of Columbia since their investigations may require Investigators to obtain arrest and/or search and seizure warrants in those jurisdictions.
A close working relationship with the U. S. Attorney's office and/or state and local prosecutors is required in order to prepare investigative reports, testify before grand juries, in Federal, state or local court in order to achieve a successful prosecution. PPD CI/IAD work with most all federal, military and local law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the United States Secret Service, the individual service investigative activities; the Internal Affairs section investigates allegations within PFPA of criminal and administrative nature involving PFPA members. The K-9 Unit is the explosive detection unit for the Department of Defense community in and around the Washington D. C. area. The K-9 Unit is organized into several teams that provide both proactive and reactive law enforcement functions in order to ensure a safe working environment at the Pentagon Reservation and its other associat
Matthew Frederick Robert Good is a Canadian singer-songwriter. He was the lead singer and songwriter for the Matthew Good Band, one of the most successful alternative rock bands in Canada during the 1990s and early 2000s. Since the band disbanded in 2002, Good has pursued a solo career and established himself as a political commentator and mental health activist. Between 1996 and 2016, with the sales of the Matthew Good Band included, Good was the 25th best-selling Canadian artist in Canada. Good has received 21 Juno Award nominations during his career. Good's introduction into the music scene began when he was asked by members of a folk group to write lyrics for them while he was in high school. Good began singing with the group. Good continued to write songs. Good's early career in music involved a variety of folk demos and a stint as the lead singer of a folk band, The Rodchester Kings. Matthew Good and guitarist Simon Woodcock were discovered at an open mic at Simon Fraser University by manager Brent Christensen.
Early Rodchester Kings demos were recorded at Fragrant Time Records in Burnaby by Greg Wasmuth and Steven Codling. From 1992 to 1993, Good recorded short demo tapes called "Left of Normal", "Broken", "Euphony", which featured the acoustic songs "Mercy Misses You", "Heather's Like Sunday", the title track "Euphony". In 1994, he won a prize from 99.3 The Fox's Seeds competition, an annual competition of local Vancouver-based bands. The prize included recording time at a local studio/recording school, where, in September 1994, along with band members Steve Codling, Judy Renouf, Eran Vooys, Ariel Watson, recorded "15 Hours on a September Thursday"; this demo tape included the songs "Second Sun", "The Ocean", "Last of the Ghetto Astronauts". In December 1994, the band signed a publishing deal with EMI Publishing. In March 1995, the original band went on tour across Canada. Upon return, the band split up and Matt started over with a new group of musicians. Good formed a three-piece rock band in 1995 composed of himself, drummer Ian Browne and bassist Geoff Lloyd.
Dave Genn only recorded with the band as a paid session musician. The four recorded Last of the Ghetto Astronauts; the band released the album independently in 1995, after which Genn joined the band. The band was not called "Matthew Good Band". In fact, the first 5000 copies of Last of the Ghetto Astronauts were just titled "MGB". After the album was released, "Alabama Motel Room" began to receive significant radio airplay, people began requesting the song on radio and the album at retail stores calling the band, "Matthew Good Band". At the time, the band had been having conversations about the band's name, but the band decided that the band would be called "Matthew Good Band". Although popular only in the Vancouver area, the band began to have more success across Canada in 1996, with the singles "Alabama Motel Room" and "Symbolistic White Walls" becoming significant hits on radio and their music videos being played on MuchMusic. In December 1996, Matthew Good Band signed a two-album deal with Private Music.
In mid-January 1997, on the first day of pre-production for their next album, the group was notified that BMG Entertainment North America was merging Private Music into Windham Hill/High Street Records, putting a halt to the production of the album. In mid-March, after negotiations, Windham Hill/High Street released the group from its contract. Good was paid what he was owed for the two albums, the group decided to record the new album regardless of label support, using the money received from the divorce of their contract with Windham Hill/High Street to fund it; the group agreed to release the upcoming album under a distribution agreement with PolyGram Group Canada. After releasing the EP Raygun in May 1997, the band that year released their second full-length album, Underdogs; the album was produced by Warne Livesey, who would go on to produce every full-length MGB album and most of Good's subsequent solo albums. The album spawned the singles "Everything Is Automatic", "Indestructible", "Apparitions" and "Rico", all which were hits in Canada.
In November 1998, Geoff Lloyd left the band. Lloyd was replaced by Rich Priske shortly after. On January 21, 1999, Underdogs was certified Platinum in Canada. In September 1999, the band released Beautiful Midnight; the album debuted at #1 on the Canadian Albums Chart and featured the hit singles "Hello Time Bomb", "Load Me Up" and "Strange Days". The album earned them two Juno awards in 2000, for Best Rock Album. Good himself did not attend the ceremony, guitarist Dave Genn has been quoted as saying that he only attends for the open bar. Beautiful Midnight became the band's best-selling album, being certified Double Platinum in Canada and selling over 300,000 copies by 2016. In 2000, the band's song. In 2000, the band began working on their next album; the album's creation came during a difficult period for Good. While he struggled to deal with the band's success, he was diagnosed with sarcoidosis, prompting him to temporarily quit smoking. Following throat surgery to remove a nodule from a vocal cord, Good stayed in a hotel for three weeks in Whistler to work on songs for the new album.
Good wrote most of the album while unable to sing. Good wrote that he spent much of the time "trying to keep down food supplement bars, trying to forget the growing tension within the band, the high expectations of needing to produce'hit songs', throwing up, trying to find some semblance of direction in my personal life"; the band
George Bacouni, or George Bakhouni, is the appointed Archbishop of the Melkite Greek Catholic Archeparchy of Beirut and Jbeil in Lebanon. He’s been elected Archbishop of the Melkite Greek Catholic Archeparchy of Beirut and Byblos on 8 November 2018. Georges Bacouni was consecrated by Archbishop Habib Bacha, SMSP, of Beirut and Jbeil on 30 July 1995 as diocesan priest. On 22 June 2005 he was appointed successor to Jean Assaad Haddad Archbishop of Tyre in Lebanon and on 27 November 2005 by the Patriarch of Antioch Gregory III Laham, BS was consecrated bishop, his co-consecrators were Archbishop Jean Assaad Haddad and Archbishop Joseph Kallas of Beirut and Jbeil SMSP. On 21 June 2014 he was named by Patriarch Gregory III Laham in accordance with the Melkite Synod Archbishop of the Melkite Greek Catholic Archeparchy of Akka. Pope Francis named him a member of the Congregation for Oriental Churches on 6 August 2019. In an interview on the issue of the shortage of priests and celibacy Bacaouni expressed his surprise at the Roman Catholic Church, which had drawn from the experience of the Eastern Churches with married priests.
His key message was: "Christianity survived in the Middle East because of married priests". On the situation in his diocese, he said that in his 10 parishes 12 priests are active, including eight married priests and four unmarried priests, his conclusion was that celibacy for priests in the Latin rite was always not defined as church discipline and theological or spiritual issue. The exemplary life of married or celibate priests in their communities, the knowledge of theology, preaching the gospel and the celebration of the sacraments became most important to him. In a conversation with "Asianews" Bacouni said as the archbishop of Tyre, that Christians have become a minority in their own country. Since 1970, he noted, had become less the percentage of Christians in the Lebanese population; this has the effect that the pressure of the Muslims would lead to a permanent emigration among Christians. "They feel an increasing alienation to their own country," said Archbishop Bacouni. He therefore called on the Church "by a credible life according to the Gospels and the proclamation of the Word of God, to encourage the Christians."
As a delegate to the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for the Middle East in October 2010, he commented in the final bulletin. He stressed. But, he stresses, we must be able to keep the young people in their home countries, and in order to achieve this, the clergy and the episcopate must make a massive effort. Http://www.catholic-hierarchy.org/bishop/bbakouny.html http://www.gcatholic.org/dioceses/diocese/tyrz0.htm http://www.catholicculture.org/news/headlines/index.cfm?storyid=8192 http://www.pgc-lb.org/eng/melkite_greek_catholic_church/the-Hierarch
Lancia Omicron is a bus chassis produced by the Italian manufacturer Lancia. Production of the Omicron ended in 1936 after 601 total models were built; this chassis was fitted with many different body types, a short and long versions for urban use, as well as a double-decker version. The bus was used for long trips and it was luxurious for the beginning of the 1930s; the bus is used in the deserts for long journeys to connect places in north African countries such as Sudan and Algeria. Advertising of the Omicron chassis in the UK promoted its high load capacity, including a test to demonstrate the chassis carrying eight tons of steel ingots and hauling five laden trailers, a total weight of over 50 tons; the Omicron chassis was available in three versions. The Omicron C had an 8300mm wheelbase, the Omicron L had a longer wheelbase of 9530mm or 9850mm. Urban bus routes such as Rome and Tivoli used two-door bodies coach-built by Carminati; the six-cylinder Lancia 77 engine powered most models with 96 hp outputs.
The first diesel engine for, made in 1934 and showed the innovation from Lancia vehicles