Hermes is the god of trade, merchants, roads, trickery, sports and athletes in Ancient Greek religion and mythology. Hermes was the messenger of the gods. Hermes was "the divine trickster" and "the god of boundaries and the transgression of boundaries... the patron of herdsmen, thieves and heralds." He is described as moving between the worlds of the mortal and divine, was the conductor of souls into the afterlife. He was viewed as the protector and patron of roads and travelers. In some myths, he is a trickster and outwits other gods for his own satisfaction or for the sake of humankind, his attributes and symbols include the herma, the rooster, the tortoise, satchel or pouch, winged sandals, winged cap. His main symbol is the Greek kerykeion or Latin caduceus, which appears in a form of two snakes wrapped around a winged staff with carvings of the other gods. In the Roman adaptation of the Greek pantheon, Hermes is identified with the Roman god Mercury, though inherited from the Etruscans, developed many similar characteristics such as being the patron of commerce.
The earliest form of the name Hermes is the Mycenaean Greek *hermāhās, written e-ma-a2 in the Linear B syllabic script. Most scholars derive "Hermes" from Greek ἕρμα herma, "prop, heap of stones, boundary marker", from which the word hermai derives; the etymology of ἕρμα itself is unknown, but it is not a Proto-Indo-European word. However, the stone etymology is linked to Indo-European *ser-. Scholarly speculation that "Hermes" derives from a more primitive form meaning "one cairn" is disputed. In Greek, a lucky find. According to one theory that has received considerable scholarly acceptance, Hermes himself originated as a form of the god Pan, identified as a reflex of the Proto-Indo-European pastoral god *Péh2usōn, in his aspect as the god of boundary markers; the epithet supplanted the original name itself and Hermes took over the roles as god of messengers and boundaries, which had belonged to Pan, while Pan himself continued to be venerated by his original name in his more rustic aspect as the god of the wild in the isolated mountainous region of Arcadia.
In myths, after the cult of Pan was reintroduced to Attica, Pan was said to be Hermes's son. Other origins have been proposed. R. S. P. Beekes suggests a Pre-Greek origin. Other scholars have suggested. Homer and Hesiod portrayed Hermes as the author of skilled or deceptive acts and as a benefactor of mortals. In the Iliad, he is called "the bringer of good luck", "guide and guardian", "excellent in all the tricks", he was a divine ally of the Greeks against the Trojans. However, he did protect Priam when he went to the Greek camp to retrieve the body of his son Hector and accompanied them back to Troy, he rescued Ares from a brazen vessel where he had been imprisoned by Otus and Ephialtes. In the Odyssey, Hermes helps his great-grand son, the protagonist Odysseus, by informing him about the fate of his companions, who were turned into animals by the power of Circe. Hermes instructed Odysseus to protect himself by chewing a magic herb; when Odysseus killed the suitors of his wife, Hermes led their souls to Hades.
In The Works and Days, when Zeus ordered Hephaestus to create Pandora to disgrace humanity by punishing Prometheus's act of giving fire to man, every god gave her a gift, Hermes' gifts were lies, seductive words, a dubious character. Hermes was instructed to take her as wife to Epimetheus. Aeschylus wrote in The Eumenides that Hermes helped Orestes kill Clytemnestra under a false identity and other stratagems, said that he was the god of searches, those who seek things lost or stolen. In Philoctetes, Sophocles invokes Hermes when Odysseus needs to convince Philoctetes to join the Trojan War on the side of the Greeks, in Euripides' Rhesus Hermes helps Dolon spy on the Greek navy. Aesop featured him in several of his fables, as ruler of the gate of prophetic dreams, as the god of athletes, of edible roots, of hospitality, he said that Hermes had assigned each person his share of intelligence. Peitho, the goddess of seduction and persuasion, was said by Nonnus to be the wife of Hermes. Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty, was wooed by Hermes.
After she had rejected him, Hermes sought the help of Zeus to seduce her. Zeus, out of pity, sent his eagle to take away Aphrodite's sandal when she was bathing, gave it to Hermes; when Aphrodite came looking for the sandal, Hermes made love to her. She bore him Hermaphroditus. Apemosyne, a princess of Crete. One day while travelling, Hermes fell in love with her, he was unable to catch her since she was swifter than him. So he strewed some newly stripped hides along the road, on which she slipped when she was returning after a while, he made love to her. When she disclosed to her brother, what had happened, he took her story about the god to be an excuse, killed her with a kick of his foot. Chione, a princess of Phokis, attracted the attention of Hermes, he slept with her. To Hermes she bore Autolycus. Penelopeia, an Arcadian nymph, was loved by Hermes, their son is said to be the god Pan. She has been confused or
Ismene is the name of the daughter and half-sister of Oedipus and granddaughter of Jocasta, sister of Antigone and Polynices. She appears in several plays of Sophocles: at the end of Oedipus Rex, in Oedipus at Colonus and in Antigone, she appears at the end of Aeschylus' Seven Against Thebes. Ismene is seen at the end of Oedipus Rex as her father/brother laments the "shame" and "sorrow" he is leaving her and her sister to. Oedipus begs Creon to watch over them, but in his grief reaches to take them with him as he is lead away. Creon prevents him from bring his daughters out of the city with him; when Oedipus stepped down as King of Thebes, he gave the kingdom to Eteocles and Polynices, who both agreed to alternate the throne every year. However, after the first year, Eteocles refused to step down and Polynices attacked Thebes with his supporters. Both brothers died in the battle. King Creon, who ascended to the throne of Thebes, decreed that Polynices was not to be buried, but left to rot on pain of death.
However, Antigone was caught. In the opening scene of the play when Antigone is about to perform the burial rituals on Polynices, Ismene serves as the compassionate but rational and prudent counterpart to Antigone's headstrong style of decision-making with no regard for consequence. While Antigone resolves to honor her brother at all costs, Ismene laments that while she too loves her brother, her disposition does not allow her to defy the state and become an outlaw. Once Antigone was caught, in spite of her betrothal to his son Haemon, Creon decreed that she was to be buried alive. Ismene declared she had aided Antigone and wanted the same fate, though she did not participate in the crime. Antigone refused to let her be martyred for a cause, she seems to forget her sister exists, calling herself the'last unhappy daughter of a line of kings.'Thus, it is apparent that Ismene serves as a foil for Antigone. While she is loyal and willing to die at her sister's side, she does not make the same bold, defiant stand that Antigone does.
Like Haemon, she is a reasonable, sympathetic person whose fate is tied to the far more fanatical Antigone and Creon. However, in Aeschylus' play, Seven Against Thebes and Antigone sing a funeral dirge together for both of their brothers; the 7th-century BC poet Mimnermus accounts that Ismene was murdered by one of the Seven. This is mentioned in no other extant Classical writing, but the scene is represented on a 6th-century Corinthian black-figure amphora now housed in the Louvre. Antigone Alone is a one-woman play by actor and writer Michael McEvoy, based on the fifth century BC tragedy Antigone by Sophocles, it premiered on 14th May 2018 at the Brighton Festival
An amphora is a type of container of a characteristic shape and size, descending from at least as early as the Neolithic Period. Amphorae were used in vast numbers for the transport and storage of various products, both liquid and dry, but for wine, they are most ceramic, but examples in metals and other materials have been found. Versions of the amphorae were one of many shapes used in Ancient Greek vase painting; the amphora complements the large storage container, the pithos, which makes available capacities between one-half and two and one-half tons. In contrast, the amphora holds under a half-ton less than 50 kilograms; the bodies of the two types have similar shapes. Where the pithos may have multiple small loops or lugs for fastening a rope harness, the amphora has two expansive handles joining the shoulder of the body and a long neck; the necks of pithoi are wide for bucket access. The necks of amphorae are narrow for pouring by a person holding it by a handle; some variants exist. The handles might not be present.
The size may require three handlers to lift. For the most part, however, an amphora was tableware, or sat close to the table, was intended to be seen, was finely decorated as such by master painters. Stoppers of perishable materials, which have survived, were used to seal the contents. Two principal types of amphorae existed: the neck amphora, in which the neck and body meet at a sharp angle. Neck amphorae were used in the early history of ancient Greece, but were replaced by the one-piece type from around the 7th century BC onward. Most were produced with a pointed base to allow upright storage by embedding in soft ground, such as sand; the base facilitated transport by ship, where the amphorae were packed upright or on their sides in as many as five staggered layers. If upright, the bases were held by some sort of rack, ropes passed through their handles to prevent shifting or toppling during rough seas. Heather and reeds might be used as packing around the vases. Racks could be used in shops.
The base concentrated deposits from liquids with suspended solid particles, such as olive oil and wines. Amphorae are of great use to maritime archaeologists, as they indicate the age of a shipwreck and the geographic origin of the cargo, they are so well preserved that the original content is still present, providing information on foodstuffs and mercantile systems. Amphorae were too cheap and plentiful to return to their origin-point and so, when empty, they were broken up at their destination. At a breakage site in Rome, close to the Tiber, the fragments wetted with Calcium hydroxide, remained to create a hill now named Monte Testaccio, 45 m high and more than 1 kilometre in circumference. Amphora is a Greco-Roman word developed in ancient Greek during the Bronze Age; the Romans acquired it during the Hellenization. Cato is the first known literary person to use it; the Romans turned the Greek form into a standard -a declension noun, amphora, pl. amphorae. Undoubtedly, the word and the vase were introduced to Italy through the Greek settlements there, which traded extensively in Greek pottery.
It is remarkable that though the Etruscans imported and exported amphorae extensively in their wine industry, other Greek vase names were Etruscanized, no Etruscan form of the word exists. There was an as yet unidentified native Etruscan word for the vase that pre-empted the adoption of amphora; the Latin word derived from the Greek amphoreus, a shortened form of amphiphoreus, a compound word combining amphi- and phoreus, from pherein, referring to the vessel's two carrying handles on opposite sides. The amphora appears as, a-pi-po-re-we, in the Linear B Bronze Age records of Knossos, a-po-re-we, at Mycenae, the fragmentary ]-re-we at Pylos, designated by Ideogram 209, Bennett's AMPHORA, which has a number of scribal variants; the two spellings are transcriptions of amphiphorēwes and amphorēwe in Mycenaean Greek from which it may be seen that the short form prevailed on the mainland. Homer uses the long form for metrical reasons, Herodotus has the short form. Ventris and Chadwick's translation is "carried on both sides."
Amphorae varied in height. The largest stands as tall as 1.5 metres high, while some were less than 30 centimetres high - the smallest were called amphoriskoi. Most were around 45 centimetres high. There was a significant degree of standardisation in some variants. In all 66 distinct types of amphora have been identified. Further, the term stands for an ancient Roman unit of measurement for liquids; the volume of a Roman amphora was one cubic foot, c. 26.026 L. Roman amphorae were wheel-thrown terracotta containers. During the production process the body was made first and left to dry partially. Coils of clay were added to form the neck, the rim, the handles. Once the amphora was complete, the maker treated the interior with resin that would prevent permeation of stored liquids; the reconstruction of these stages of production is based on the study of modern amphora production in some areas of the eastern Mediterranean. Amphorae were marked with a variety of stamps and inscript
Pieter Lastman was a Dutch painter. Lastman is considered important because of his work as a painter of history pieces and because his pupils included Rembrandt and Jan Lievens. In his paintings Lastman paid careful attention to the faces and feet. Pieter Lastman was born in Amsterdam, the son of a town-beadle, dismissed in 1578 for being a Catholic, his mother was an appraiser of goods. His apprenticeship was with the brother of Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck. Between 1604 and 1607 Lastman was in Italy, where he was influenced by Caravaggio and by Adam Elsheimer. Back in Amsterdam he moved in with his mother in the Sint Antoniesbreestraat, living next to mayor Geurt van Beuningen. Lastman never married; because of his health Lastman moved in with his brother in 1632. He died the next year and was buried in the Oude Kerk on 4 April 1633; because Rembrandt never visited Italy, it is that he was influenced by Caravaggio or via Lastman. His pupils besides Rembrandt and Lievens were Bartholomeus Breenbergh, Nicolaes Lastman, Pieter Pieterz Nedek and Jan Albertsz Rotius.
^ Murray, P. & L.. Penguin Dictionary of Art and Artists, p. 287, 436–438. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-051300-0. Artcyclopedia on Pieter Lastman The Rijksmuseum on Pieter Lastman Works and literature on Pieter Lastman at PubHist Works at WGA Dutch and Flemish paintings from the Hermitage, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Lastman
In Greek mythology, Perseus is the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty. He saved Andromeda from the sea monster Cetus, he was the son of Zeus and the mortal Danaë, as well as the half-brother and great-grandfather of Heracles. Because of the obscurity of the name Perseus and the legendary character of its bearer, most etymologists presume that it might be pre-Greek. There is some idea. In that regard Robert Graves has proposed the only Greek derivation available. Perseus might be from the Greek verb, "πέρθειν", "to waste, sack, destroy", some form of which appears in Homeric epithets. According to Carl Darling Buck, the –eus suffix is used to form an agent noun, in this case from the aorist stem, pers-. Pers-eus therefore is a sacker of cities; the origin of perth- is more obscure. J. B. Hofmann lists the possible root as *bher-, from which Latin ferio, "strike"; this corresponds to Julius Pokorny’s *bher-, "scrape, cut." Ordinarily *bh- descends to Greek as ph-. This difficulty can be overcome by presuming a dissimilation from the –th– in perthein.
Graves carries the meaning still further, to the perse - in goddess of death. John Chadwick in the second edition of Documents in Mycenaean Greek speculates about the Mycenaean goddess pe-re-*82, attested on the PY Tn 316 tablet and tentatively reconstructed as *Preswa: "It is tempting to see...the classical Perse...daughter of Oceanus.... The native name, has always had an -a- in Persian. Herodotus recounts this story, devising a foreign son, from whom the Persians took the name; the Persians knew the story as Xerxes tried to use it to bribe the Argives during his invasion of Greece, but failed to do so. Perseus was the daughter of Acrisius, King of Argos. Disappointed by his lack of luck in having a son, Acrisius consulted the oracle at Delphi, who warned him that he would one day be killed by his daughter's son. In order to keep Danaë childless, Acrisius imprisoned her in a bronze chamber, open to the sky, in the courtyard of his palace: This mytheme is connected to Ares, Oenopion and others.
Zeus came to her in the form of a shower of gold, impregnated her. Soon after, their child was born. Fearful for his future, but unwilling to provoke the wrath of the gods by killing the offspring of Zeus and his daughter, Acrisius cast the two into the sea in a wooden chest. Danaë's fearful prayer, made while afloat in the darkness, has been expressed by the poet Simonides of Ceos. Mother and child washed ashore on the island of Serifos, where they were taken in by the fisherman Dictys, who raised the boy to manhood; the brother of Dictys was the king of the island. When Perseus was grown, Polydectes came to fall in love with the beautiful Danaë. Perseus believed Polydectes was less than honourable, protected his mother from him, he held a large banquet. Polydectes requested that the guests bring horses, under the pretense that he was collecting contributions for the hand of Hippodamia, daughter of Oinomaos. Perseus had no horse to give, so he asked Polydectes to name the gift. Polydectes held Perseus to his rash promise and demanded the head of the only mortal Gorgon, whose gaze turned people to stone.
Ovid's account of Medusa's mortality tells that she had once been a woman, vain of her beautiful hair. Poseidon, the god of the seas, raped her inside of a temple dedicated to Athena, as punishment for the desecration of her temple, Athena had changed Medusa's hair into hideous snakes "that she may alarm her surprised foes with terror". Athena instructed Perseus to find the Hesperides, who were entrusted with weapons needed to defeat the Gorgon. Following Athena's guidance, Perseus sought the Greae, sisters of the Gorgons, to demand the whereabouts of the Hesperides, the nymphs tending Hera's orchard; the Graeae were three perpetually old women. As the women passed the eye from one to another, Perseus snatched it from them, holding it for ransom in return for the location of the nymphs; when the sisters led him to the Hesperides, he returned. From the Hesperides he received a knapsack to safely contain Medusa's head. Zeus gave him Hades' helm of darkness to hide. Hermes lent Perseus winged sandals to fly, Athena gave him a polished shield.
Perseus proceeded to the Gorgons' cave. In the cave he came upon the sleeping Medusa. By viewing Medusa's reflection in his polished shield, he safely cut off her head. From her neck sprang Pegasus and Chrysaor, the result of Poseidon and Medusa's mating; the other two Gorgons pursued Perseus, wearing his helm of darkness, he escaped. From here he proceeded to visit King Atlas. On the way back to Seriphos, Perseus stopped
The Bosporus or Bosphorus is a narrow, natural strait and an internationally significant waterway located in northwestern Turkey. It forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, divides Turkey by separating Anatolia from Thrace; the world's narrowest strait used for international navigation, the Bosporus connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara, and, by extension via the Dardanelles, the Aegean and Mediterranean seas. Most of the shores of the strait are settled, straddled by the city of Istanbul's metropolitan population of 17 million inhabitants extending inland from both coasts. Together with the Dardanelles, the Bosporus forms the Turkish Straits; the name of the channel comes from the Ancient Greek Βόσπορος, folk-etymologised as βοὸς πόρος, i.e. "cattle strait", from the genitive of bous βοῦς "ox, cattle" + poros πόρος "passage", thus meaning "cattle-passage", or "cow passage". This is in reference to the mythological story of Io, transformed into a cow, was subsequently condemned to wander the Earth until she crossed the Bosporus, where she met the Titan Prometheus, who comforted her with the information that she would be restored to human form by Zeus and become the ancestress of the greatest of all heroes, Heracles.
The site where Io went ashore was near Chrysopolis, was named Bous "the Cow". The same site was known as Damalis, as it was where the Athenian general Chares had erected a monument to his wife Damalis, which included a colossal statue of a cow; the English spelling with -ph-, Bosfor has no justification in the ancient Greek name, dictionaries prefer the spelling with -p- but -ph- occurs as a variant in medieval Latin, in medieval Greek sometimes as Βόσφορος, giving rise to the French form Bosphore, Spanish Bósforo and Russian Босфор. The 12th century Greek scholar John Tzetzes calls it Damaliten Bosporon, but he reports that in popular usage the strait was known as Prosphorion during his day, the name of the most ancient northern harbour of Constantinople; the Bosporus was known as the "Strait of Constantinople", or the Thracian Bosporus, in order to distinguish it from the Cimmerian Bosporus in Crimea. These are expressed in Herodotus' Histories, 4.83. Other names by which the strait is referenced by Herodotus include Chalcedonian Bosporus, or Mysian Bosporus.
The term came to be used as common noun βόσπορος, meaning "a strait", was formerly applied to the Hellespont in Classical Greek by Aeschylus and Sophocles. As a maritime waterway, the Bosporus connects various seas along the Eastern Mediterranean, the Balkans, the Near East, Western Eurasia, connects the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara; the Marmara further connects to the Mediterranean seas via the Dardanelles. Thus, the Bosporus allows maritime connections from the Black Sea all the way to the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean via Gibraltar, the Indian Ocean through the Suez Canal, making it a crucial international waterway, in particular for the passage of goods coming in from Russia; the exact cause and date of the formation of the Bosporus remain the subject of debate among geologists. One recent hypothesis, dubbed the Black Sea deluge hypothesis, launched by a study of the same name in 1997 by two scientists from Columbia University, postulates that the Bosporus was formed around 5600 BC when the rising waters of the Mediterranean Sea and the Sea of Marmara breached through to the Black Sea, which at the time, according to the hypothesis, was a low-lying body of fresh water.
Many geologists, claim that the strait is much older if young on a geologic timescale. From the perspective of ancient Greek mythology, it was said that colossal floating rocks known as the Symplegades, or Clashing Rocks, once occupied the hilltops on both sides of the Bosporus, destroyed any ship that attempted passage of the channel by rolling down the strait's hills and violently crushing all vessels between them; the Symplegades were defeated when the lyrical hero Jason obtained successful passage, whereupon the rocks became fixed, Greek access to the Black Sea was opened. The limits of the Bosporus are defined as the connecting line between the lighthouses of Rumeli Feneri and Anadolu Feneri in the north, between the Ahırkapı Feneri and the Kadıköy İnciburnu Feneri in the south. Between these limits, the strait is 31 km long, with a width of 3,329 m at the northern entrance and 2,826 m at the southern entrance, its maximum width is 3,420 m between Umuryeri and Büyükdere Limanı, minimum width 700 m between Kandilli Point and Aşiyan.
The depth of the Bosporus varies from 13 to 110 m in midstream with an average of 65 m. The deepest location is between Kandilli and Bebek with 110 m; the shallowest locations are off Kadıköy İnciburnu on the northward route with 18 m and off Aşiyan Point on the southward route with 13 m. The Golden Horn is an estuary off the main strait that acted as a moat to protect Old Istanbul from attack, as well as providing a sheltered anchorage for the imperial navies of various empires until the 19th century, after which it became a historic neighborhood at the heart of the city, popular with tourists and locals alike, it had been k
The Staatliche Antikensammlungen is a museum in Munich's Kunstareal holding Bavaria's collections of antiquities from Greece and Rome, though the sculpture collection is located in the opposite Glyptothek and works created in Bavaria are on display in a separate museum. Ancient Egypt has its own museum; the neo-classical building at Königsplatz with Corinthian columns was established in 1848 as counterpart to the opposite Glyptothek and commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I. The architect was Georg Friedrich Ziebland. From 1869 to 1872 the building housed the royal antiquarium before the Munich Secession resided here from 1898 to 1912. From 1919 the building contained the New State Gallery; the museum building was damaged by bombing in World War II but was reconstructed and reopened to the public in the late 1960s to display the State Collection of Antiques. The State Collection of Antiquities is based on the Wittelsbach antique collections the collection of attic vases of King Ludwig I.
In 1831 his agent Martin von Wagner acquired pottery from the archeological excavation in Vulci, his agent Friedrich von Thiersch purchased by auction the antiques from the estate of Lucien Bonaparte. The king acquired antique gold jewellery from the collection of Caroline Murat, Etruscan bronzes excavated in Perugia and Greek terra-cottas from South Italy. After the king's death in 1868 his collection was united with the Wittelsbach antique collection, founded by Albert V, Duke of Bavaria; the museum got extended by purchase and donations. Among these private collections are the donations of Paul Arndt, of James Loeb, of Hans von Schoen; these comprehensive collections specialised in smaller antique objects, bronzes, terra-cottas, jewelry and silver. During World War II the museum lost Etruscan pottery, stored in the bombed Neue Pinakothek; the internationally renowned collection of antique pottery is outstanding, comparable only with the collections of the Louvre and the British Museum. On display is Cycladic art.
The Mycenaean pottery is represented as well as the pottery from the geometric, the archaic, the classical and the Hellenistic period in Greece. The museum exhibits artworks of the most famous Greek potters and painters like the Amasis Painter, Archikles, the Penthesilea Painter, the Andokides Painter, Kleophon, Euphronios, Epiktetos, the Pan Painter, the Berlin Painter, Makron, the Brygos Painter, the Acheloos Painter and Lydos; the collection contains numerous masterpieces such as the Belly Amphora by the Andokides Painter and the Dionysus cup by Exekias. The Standing Woman is a notable statuette of terracotta; the Beauty is one of the best preserved ancient terracotta figures in the world. It was found in the vicinity of Athens; the Goddess of Beauty and Love is a masterpiece of Hellenstic bronze art and dates back to around 100 BC. An outstanding example for antique jewellery is the gold Funerary Garland from Armento. A Golden Diadem from the Black Sea, an elaborately decorated headdress from the Crimean Peninsula was produced in around 150 BC.
A famous Roman Goblet from Cologne made of reticella glass still shows its Latin inscription BIBE MULTIS ANNIS. It was a present of the City of Cologne in return for King Ludwig's support for the completion of Cologne Cathedral. An antique mummy portrait which originates from around 140 AD depicts a young upper-class man of imperial Egypt belongs to the most beautiful and best-quality antique mummy portraits that exist. Part of the Staatliche Antikensammlungen is a comprehensive collection of ca 800 engraved gems donated by Helmut Hansmann. Staatliche Antikensammlungen Staatliche Antikensammlungen