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Invasion of Ryukyu

The invasion of Ryukyu by forces of the Japanese feudal domain of Satsuma took place from March to May of 1609, marked the beginning of the Ryukyu Kingdom's status as a vassal state under the Satsuma domain. The invasion force was met with stiff resistance from the Ryukyuan military on all but one island during the campaign. Ryukyu would remain a vassal state under Satsuma, alongside its long-established tributary relationship with China, until it was formally annexed by Japan in 1879 as the Okinawa Prefecture; the war was called the Disturbance of Kiyū, with 1609 being a kiyū year in the sexagenary cycle. It was called the Japanese Disturbance of Kiyū by the Ryukyu Kingdom. In Japan, the war was called the Ryukyu Expansion or the Entry into Ryukyu during the Edo period, was called the Okinawa Expansion Campaign by many Japanese scholars before WWII. Satsuma's invasion of Ryukyu was the climax of a long tradition of relations between the kingdom and the Shimazu clan of Satsuma; the two regions had been engaged in trade for at least several centuries and for far longer than that.

In the final decades of the 16th century, the Shimazu clan, along with Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who ruled Japan from 1582 to 1598, requested or demanded various types of aid or service from the kingdom on a number of occasions. King Shō Nei met some of these demands. Shō Nei sent a tribute ship, the Aya-Bune, to Satsuma in February or March of 1592, agreed to provide half of his allocated burden in preparation for the invasion of Korea in 1593. However, Shō Nei ignored many communications from Shimazu and Hideyoshi, which spurred the Shimazu, with the permission of the newly established Tokugawa shogunate, to invade Ryukyu in 1609, claiming it to be a punitive mission. One of the chief events which spurred Satsuma to aggression occurred when Hideyoshi launched the first of two invasions of Korea. In 1591, Shimazu Yoshihisa said that "Hideyoshi ordered Ryukyu and Satsuma to contribute 15000 troops in order to invade China. I exempt you from mobilization of the troops. In exchange, you must supply 10 months' rations for 7000 troops."

Sho Nei supplied only half of the demanded amount in 1593. Following Hideyoshi's death in 1598, Tokugawa Ieyasu's subsequent rise to power, Shō Nei was asked by Satsuma to formally submit to the new shogunate, a request, ignored. In 1603, some Ryukyu sailors were cast ashore on the coast of the Sendai domain, Tokugawa Ieyasu sent them back to Ryukyu; the Shimazu asked Ryukyu to thank Ieyasu again. The Shimazu requested to launch a punitive mission against Ryukyu. 100 ships carrying 3,000 soldiers concentrated at Yamakawa harbor on March 1, 1609. Ichirai Magobee, one of them, would write a diary documenting the expedition; the fleet left harbor under the command of Kabayama Hisataka and Hirata Masumune. The Satsuma fleet arrived at Amami Ōshima on April 7, where the Amamian people did not resist, but assisted the Satsuma army. Tameten, the chief of Kasari, was a subject of Kabayama, called on the Amamian people to surrender. Shigetedaru, the chief of Yakiuchi, supplied the Satsuma army. On April 10, Shō Nei was informed of Satsuma's landing on Amami, he sent Ibun, the priest of Tenryu temple, to Amami in order to surrender, but Ibun missed the Satsuma army for unknown reasons.

On April 16, 13 Satsuma ships left for Tokunoshima in advance, the others left Amami at 6am on April 20. On April 17, 13 ships dispersed. Two ships arrived at Kanaguma. Eight ships arrived at Wanya; the ships were besieged all night by 1,000 people. On April 18, Satsuma troops disembarked, fired into the crowds, killed 50 people. Three ships arrived at Akitoku, were attacked at the water's edge by the Akitoku people. However, troops fought back and killed 20-30 people; the Satsuma fleet arrived at Akitoku at 4pm, April 20. On April 21, Kabayama left for Okierabu Island with 10 ships in advance. Others left Tokunoshima at 10am, April 24, arrived at Okierabu at sunset, they met Kabayama and his ships there, departed for Ryukyu Island. The Satsuma fleet arrived at Unten harbor on the Motobu Peninsula of Ryukyu Island on April 25 at 18:00. On April 27, some disembarked, they found Nakijin Castle deserted, set fires in several places. As soon as Shō Nei heard of Satsuma's arrival at Nakijin, he called Kikuin, the zen master, giving him a royal order: "You had lived in Satsuma for several years, so you know three lords of the Shimazu clan well.

Go and make a proposal for peace." Kikuin and his diplomatic mission left the Ryukyuan royal capital, Shuri at 8am, April 26, arrived at Kuraha at 12pm. They left Kuraha for Onna by boat. On April 27, they left Onna, arrived at Nakijin. Kikuin parleyed with Kabayama, who ordered peace talks at Naha. In the early morning of April 29, the Satsuma fleet and Kikuin left, they arrived near Yomitanzan at 6 pm. The Ryukyuan Mission left and arrived at Makiminato at 10pm, where they left their boat, arrived late at night. Kikuin reported Kabayama's order to Shō Nei, went down to Naha in the early morning. At Ōwan, Kabayama sent some of his officers to Naha in order to fulfill his promise, while he disembarked his other men, because he heard tha

Julia Wong Pei Xian

Julia Wong Pei Xian is a badminton player from Malaysia. Wong was a champion of the women' singles event at the national championships in 2005, 2007 and 2008 in the doubles event in 2006. In 2006, she won the women's singles title in Sri Lanka Satellite tournament. Wong played the 2007 BWF World Championships in women's singles, was defeated in the second round by Maria Kristin Yulianti, of Indonesia, 16-21, 21-14, 21-18. In 2008, she played at the Macau Open Badminton Championships in women's singles, cruised to the final against Zhou Mi but she lost to her 21-13, 21-19. Before that she did beat Yip Pui Yin. Women's singles The BWF Grand Prix has two levels: Grand Prix and Grand Prix Gold, it is a series of badminton tournaments, sanctioned by Badminton World Federation since 2007. The World Badminton Grand Prix sanctioned by International Badminton Federation since 1983. Women's singles BWF Grand Prix Gold tournament BWF & IBF Grand Prix tournament Women's singles BWF International Challenge tournament BWF International Series & Asian Satellite tournament BWF Player Profile Badminton Malaysia Player Profile

Words That Sing Well

Words That Sing Well is the second solo album by American musician Clint Lowery, released on April 19, 2011. A hardcopy release of the new album and 2008's Chills EP was released via the official online store on April 15, 2011; the album's instrumental and programming work was recorded at Architekt Music in Butler, NJ, in January 2011 and the vocals and guitar were recorded with Corey Lowery at Clint Lowery's home studio in February 2011. All tracks are written by Clint Lowery. Clint Lowery – Vocals, bass, drums Corey Lowery – Vocal production George Roskos and Kurt Wubbenhorst – executive producers Kurt Wubbenhorst – Additional bass and drums, Programming Mike Ferretti – Engineer, Mixing Jeremy Gillespie – Additional engineer Alan Douches – Mastering Recorded and mixed at Architekt Music in Butler, New Jersey Mastered at West West Side Music in New Windsor, New York BC Kochmit for BCKmedia Inc – Art work, design Official Clint Lowery Website

Enhanced privacy ID

Enhanced Privacy ID is Intel Corporation’s recommended algorithm for attestation of a trusted system while preserving privacy. It has been incorporated in several Intel chipsets since 2008 and Intel processors since 2011. At RSAC 2016 Intel disclosed that it has shipped over 2.4B EPID keys since 2008. EPID complies with international standards ISO/IEC 20008 / 20009, the Trusted Computing Group TPM 2.0 for authentication. Intel contributed EPID intellectual property to ISO/IEC under RAND-Z terms. Intel is recommending that EPID become the standard across the industry for use in authentication of devices in the Internet of Things and in December 2014 announced that it was licensing the technology to third-party chip makers to broadly enable its use. EPID is an enhancement of the Direct Anonymous Attestation algorithm. DAA is a digital signature algorithm supporting anonymity. Unlike traditional digital signature algorithms, in which each entity has a unique public verification key and a unique private signature key, DAA provides a common group public verification key associated with many of unique private signature keys.

DAA was created so that a device could prove to an external party what kind of device it is without needing to provide device identity, i.e. to prove you are an authentic member of a group without revealing which member. EPID enhances DAA by providing an additional utility of being able to revoke a private key given a signature created by that key if the key itself is still unknown. In 1999 the Pentium III added a Processor Serial Number as a way to create identity for security of endpoints on the internet. However, privacy advocates were concerned and Intel chose to remove the feature in versions. Building on improving asymmetric cryptography of the time and group keys, Intel Labs researched and standardized a way to get to the benefits of PSN while preserving privacy. There are three roles when using EPID: Issuer and Verifier; the issuer is the entity. The member is the entity, trying to prove its membership in a group; the verifier is the entity, checking an EPID signature to establish whether it was signed by an entity or device, an authentic member of the group.

Current usage by Intel has the Intel Key Generation Facility as the Issuer, an Intel-based PC with embedded EPID key as a member, a server as the verifier. The issuing of an EPID key can be done directly by the issuer creating an EPID key and delivering securely to the member, or blinded so that the issuer does not know the EPID private key. Having EPID keys embedded in devices before they ship is an advantage for some usages so that EPID is available inherently in the devices as they arrive in the field. Having the EPID key issued using the blinded protocol is an advantage for some usages, since there is never a question about whether the issuer knew the EPID key in the device, it is an option to have one EPID key in the device at time of shipment, use that key to prove to another issuer that it is a valid device and get issued a different EPID key using the blinded issuing protocol. In recent years EPID has been used for attestation of applications in the platforms used for protected content streaming and financial transactions.

It is used for attestation in Software Guard Extensions, released by Intel in 2015. It is anticipated that EPID will become prevalent in IoT, where inherent key distribution with the processor chip, optional privacy benefits will be valued. An example usage for EPID is to prove. A verifier wishing to know that a part was genuine would ask the part to sign a cryptographic nonce with its EPID key; the part would sign the nonce and provide a proof that the EPID key was not revoked. The verifier after checking the validity of the signature and proof would know that the part was genuine. With EPID, this proof is unlinkable. EPID can be used to attest that a platform can securely stream digital rights management -protected content because it has a minimum level of hardware security; the Intel Insider program uses EPID for platform attestation to the rights-holder. Data Protection Technology for Transactions is a product for doing a 2-way authentication of a point of sale terminal to a backend server based on EPID keys.

Using hardware roots of trust based on EPID authentication, the initial activation and provisioning of a POS terminal can securely be performed with a remote server. In general, EPID can be used as the basis to securely provision any cryptographic key material over the air or down the wire with this method. For securing the IoT, EPID can be used to provide authentication while preserving privacy. EPID keys placed in devices during manufacturing are ideal for provisioning other keys for other services in a device. EPID keys can be used in devices for services while not allowing users to be tracked by their IoT devices using these services, yet if required, a known transaction can be used for when an application and user choose the transaction to be unambiguously known. EPID can be used for anonymity. Whereas alternative approaches exist for persistent identity, it is difficult to convert persistent identity to anonymous identity. EPID can serve both requirements and can enable anonymous identity in a mode of operation that enables persistence, as well.

Thus, EPID is ideal for the broad range of anticipated IoT uses

Season of the Witch (song)

"Season of the Witch" is a song written by Donovan and Shawn Phillips, first released in September 1966 on Donovan's Epic Records album, Sunshine Superman. The song is an early example of psychedelic rock. Recorded by Donovan for U. S. release, a version by The Pandamonium was released in the United Kingdom as a single in November 1966, while Donovan's version was released in the U. K. in June 1967 on the Pye Records compilation Sunshine Superman. The recording features Bobby Ray on bass and "Fast" Eddie Hoh on drums; the guitar is provided by Jimmy Page a noted session guitarist working in England. The song has been covered by many artists: The Little Boy Blues, Chicago's protopunk band covered the song in "In the Woodland of Weir". Julie Driscoll covered the song in 1967 along with the Trinity on their album Open. Al Kooper and Stephen Stills covered the song on their album Super Session in 1968; the Kooper-Stills version has been sampled in a number of hip-hop songs. This version features "Fast" Eddie Hoh on drums, who played on Donovan's original recording.

Sam Gopal covered the song on their album Escalator. The acid rock band Vanilla Fudge achieved mild success with a cover of "Season of the Witch" on their album Renaissance in 1968. Terry Reid performed a ten-minute cover of this song on his 1968 debut album, Bang Bang, You're Terry Reid. South African psychedelic band Suck recorded a version of the song on their album Time to Suck in 1970. Hole covered "Season of the Witch" during their MTV Unplugged session; the alternative rock band Luna released it as a single. The phony'supergroup' The Masked Marauders performed the song on their lone LP, with vocals by Bob Dylan and Mick Jagger impersonators. A demo of the song appears on Jellyfish's Bellybutton & Spilt Milk Deluxe Reissues as well as the Fan Club box set. Covered by Robert Plant several times live; the first time was in the medley "That's Why I'm In The Mood" in 1993. Covered By Dr. John on the Blues Brothers 2000 Soundtrack. Lou Rawls recorded the song for his 1999 album Brotherman!: Lou Rawls Sings the Hits.

Covered by Joan Jett on her released-in-Japan album Naked. Covered by Richard Thompson on the Crossing Jordan soundtrack album Jordan Crossing. Covered by Jenny Devivo on the Hed Kandi Nu Cool 4 album in 2000. Covered by Vanilla Fudge on the album The Return from 2002. Covered by Lovewood on the album Halloween from 2001 The Strangelings included a cover of "Season of the Witch" on their album of the same name in 2007. Covered by Karen Elson as a b-side to her first single from her 2010 debut album Covered by poet and musician, Alan Pizzarelli as "Boneyard, Ghoul of the Blues" on his 2010 debut album, Voices from the Grave. Covered by Mundy. Covered by the folk singer Cindy Lee Berryhill on Straight Out of Marysville in 1996. Covered by the Minneapolis-based alternative hip hop artist Astronautalis on the album Gazing with Tranquility: A Tribute to Donovan. Covered by The Stone Coyotes on their album Situation Out Of Control in 2000. Covered by Buzzy Linhart live, as part of "That's the Bag I'm In" as on his album Live at The Cafe Au GoGo.

On August 9, 2019, American singer Lana Del Rey released a cover of the song for the film, Scary Stories to Tell in the Dark. On August 5, CBS Films and Entertainment One announced that the Guillermo del Toro film Scary Stories to Tell in the Dark would featured a cover of "Seasons of the Witch" by Lana Del Rey; the song was featured in the first official trailer for the film. The following day, August 6, Del Rey presented del Toro with his star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and teased the song on her social media. Del Rey's version of the song was released for digital download and streaming on August 9, the same day at the film's premiere and the same day she released the political single, "Looking for America". While talking about his choice to have Del Rey sing the theme for the film, del Toro stated "I have admired Lana’s music for a while now and felt in my gut that she would run with'Season of the Witch' — that she would use her alchemy to transform it, she has been an amazing partner with us in this adventure.

It is an honor for me to have met her.” Mirko Parlevliet of Vital Thrills praised the pairing of Del Rey's sound and the film's vintage aesthetic. Savannah Sicurella of Paste stated "Del Rey managed to capture the prickly, macabre feeling of the popular Alvin Schwartz stories on which the film was based." The song played faintly during a scene in the 1998 TV series From the Earth to the Moon – Episode 2. The song appears in the 1979 film More American Graffiti and appears on the soundtrack album as well, it plays at the end of the Gus Van Sant film To Die For. The song was used in the series Crossing Jordan, it was featured in the House episode "Words and Deeds". It played at the end of the Gri

Metamorphosis (Hilary Duff album)

Metamorphosis is the second studio album by American actress and singer Hilary Duff. The album was released on August 26, 2003, by Hollywood Records as the follow-up to her Christmas album Santa Claus Lane. According to Duff, the album incorporates elements of pop and rock music, it represents changes that are specific to her life and that everyone experiences. Duff worked with several producers on the album such as The Matrix. Others who collaborated on the album include Chico Bennett, Matthew Gerrard, John Shanks and Kara DioGuardi; the album coincided with other high-profile projects. Metamorphosis received mixed reviews from music critics; the album debuted at number two on the US Billboard 200, selling 203,000 copies in its first week, becoming the highest opening week sales figure for a debut album by a female artist in 2003. In the following week, the album rose to number one on the chart, it became the eighth best-selling album of 2003 in the US, according to Nielsen SoundScan, selling 2.6 million copies in a period of five months.

By late 2005, the album had sold five million copies worldwide. For Hollywood Records, Metamorphosis was the label's first high-seller in several years and led to the company's further successful cultivation of new artists and brands using the Disney Channel. Three singles were released from the album; the lead single, "So Yesterday", was released in July 2003 to mixed reviews. The song failed to make much of an impact in the United States, peaking in the top 50. Internationally, it peaked within the top-ten of the music charts in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom; the second single, "Come Clean", released in early 2004, was more successful in the United States, peaking at number 35 on the US Billboard Hot 100 and becoming her best-selling single in the country. The third and final single from the album, "Little Voice", was only released in Australia. Duff further promoted the album with the Metamorphosis Tour, which began in November and ended in December 2003. Hilary Duff had always wanted to follow in the footsteps of Haylie.

Duff watched her sister rehearsing in 2001, after which she told her mother that she wanted to be involved in singing. During the same time period, she attended a Radio Disney concert where she met Andre Recke, whose client Myra was performing. According to Duff, watching the pop musicians preparing and warming up backstage at the concert made her think, "I want to do this so bad". Recke said he thought Duff, popular with preteens at the time because of her role in the popular Disney Channel original series Lizzie McGuire, had "something special... Sometimes you just have that feeling, that,'Wow, she's a star.'" After becoming determined to start a music career, Duff resumed her vocal lessons—which she had started before her acting career began—and became one of Recke's clients. "I've always had a big drive", she said. "When I felt like something looked fun or I wanted to accomplish something, I just go for it... I didn't know what it was gonna be like, but I knew I wanted to try it and I knew that I could do it."

Duff recorded several songs for Disney soundtrack and compilation albums, a Christmas album, Santa Claus Lane, in 2002. Her songs "I Can't Wait", "Why Not" and "What Dreams Are Made Of" were hits on Radio Disney, but Recke and executives at Buena Vista Music Group envisioned Metamorphosis as a vehicle by which Duff could reach a more mature audience. Duff, her mother Susan, Recke enlisted the songwriting and production team The Matrix—whom Recke had hired to write songs for Myra's 2001 eponymous debut album—and songwriter Charlie Midnight, who had contributed to Santa Claus Lane. According to Duff, her mother and Duff herself worked hard to get music that she related to and was age-appropriate for her. Duff said that she did not want to make "a poppy album" because, not the type of music she listened to; the presence of The Matrix was noted because of their work on Avril Lavigne's successful debut album, Let Go, but Duff said that she did not want to emulate other artists: "There are people I respect and I love their music, but there was never an artist that I said,'I want to be just like them...'...

I wanted to be like myself". According to Duff, although she did not write most of the songs, she collaborated on each of them. Aside from The Matrix and Charlie Midnight, contributions to the album came from singer-songwriter Meredith Brooks, Kara DioGuardi, Matthew Gerrard, John Shanks and Duff's sister, who Duff said knows her better than "anyone else in the world". Duff discussed her feelings with some of the songwriters, she praised them because they were open to her opinions and "really got it", she said that she would have liked more time to work with the songwriters and co-write more of her own material, saying "I feel like you need time to get in touch with yourself to do that". In May 2004, Meredith Brooks and producer of "Party Up", complained about the million-dollar budgets major labels spend to produce albums, saying "There's something wrong with all that! You can't keep that going. Artists have to sell millions of records for anybody to make money off of those bloated budgets."

As Duff was into Destiny's Child at the time, initial work on the album carried a more "urban style" than the finished project. The work, according to Chico Bennett, "didn't strike a chord", so they went for a different approach. Recke asked Duff what type of music she would like to do, to which she responded: "Well, growing up, we listened to