Bead and reel
"Bead and reel" is an architectural motif found in sculptures and numismatics. It consists in a thin line, it is found throughout the modern Western world in architectural detail on Greek/Roman style buildings, wallpaper borders, interior moulding design. It is used in combination with the "egg and dart" motif. According to art historian John Boardman, the bead and reels motif was developed in Greece from motifs derived from the turning techniques used for wood and metal, was first employed in stone sculpture in Greece during the 6th century BCE; the motif spread to Persia and the Hellenistic world, as far as India, where it can be found on the abacus part of some of the Pillars of Ashoka or the Pataliputra capital. Bead and reel motifs can be found abundantly in Greek and Hellenistic sculpture and on the border of Hellenistic coins
John Russell Pope
John Russell Pope was an American architect whose firm is known for designing major public buildings, including the National Archives and Records Administration building, the Jefferson Memorial and the West Building of the National Gallery of Art, all in Washington, DC. Pope was born in the son of a successful portrait painter and his wife, he studied architecture at Columbia University and graduated in 1894. He was the first recipient of the Rome Prize to attend the newly founded American Academy in Rome, a training ground for the designers of the "American Renaissance." He would remain involved with the Academy until his death. Pope traveled for two years through Italy and Greece, where he studied and made measured drawings of more Romanesque and Renaissance structures than he did of the remains of ancient buildings. Pope was one of the first architectural students to master the use of the large-format camera, with glass negatives. Pope attended the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1896. After returning to New York in 1900, he worked for a few years in the office of Bruce Price before opening his own practice.
Throughout his career, Pope designed private houses such as The Waves, his personal residence at Newport, Rhode Island, public buildings in addition to the Jefferson Memorial and the National Gallery, such as the massive Masonic House of the Temple in Washington, the triumphal arch Theodore Roosevelt Memorial at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. He designed the extension of the Henry Clay Frick mansion in New York City that created the Garden Court and music room, among other features, as the house was expanded to be operated as a museum. In 1912 he lost out to Henry Bacon. In 1919, he developed a master plan for the future growth of Yale University. Pope's plan for Yale was revised by James Gamble Rogers in 1921, who had more sympathy for the requirements of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. Rogers did keep the Collegiate Gothic unifying theme offered by Pope. Pope's original plan is a prime document in the City Beautiful movement in city planning. Pope won a Silver Medal in the 1932 Summer Olympics for his design of the Payne Whitney Gymnasium.
His firm's designs alternated between revivals of Gothic, eighteenth-century French, classical styles. Pope designed the Henry E. Huntington mausoleum on the grounds of The Huntington Library in southern California, he used the design as a prototype for the Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D. C; the Jefferson Memorial and the National Gallery of Art were both neoclassical, modeled by Pope on the Roman Pantheon. Lesser known projects by Pope's firm include Union Station, Virginia, with a central rotunda capped with a low saucer dome. C. the National City Christian Church, Constitution Hall, American Pharmacists Association Building, Ward Homestead, the National Archives Building. In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, he designed a severe neo-Georgian clubhouse for the University Club. In Oneonta, New York, he designed the first building for Hartwick College: Bresee Hall was constructed in 1928. In 1932, he constructed the chapter house for Alpha Delta Phi at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Earlier, he designed the City Hall in Plattsburgh, New York, completed in 1917, the city's Macdonough Monument, erected in 1926 to commemorate the naval victory of Commodore Macdonough in the Battle of Plattsburgh on September 11, 1814.
Pope designed additions to the Tate Gallery and British Museum in London, an unusual honor for an American architect, the War Memorial at Montfaucon-d'Argonne, France. Popealso designed extensive alterations to Belcourt, the Newport residence of Oliver and Alva Belmont; the Georgian Revival residence he built in 1919 for Thomas H. Frothingham in Far Hills, New Jersey has been adapted as the United States Golf Association Museum. Pope was a member of the U. S. Commission of Fine Arts in Washington, DC from 1912 to 1922, serving as vice chairman from 1921 to 1922, he served on the Board of Architectural Consultants for the Federal Triangle complex in Washington, D. C. A 1991 exhibition at the National Gallery of Art, John Russell Pope and the Building of the National Gallery of Art, spurred reappraisal of his work. For some time, it had been scorned and derided as overly historicist by many critics influenced by International Modernism. Pope served as an early mentor and employer of American modernist Lester C.
Tichy. 1910: William B. Leeds Mausoleum, Woodlawn Cemetery, The Bronx, New York 1926: University Club, Wisconsin 1927: Huntington Mausoleum, San Marino, California 1927: "The Waves", 61 Ledge Road, Rhode Island 1931: First Congregational Church, Ohio 1933–35: National Archives Building, Washington, D. C. 1936: Dixie Plantation House, Florida 1938–41: National Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. 1939–42: Jefferson Memorial, Washington, D. C. Category:John Russell Pope buildings Eggers & Higgins Bedford, Steven McLeod. John Russell Pope: Architect of Empire, New York: 1998. Garrison, James B. Mastering Tradition: The Residential Architecture of John Russell Pope. New York: Acanthus Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-926494-24-4 University Club, Milwaukee Yale University plan, 1919 at the Library of Congress Web Archives Alpha Delta Phi at Cornell, 1931, John Russe
A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a compression member; the term column applies to a large round support with a capital and a base or pedestal, made of stone, or appearing to be so. A small wooden or metal support is called a post, supports with a rectangular or other non-round section are called piers. For the purpose of wind or earthquake engineering, columns may be designed to resist lateral forces. Other compression members are termed "columns" because of the similar stress conditions. Columns are used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings rest. In architecture, "column" refers to such a structural element that has certain proportional and decorative features. A column might be a decorative element not needed for structural purposes. All significant Iron Age civilizations of the Near East and Mediterranean made some use of columns.
In Ancient Egyptian architecture as early as 2600 BC the architect Imhotep made use of stone columns whose surface was carved to reflect the organic form of bundled reeds, like papyrus and palm. Their form is thought to derive from archaic reed-built shrines. Carved from stone, the columns were decorated with carved and painted hieroglyphs, ritual imagery and natural motifs. Egyptian columns are famously present in the Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, where 134 columns are lined up in 16 rows, with some columns reaching heights of 24 metres. One of the most important type are the papyriform columns; the origin of these columns goes back to the 5th Dynasty. They are composed of lotus stems which are drawn together into a bundle decorated with bands: the capital, instead of opening out into the shape of a bellflower, swells out and narrows again like a flower in bud; the base, which tapers to take the shape of a half-sphere like the stem of the lotus, has a continuously recurring decoration of stipules.
Some of the most elaborate columns in the ancient world were those of the Persians the massive stone columns erected in Persepolis. They included double-bull structures in their capitals; the Hall of Hundred Columns at Persepolis, measuring 70 × 70 metres, was built by the Achaemenid king Darius I. Many of the ancient Persian columns are standing, some being more than 30 metres tall. Tall columns with bull's head capitals were used for porticoes and to support the roofs of the hypostylehall inspired by the ancient Egyptian precedent. Since the columns carried timber beams rather than stine, they could be taller and more widerly spaced than Egyptian ones; the Minoans used whole tree-trunks turned upside down in order to prevent re-growth, stood on a base set in the stylobate and topped by a simple round capital. These were painted as in the most famous Minoan palace of Knossos; the Minoans employed columns to create large open-plan spaces, light-wells and as a focal point for religious rituals.
These traditions were continued by the Mycenaean civilization in the megaron or hall at the heart of their palaces. The importance of columns and their reference to palaces and therefore authority is evidenced in their use in heraldic motifs such as the famous lion-gate of Mycenae where two lions stand each side of a column. Being made of wood these early columns have not survived, but their stone bases have and through these we may see their use and arrangement in these palace buildings; the Egyptians and other civilizations used columns for the practical purpose of holding up the roof inside a building, preferring outside walls to be decorated with reliefs or painting, but the Ancient Greeks, followed by the Romans, loved to use them on the outside as well, the extensive use of columns on the interior and exterior of buildings is one of the most characteristic features of classical architecture, in buildings like the Parthenon. The Greeks developed the classical orders of architecture, which are most distinguished by the form of the column and its various elements.
Their Doric and Corinthian orders were expanded by the Romans to include the Tuscan and Composite orders. Columns, or at least large structural exterior ones, became much less significant in the architecture of the Middle Ages; the classical forms were abandoned in both Byzantine architecture and the Romanesque and Gothic architecture of Europe in favour of more flexible forms, with capitals using various types of foliage decoration, in the West scenes with figures carved in relief. Furing the Romanesque period, builders continued to reuse and imitate ancient Roman columns wherever possible. Where new, the emphasis was as illustrated by twisted columns, they were decorated with mosaics. Renaissance architecture was keen to revive the classical vocabulary and styles, the informed use and variation of the classical orders remained fundamental to the training of architects throughout Baroque and Neo-classical architecture. Early columns were constructed of some out of a single piece of stone. Monolithic columns are among the heaviest stones used in architecture.
Other stone columns are created out of multiple sections of mortared or dry-fit together. In many classical sites, sectioned columns were carved with a centre hole or depression so that they could be pegged together, using stone or metal pins; the design of
Nelumbo nucifera known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, Egyptian bean or lotus, is one of two extant species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae. It is colloquially called a water lily. Under favorable circumstances the seeds of this aquatic perennial may remain viable for many years, with the oldest recorded lotus germination being from that of seeds 1,300 years old recovered from a dry lakebed in northeastern China, it has a wide native distribution, ranging from central and northern India, through northern Indochina and East Asia, with isolated locations at the Caspian Sea. Today the species occurs in southern India, Sri Lanka all of Southeast Asia, New Guinea and northern and eastern Australia, but this is the result of human translocations, it has a long history of being cultivated for its edible seeds, it is cultivated in water gardens. It is the national flower of Vietnam; the lotus is confused with the true water lilies of genus Nymphaea, in particular N. caerulea, the "blue lotus".
In fact, several older systems, such as the Bentham & Hooker system refer to the lotus by its old synonym of Nymphaea nelumbo. While all modern plant taxonomy systems agree that this species belongs in the genus Nelumbo, the systems disagree as to which family Nelumbo should be placed in, or whether the genus should belong in its own unique family and order. According to the APG IV system, N. nucifera, N. lutea, their extinct relatives belong in Proteales with the protea flowers due to genetic comparisons. Older systems, such as the Cronquist system, place N. nucifera and its relatives in the order Nymphaeles based on anatomical similarities. The roots of lotus are planted in the soil of the pond or river bottom, while the leaves float on top of the water surface or are held well above it; the flowers are found on thick stems rising several centimeters above the leaves. The plant grows up to a height of about 150 cm and a horizontal spread of up to 3 meters, but some unverified reports place the height as high as over 5 meters.
The leaves may be as large as 60 cm in diameter, while the showy flowers can be up to 20 cm in diameter. Researchers report that the lotus has the remarkable ability to regulate the temperature of its flowers to within a narrow range just as humans and other warmblooded animals do. Roger S. Seymour and Paul Schultze-Motel, physiologists at the University of Adelaide in Australia, found that lotus flowers blooming in the Adelaide Botanic Gardens maintained a temperature of 30–35 °C when the air temperature dropped to 10 °C, they suspect. Studies published in the journals Nature and Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences were in 1996 and 1998 important contributions in the field of thermoregulation, heat-producing, in plants. Two other species known to be able to regulate their temperature include Symplocarpus foetidus and Philodendron selloum. An individual lotus can live for over a thousand years and has the rare ability to revive into activity after stasis. In 1994, a seed from a sacred lotus, dated at 1,300 years old ± 270 years, was germinated.
The traditional Sacred Lotus is only distantly related to Nymphaea caerulea, but possesses similar chemistry. Both Nymphaea caerulea and Nelumbo nucifera contain the alkaloids aporphine; the genome of the sacred lotus was sequenced in May 2013. The Sacred Lotus grows in water up to 2.5 m. The minimum water depth should not be lower than 30 cm. In colder climates such a low water level, which heats up more is helpful for better growth and flowering. Lotus germinates at temperatures above 13 °C. Most varieties are not cold-hardy. In the growing season from April to September, the average daytime temperature needed is 23 to 27 °C. In regions with low light levels in winter, the sacred lotus has a period of dormancy; the tubers are not cold resistant, but can resist temperatures below 0 °C if they are covered with an insulating cover of water or soil. During winter time, the roots have to be stored at a frost free place; the sacred lotus requires a nutrient-rich loamy soil. In the beginning of the summer period, a small part of rhizome with at least one eye is either planted in ponds or directly into a flooded field.
There are several other propagation ways via buds. Furthermore, tissue culture is a promising propagation method for the future to produce high volumes of uniform, true-to-type, disease free materials. First step of the cultivation is to plough the dry field. One round of manure is applied before flooding the field. To support a quick initial growth, the water level is hold low and is increased when plants grow. A maximum of 4000 rhizome pieces per hectare are used to plant directly into the mud 10–15 cm below the soil surface; the stolon is ready to harvest two to three months after planting. It must be harvested before the flowering. Harvesting the stolon is done by manual labour, too. For this step, the field is not drained. By pulling and shaking the young leaves in the shallow water, the stolon is pulled out of the water. Three months after planting, the first leaves and flowers can be harvested. Flowers can be picked every two days during every three days during the colder season. Four months after plant
The composite order is a mixed order, combining the volutes of the Ionic order capital with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian order. In many versions the composite order volutes are larger and there is some ornament placed centrally between the volutes; the column of the composite order is ten diameters high, though as with all the orders these details may be adjusted by the architect for particular buildings. The Composite order is treated as Corinthian except for the capital, with no consistent differences to that above or below the capital; the composite order is not found in ancient Greek architecture and until the Renaissance was not ranked as a separate order. Instead it was considered as an imperial Roman form of the Corinthian order. Though the Arch of Titus, in the forum in Rome and built in 82 AD, is sometimes cited as the first prominent surviving example of a composite order, the order was invented "a little before Augustus's reign, well-developed before his death, the time when the Roman version of Corinthian was being established."With the Tuscan order, a simplified version of the Doric order found in ancient Roman architecture but not included by Vitruvius in his three orders, the Composite was added by Renaissance writers to make five classical orders.
Sebastiano Serlio published his book I sette libri d'architettura in 1537 in which he was the second to mention the composite order as its own order and not just as an evolution of the Corinthian order as suggested by Leon Battista Alberti. Leon Battista Alberti in his De re aedificatoria mentions the composite order, calling it "Italic"; the Composite is based on the Ionic order, where the volutes are joined by an horizontal element across the top of the capital, so that they resemble a scroll rolled at each end. Despite this origin many Composite capitals in fact treat the two volutes as different elements, each springing from one side of their leafy base. In this, in having a separate ornament between them, they resemble the Archaic Greek Aeolic order, though this seems not to have been the route of their development in early Imperial Rome. Where the Greek Ionic volute is shown from the side as a single unit of unchanged width between the front and back of the column, the Composite volutes are treated as four different thinner units, one at each corner of the capital, projecting at some 45° to the facade.
This has the advantage of removing the necessity to have a different appearance between the front and side views, the Ionic developed bending forms that allowed this. The treatment of details has been variable, with the inclusion of figures, heraldic symbols and the like in the capital; the relationship of the volutes to the leaves has been treated in many different ways, the capital may be distinctly divided into different horizontal zones, or may treat the whole capital as a single zone. The composite order, due to its delicate appearance, was deemed by the Renaissance to be suitable for the building of churches dedicated to The Virgin Mary or other female saints. In general it has been since been used to suggest grandeur. Bramante used the composite order in the second order of the cloister of Santa Maria della Pace, Rome. For the first order, the Ionic order was used. Francesco Borromini developed the composite order in Rome; the interior of the church has 16 composite columns. The load-bearing columns placed underneath the arches have inverted volutes.
This choice was criticised at the time, thinking it was a lack of knowledge of the Vittruvian orders that led him to his decision. The inverted volutes can be seen in Borromini's Oratorio dei Filippini in the lower order. There the controversy was higher, considering that Borromini removed the acanthus leaves, leaving a bare capital. RomanArch of Titus, Rome Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome Santa Costanza, interior, mid-4th centuryModernOspedale degli Innocenti, Florence, 1421, Filippo Brunelleschi Palazzo Valmarana, Vicenza, 1565, Andrea Palladio Palazzo del Capitaniato, Vicenza, 1571-1572, Andrea Palladio Lescot Wing, Louvre Palace, Paris Church of the Gesù, Rome Easton Neston, England, c. 1700 Palazzo Madama, Turin, c. 1720, Filippo Juvarra Archbasilica of St. John Lateran Somerset House, London, 1776, William Chambers Narva Triumphal Arch, Saint Petersburg, 1814 Ethnographic Museum, Budapest Alabama Governor's Mansion, 1907 Buonincasa, Carmine. Architettura come dis-identità. Bari: Dedalo librerie.
Zampa, Paola. L'ordine composito: alcune considerazioni. Reggio calabria: Dipartimento Patrimonio Architettonico e Urbanistico. Media related to Composite order at Wikimedia Commons
The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The Doric is most recognized by the simple circular capitals at the top of columns. Originating in the western Dorian region of Greece, it is the earliest and in its essence the simplest of the orders, though still with complex details in the entablature above; the Greek Doric column was fluted or smooth-surfaced, had no base, dropping straight into the stylobate or platform on which the temple or other building stood. The capital was a simple circular form, with some mouldings, under a square cushion, wide in early versions, but more restrained. Above a plain architrave, the complexity comes in the frieze, where the two features unique to the Doric, the triglyph and guttae, are skeuomorphic memories of the beams and retaining pegs of the wooden constructions that preceded stone Doric temples. In stone they are purely ornamental; the uncommon Roman and Renaissance Doric retained these, introduced thin layers of moulding or further ornament, as well as using plain columns.
More they used versions of the Tuscan order, elaborated for nationalistic reasons by Italian Renaissance writers, in effect a simplified Doric, with un-fluted columns and a simpler entablature with no triglyphs or guttae. The Doric order was much used in Greek Revival architecture from the 18th century onwards. Since at least Vitruvius it has been customary for writers to associate the Doric with masculine virtues, it is normally the cheapest of the orders to use. When the three orders are used one above the other, it is usual for the Doric to be at the bottom, with the Ionic and the Corinthian above, the Doric, as "strongest", is used on the ground floor below another order in the storey above. In their original Greek version, Doric columns stood directly on the flat pavement of a temple without a base. With a height only four to eight times their diameter, the columns were the most squat of all the classical orders; the Parthenon has the Doric design columns. It was most popular in the Archaic Period in mainland Greece, found in Magna Graecia, as in the three temples at Paestum.
These are in the Archaic Doric, where the capitals spread wide from the column compared to Classical forms, as exemplified in the Parthenon. Pronounced features of both Greek and Roman versions of the Doric order are the alternating triglyphs and metopes; the triglyphs are decoratively grooved with two vertical grooves and represent the original wooden end-beams, which rest on the plain architrave that occupies the lower half of the entablature. Under each triglyph are peglike "stagons" or "guttae" that appear as if they were hammered in from below to stabilize the post-and-beam construction, they served to "organize" rainwater runoff from above. The spaces between the triglyphs are the "metopes", they may be left plain. The spacing of the triglyphs caused problems. A triglyph is centered above every column, with another between columns, though the Greeks felt that the corner triglyph should form the corner of the entablature, creating an inharmonious mismatch with the supporting column; the architecture followed rules of harmony.
Since the original design came from wooden temples and the triglyphs were real heads of wooden beams, every column had to bear a beam which lay across the centre of the column. Triglyphs were arranged regularly; this was regarded as the ideal solution. Changing to stone cubes instead of wooden beams required full support of the architrave load at the last column. At the first temples the final triglyph was moved, still terminating the sequence, but leaving a gap disturbing the regular order. Worse, the last triglyph was not centered with the corresponding column; that "archaic" manner was not regarded as a harmonious design. The resulting problem is called the doric corner conflict. Another approach was to apply a broader corner triglyph but was not satisfying; because the metopes are somewhat flexible in their proportions, the modular space between columns can be adjusted by the architect. The last two columns were set closer together, to give a subtle visual strengthening to the corners; that is called the "classic" solution of the corner conflict.
Triglyphs could be arranged in a harmonic manner again, the corner was terminated with a triglyph. However, final triglyph and column were not centered. There are many theories as to the origins of the Doric order in temples; the term Doric is believed to have originated from the Greek-speaking Dorian tribes. One belief is. With no hard proof and the sudden appearance of stone temples from one period after the other, this becomes speculation. Another belief is. With the Greeks being present in Ancient Egypt as soon the 7th-century BC, it is possible that Greek traders were inspired by the structure
The Tuscan order is in effect a simplified Doric order, with un-fluted columns and a simpler entablature with no triglyphs or guttae. While simple columns with round capitals had been part of the vernacular architecture of Italy and much of Europe since at least Etruscan architecture, the Romans did not consider this style to be a distinct architectural order. Instead the Tuscan order, presented as a standardized formal order, is an invention of Italian Renaissance writers motivated by nationalism. Sebastiano Serlio described five orders including a "Tuscan order", "the solidest and least ornate", in his fourth book of Regole generali di architettura sopra le cinque maniere de gli edifici. Though Fra Giocondo had attempted a first illustration of a Tuscan capital in his printed edition of Vitruvius, he showed the capital with an egg and dart enrichment that belonged to the Ionic; the "most rustic" Tuscan order of Serlio was carefully delineated by Andrea Palladio. In its simplicity, The Tuscan order is seen as similar to the Doric order, yet in its overall proportions, intercolumniation and simpler entablature, it follows the ratios of the Ionic.
This strong order was considered most appropriate in military architecture and in docks and warehouses when they were dignified by architectural treatment. Serlio found it "suitable to fortified places, such as city gates, castles, treasuries, or where artillery and ammunition are kept, prisons and other similar structures used in war." Not all modern writers accept the Tuscan order, it is sometimes called "Doric" by those aware of the distinction. From the perspective of these writers, the Tuscan order was an older primitive Italic architectural form, predating the Greek Doric and Ionic, associated by Serlio with the practice of rustication and the architectural practice of Tuscany. Giorgio Vasari made a valid argument for this claim by reference to il Cronaca's graduated rustication on the facade of Palazzo Strozzi, Florence. Like all architectural theory of the Renaissance, precedents for a Tuscan order were sought for in Vitruvius, who does not include it among the three canonic orders, but peripherally, in his discussion of the Etruscan temple.
Roman practice ignored the Tuscan order, so did Leon Battista Alberti in De re aedificatoria. Following Serlio's interpretation of Vitruvius, in the Tuscan order the column had a simpler base—circular rather than squared as in the other orders, where Vitruvius was being followed—and with a simple torus and collar, the column was unfluted, while both capital and entablature were without adornments; the modular proportion of the column was 1:7 in Vitruvius, in Palladio's illustration for Daniele Barbaro's commentary on Vitruvius), in Vignola's Cinque ordini d'architettura, in Palladio's Quattro libri. Serlio alone gives a stockier proportion of 1:6. A plain astragal or taenia ringed the column beneath its plain cap. Palladio agreed in essence with Serlio: "The Tuscan, being rough, is used above ground except in one-storey buildings like villa barns or in huge structures like Amphitheatres and the like which, having many orders, can take this one in place of the Doric, under the Ionic." Unlike the other authors Palladio found Roman precedents, of which he named the arena of Verona and the Pula Arena, both of which, James Ackerman points out, are arcuated buildings that did not present columns and entablatures.
A striking feature is his rusticated frieze resting upon a plain entablatureExamples of the use of the order are the Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne in Rome, by Baldassarre Peruzzi, 1532–1536, the pronaos portico to Santa Maria della Pace added by Pietro da Cortona. A rare church in the Tuscan order is St Paul's, Covent Garden by Inigo Jones. According to an repeated story, recorded by Horace Walpole, Lord Bedford gave Jones a low budget and asked him for a simple church "not much better than a barn", to which the architect replied "Then you shall have the handsomest barn in England". Christ Church, Spitalfields in London by Nicholas Hawksmoor, uses it outside, Corinthian within. In a typical usage, at the grand Palladian house of Wentworth Woodhouse in Yorkshire, Corinthian, the stable court of 1768 uses Tuscan. Another English house, West Wycombe Park, has a loggia facade in two storeys with Tuscan on the ground floor and Corinthian above; this recalls Palladio's Palazzo Chiericati. The Neue Wache is a Greek Revival guardhouse in Berlin, by Karl Friedrich Schinkel.
Though in most respects the Greek temple frontage is a careful exercise in revivalism, there are minimal plain bases to the thick fluted columns and, despite having metope reliefs and a large group of sculpture in the pediment, there are no triglyphs or guttae. Nonetheless, despite these "Tuscan" aspects, the overall impression is Greek and it is rightly always described as "Doric". Tuscan is used for doorways and other entrances where only a pair of columns are required, using another order might seem pretentious; because the Tuscan mode is worked up by a carpenter with a few planing tools, it became part of the vernacular Georgian style that lingered in places like New England and Ohio deep into the 19th century. In gardening, "carpenter's Doric", Tuscan, provides simple elegance to gate posts and fences in many traditional garden contexts. Composite order "Buffalo as an Architectural Museum": Tuscan