SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Interurban

The interurban is a type of electric railway, with streetcar-like light electric self-propelled railcars which run within and between cities or towns. They were prevalent in North America between 1900 and 1925 and were used for passenger travel between cities and their surrounding suburban and rural communities. Large networks have been built in countries such as Japan, the Netherlands and Poland, many of which survive to the present day. Interurban as a term encompassed the companies, their infrastructure, the cars that ran on the rails; the interurban in the United States, was a valuable cultural institution. Most roads and town streets were unpaved, transportation was by horse-drawn carriages and carts; the interurban provided vital transportation links between the countryside. In 1915, 15,500 miles of interurban railways were operating in the United States. For a time, interurban railways were the fifth-largest industry in the United States. By 1930, most interurbans in North America were gone, with few surviving into the 1950s.

Oliver Jensen, author of American Heritage History of Railroads in America, commented that "...the automobile doomed the interurban whose private tax paying tracks could never compete with the highways that a generous government provided for the motorist." In Japan, the vast majority of the major sixteen private railways have roots as interurban electric railway lines that have taken inspirations from the US. Instead of demolishing their interurbans in 1930's like the US many Japanese interurbans upgraded their networks to Heavy rail standards. Today, these private railway companies have become influential business empires with diverse business interests, encompassing department stores, property developments and tourist resorts. Many Japanese private railway companies still operate department stores at their city termini, develop suburban properties adjacent to stations they own, run special tourist attractions with admission included in package deals with rail tickets; the term "interurban" was coined by a state senator in Indiana.

The Latin, inter urbes, means "between cities". The interurban fit on a continuum between full-fledged railroads. George W. Hilton and John F. Due identified four characteristics of an interurban: Electric power for propulsion. Passenger service as the primary business. Equipment heavier and faster than urban streetcars. Operation on tracks in city streets, in rural areas on roadside tracks or private right-of-way; the definition of "interurban" is blurry. Some town streetcar lines evolved into interurban systems by extending streetcar track from town into the countryside to link adjacent towns together, sometimes by the acquisition of a nearby interurban system. There was a large amount of consolidation of lines following initial construction. Other interurban lines became light rail systems with no street running whatsoever, or they became freight-hauling railroads due to a progressive loss of their initial passenger service over the years. In 1905 the United States Census Bureau defined an interurban as "a street railway having more than half its trackage outside municipal limits."

It drew a distinction between "interurban" and "suburban" railroads. A suburban system was oriented toward a city center in a single urban area and served commuter traffic. A regular railroad moved riders from one city center to another city center and moved a substantial amount of freight; the typical interurban served more than one city, but it served a smaller region and made more frequent stops, it was oriented to passenger rather than freight service. The development of interurbans in the late nineteenth century resulted from the convergence of two trends: improvements in electric traction, an untapped demand for transportation in rural areas in the Midwestern United States; the 1880s saw the first successful deployments of electric traction in streetcar systems. Most of these built on the pioneering work of Frank J. Sprague, who developed an improved method for mounting an electric traction motor and using a trolley pole for pickup. Sprague's work led to widespread acceptance of electric traction for streetcar operations and end of horse-drawn trams.

The late nineteenth century United States witnessed a boom in agriculture which lasted through the First World War, but transportation in rural areas was inadequate. Conventional steam railroads made limited stops in towns; these were supplemented by horse and buggies and steamboats, both of which were slow and the latter of, restricted to navigable rivers. The increased capacity and profitability of the city street railroads offered the possibility of extending them into the countryside to reach new markets linking to other towns; the first interurban to emerge in the United States was the Newark and Granville Street Railway in Ohio, which opened in 1889. It was not a major success; the development of the automobile was in its infancy, to many investors interurbans appeared to be future of local transportation. From 1900 to 1916, a large network of interurban lines was constructed in the United States in the states of Indiana, Pennsylvania, Iowa and California. In 1900, 2,107 miles of interurban track existed, but by 1916, this had increased to 15,580 miles, a seven-fold expansion.

During this expansion, in the regions where they operated in Ohio and Indiana, "...they destroyed the local passenger service of the steam railroad." To show how exceptionally busy the

Charles F. Lynch

Charles F. Lynch is a cancer researcher, whose work has been cited 30,000 times, he is a university professor at the University of Iowa. He is director of two large multi-decade studies. Lynch received his M. D. degree in 1979 and his Ph. D. degree in epidemiology in 1984, both from the University of Iowa. He did his residency in anatomical pathology 1982-1986. Dr. Lynch's primary research interests include the pathology of cancer, cancer epidemiology and environmental epidemiology. Lynch is the principal investigator of the Iowa Cancer Registry, a statewide cancer surveillance program, part of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance and End Results Program; the registry, employing fifty, tracks every case of cancer and its survivors in each Iowa county since 1973. Since before 2003, Lynch managed the program, he is principal investigator for Iowa on the NCI/EPA/NIEHS-funded Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 90,000 commercial pesticide applicators, private pesticide applicators, or spouses of private applicators from the states of Iowa or North Carolina.

He is a co-director of the AHS Coordinating Center. An Update of Cancer Incidence in the Agricultural Health Study Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States Home Radon Testing

Iraurgi SB

Iraurgi Saski Baloia known as Sammic Hostelería for sponsorship reasons, is a professional Basketball team based in Azpeitia, Basque Country, Spain. Founded in 1975, the men's team plays in LEB Oro and the women's team in the Liga Femenina 2. Iraurgi was founded in 1975 and takes its name from the Iraurgi valley, located between Azpeitia and Azkoitia. In its first seasons, the club played the provincial competitions of Gipuzkoa. In 2005, the men's club made its debut in national competition by playing the Liga EBA; the club grew up in the league and in 2009 qualified for the first time to the promotion playoffs to LEB Plata, achieving promotion in their second attempt, in 2010. The club finished in the last position after its debut season, but remained in the league after the existence of vacant spots. Six years on 15 April 2017, the club clinched the title of the 2016–17 LEB Plata and achieved promotion to LEB Oro, second division. In 2015, the women's team clinched promotion to Liga Femenina 2 but was not admitted in the league by the Spanish Basketball Federation.

However, Iraurgi registered in the first division, where in their only season they only won two matches out of 26, being relegated to Liga Femenina 2. LEB Plata: 2016–17 Copa LEB Plata: 2019–20 Euskal Kopa: 2014 Official website