Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma
The Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma is one of two Federally recognized tribes for the Iowa people. The other is the Iowa Tribe of Nebraska. Traditionally Iowas spoke part of the Souian language family, their own name for their tribe is Bahkhoje, meaning, "grey snow," a term inspired by the tribe's traditional winter lodges covered with snow, stained grey from hearth fires. Since 1985, the tribe has held an annual powwow, it takes place in mid-June four miles south of Perkins, Oklahoma, on Highway 177. The Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma is headquartered in Perkins and their tribal jurisdictional area is in Lincoln, Logan and Payne counties, Oklahoma. Of the 800 enrolled tribal members, over 490 live within the state of Oklahoma. Bobby Walkup is the current tribal chairperson; the tribe operates the Bah-kho-je Housing Authority. They own a truck stop, a gas station, a smoke shop, a bingo hall, an off-track wagering facility, a casino; the estimated annual economic impact of the Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma was $10,343,000 in 2011.
The tribe operates the Cimarron Casino in Perkins, the Iowa Tribe Smokeshop in Coyle, the Ioway Casino Resort in Chandler. The Bah-Kho-Je Journal is a newspaper published by the tribe for enrolled members; the tribe owns BKH Solutions, a SBA 8 certified company providing trucking, environmental and energy services and consulting. They have their own tribal police department and Tah-Je Do-Weh Che Child Development and Head Start program; the tribe owns its own Bah-Kho-Je Gallery that represents Iowa artists, such as Jean Bales, David Kaskaske, Daniel Murray, as well as artists from related tribes, such as Mars Biggoose, Gina Gray, others. The gallery was based in Guthrie, but is now located in the Iowa tribal complex in Perkins. An estimated thirty tribal members still speak a Siouan language; the tribe has offered language classes in the past and is providing elders with recording devices to archive language material they feel important to share with the younger generations. The Iowa, or Ioway, originated in the Great Lakes region.
They are thought, along with the Ho-Chunk and Missouria tribes, to have once been a single tribe. In the 16th century, the Iowa and Missouria broke away from that tribe and moved to the south and west; the first recorded contact between the Iowa and Europeans was in 1676, in Green Bay, where they lived among the Ho-Chunk people. Traditionally, Iowa society was divided into two moieties, the Buffalo and the Bear clans, who would govern the tribe on an alternating, semiannual basis. In face of European-American encroachment, the Iowa moved east in what is now Iowa and Missouri, but in 1839 the tribe ceded their lands and moved to the Ioway Reservation on the Kansas-Nebraska border. There factionalism broke out between full blood Iowas; the mixed bloods advocated assimilation, while the full bloods wanted to follow their traditional way of life. In the attempt to preserve their traditions, the full blood faction of the Iowa Tribe began moving into Indian Territory in 1878, they were given lands within the Sac and Fox Reservation in 1883.
Their collective tribal landholdings were broken up by the Dawes Act and, in 1890, individual land was allotted by the Cherokee Commission to 109 tribal members. The Curtis Act of 1898 dismantled tribal government, but the tribe was able to reorganize under the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936, as the Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma, they ratified a constitution and by-laws in 1937. A unique tribal service is Grey Snow Eagle House; this eagle aviary was built within the tribe's buffalo preserve. Bah Kho-Je Xla Chi serves both to rehabilitate injured eagles and to house eagles that cannot be released back in the wild; the program works with bald eagles. Located in Perkins, this is the first facility that can house injured eagles in the state of Oklahoma and meets US Fish and Wildlife Service standards; the aviary is one of the few in the country is open to the public, visitors have come from all over the world, including tribal elders from many different Oklahoman Indian tribes. Molted eagle feathers are gathered by the tribe for permitted religious use.
Victor Roubidoux, an Iowa tribal member, serves as the aviary manager. The tribe is raising funds to expand the aviary, since spaces for eagles filled up immediately with birds from throughout the United States; the tribe added a new flight cage. Says Roubidoux, "We believe that the eagle is the only animal that has seen the face of the creator and so we honor him with respect and dignity." Jean Bales, artist Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma, official website Grey Snow Eagle House Constitution and By-Laws of the Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma
A tipi is a cone-shaped tent, traditionally made of animal skins upon wooden poles. Modern tipis have a canvas covering. A tipi is distinguished from other conical tents by the smoke flaps at the top of the structure; the tipi has been used by Indigenous people of the Plains in the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies of North America. They are still in use in these communities, though now for ceremonial purposes rather than daily living. A similar structure, the lavvu is used by the Sámi people of northern Europe. Tipis are stereotypically and incorrectly associated with all Native Americans in the United States and Indigenous peoples in Canada, despite their usage being unique to the peoples of the Plains. Native American tribes and First Nation band governments from other regions have used other types of dwellings; the tipi is durable, provides warmth and comfort in winter, is cool in the heat of summer, is dry during heavy rains. Tipis can be disassembled and packed away when people need to relocate and can be reconstructed upon settling in a new area.
This portability was important to Plains Indians with their at-times nomadic lifestyle. The word tipi comes into English from the Lakota language; the Lakota word thípi means "a dwelling" or "they dwell", from the verb thí, meaning "to dwell". The wigwam or "wickiup", a dome-shaped shelter made of bark layered on a pole-structure, was used by various tribes for hunting camps; the term wigwam has been incorrectly used to refer to a conical skin tipi. A typical family tipi is a conical, portable structure with two adjustable smoke flaps, multiple poles called lodge poles. Lewis H. Morgan noted that, The frame consists of thirteen poles from fifteen to eighteen feet in length, after being tied together at the small ends, are raised upright with a twist so as to cross the poles above the fastening, they are drawn apart at the large ends and adjusted upon the ground in the rim of a circle ten feet in diameter. A number of untanned and tanned buffalo skins, stitched together in a form adjustable to the frame, are drawn around it and lashed together, as shown in the figure.
The lower edges are secured to the ground with tent-pins. At the top there is an extra skin adjusted as a collar, so as to be open on the windward side to facilitate the exit of the smoke. A low opening is left for a doorway, covered with an extra skin used as a drop; the fire-pit and arrangements for beds are the same as in the Ojibwa lodge, grass being used in the place of spruce or hemlock twigs. Lodgepole pine is the preferred wood in the Northern and Central Plains and red cedar in the Southern Plains. Tipis have a detachable cover over the structure; the cover has been made of buffalo hide, an optional skin or cloth lining, a canvas or bison calf skin door. Modern lodges are more made of canvas. Ropes and wooden pegs are required to bind the poles, close the cover, attach the lining and door, anchor the resulting structure to the ground. Tipis are distinguished from other tents by two crucial elements: the opening at the top and the smoke flaps, which allow the dwellers to heat themselves and cook with an open fire.
Tipis were designed to be set up or taken down to allow camps to be moved to follow game migrations the bison. When dismantled the tipi poles were used to construct a dog- or horse-pulled travois on which additional poles and tipi cover were placed. Tipi covers are made by sewing together strips of canvas or tanned hide and cutting out a semicircular shape from the resulting surface. Trimming this shape yields a door and the smoke flaps that allow the dwellers to control the chimney effect to expel smoke from their fires. Old style traditional linings were hides and rectangular pieces of cloth hanging about four to five feet above the ground tied to the poles or a rope. Most tipis in a village would not be painted. Painted tipis depicted note-worthy historical battles and featured geometric portrayals of celestial bodies and animal designs. Sometimes tipis have been painted to depict personal experiences such as war hunting, a dream or vision; when depicting visions, "ceremonies and prayers were first offered, the dreamer recounted his dream to the priests and wise men of the community.
Those known to be skilled painters were consulted, the new design was made to fit anonymously within the traditional framework of the tribe's painted tipis." GeneralHolley, Linda A. Tipis-Tepees-Teepees: History and Design of the Cloth Tipi. Gibbs-Smith, 2007. Reginald Laubin, Gladys Laubin, Stanley Vestal, The Indian tipi: its history and use. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989, ISBN 978-0-8061-2236-6. American Anthropologist. Vol. 16. American Anthropological Association of Washington, 1914. Citations Notes History and evolution of tipis plus Photos and drawings Simply Differently.org: Tipi, tipi building resource, how-to manuals and online calculator for canvas lanes Tipi Instructions, a PDF document detailing the construction of a tipi
Iowa City, Iowa
Iowa City is a city in Johnson County, United States. It is the home of the University of Iowa and county seat of Johnson County, at the center of the Iowa City Metropolitan Statistical Area; the U. S. Census Bureau estimated the city's population at 75,798 in 2017, making it the state's fifth-largest city. Iowa City is the county seat of Johnson County; the metropolitan area, which encompasses Johnson and Washington counties, has a population of over 171,000. Iowa City was the second capital of the Iowa Territory and the first capital city of the State of Iowa; the Old Capitol building is a National Historic Landmark in the center of the University of Iowa campus. The University of Iowa Art Museum and Plum Grove, the home of the first Governor of Iowa, are tourist attractions. In 2008, Forbes magazine named Iowa City the second-best small metropolitan area for doing business in the United States. Iowa City was created by an act of Legislative Assembly of the Iowa Territory on January 21, 1839, fulfilling the desire of Governor Robert Lucas to move the capital out of Burlington and closer to the center of the territory.
This act began: An Act to locate the Seat of Government of the Territory of Iowa... so soon as the place shall be selected, the consent of the United States obtained, the commissioners shall proceed to lay out a town to be called "Iowa City". Commissioners Chauncey Swan and John Ronalds met on May 1 in the small settlement of Napoleon, south of present-day Iowa City, to select a site for the new capital city; the following day the commissioners selected a site on bluffs above the Iowa River north of Napoleon, placed a stake in the center of the proposed site and began planning the new capital city. Commissioner Swan, in a report to the legislature in Burlington, described the site: Iowa City is located on a section of land laying in the form of an amphitheater. There is an eminence on the west near the river, running parallel with it." By June of that year, the town had been platted and surveyed from Brown St. in the north to Burlington St. in the south, from the Iowa River eastward to Governor St.
While Iowa City was selected as the territorial capital in 1839, it did not become the capital city until 1841. The capitol building was completed in 1842, the last four territorial legislatures and the first six Iowa General Assemblies met there until 1857, when the state capital was moved to Des Moines. John F. Rague is credited with designing the Territorial Capitol Building, he had designed the 1837 capitol of Illinois and was supervising its construction when he got the commission to design the new Iowa capitol in 1839. He quit the Iowa project after five months, claiming his design was not followed, but the resemblance to the Illinois capitol suggests he influenced the final Iowa design. One surviving 1839 sketch of the proposed capital shows a radically different layout, with two domes and a central tower; the cornerstone of the Old Capitol Building was laid in Iowa City on July 4, 1840. Iowa City served as the third and last territorial capital of Iowa, the last four territorial legislatures met at the Old Capitol Building until December 28, 1846, when Iowa was admitted into the United States as the 29th state of the union.
Iowa City was declared the state capital of Iowa, the government convened in the Old Capitol Building. Oakland Cemetery was deeded to "the people of Iowa City" by the Iowa territorial legislature on February 13, 1843; the original plot was one block square, with the southwest corner at Church. Over the years the cemetery now encompasses 40 acres. Oakland Cemetery is a non-perpetual care city cemetery; this cemetery is supported by city taxes. The staff is committed to the maintenance and preservation of owned lots and accessories. Since its establishment, the cemetery has become the final resting place of many men and women important in the history of Iowa, of Iowa City and the University of Iowa; these include first governor of the territory. S. senator in 1877, subsequently secretary of the interior and U. S. minister to Spain. Weber, noted Iowa City historian, it is home to the legendary monument called the "Black Angel", an 8.5 foot tall monument for the Feldevert family erected in 1912. The facts behind the Black Angel long ago gave way to myths and legend surrounding its mysterious change in color from a golden bronze cast to an eerie black.
Founded in 1847, today's University of Iowa is recognized as one of the nation's top public universities, offering more than 100 areas of study for its 31,112 students. The institution's Writers' Workshop is internationally acclaimed, having fostered the creative talents of Wallace Stegner, Raymond Carver, Flannery O'Connor, T. C. Boyle, Rita Dove, John Casey, John Irving, Gail Godwin and Jane Smiley, having as permanent or visiting faculty many prominent writers including its early director Paul Engle, Philip Roth, John Cheever, Nelson Algren, Frank Conroy, Marilynne Robinson and Kurt Vonnegut; the University includes one of the leading medical schools and one of the largest university-owned teaching hospitals in the nation. Providing patient care within 16 medical specialties, the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics have been named one of "America's Best Hospitals" by U. S. News & World Report magazine. Iowa City is home to Mercy Hos
A nomad is a member of a community of people without fixed habitation who move to and from the same areas, including nomadic hunter-gatherers, pastoral nomads, tinker or trader nomads. As of 1995, there were an estimated 30–40 million nomads in the world. Nomadic hunting and gathering, following seasonally available wild plants and game, is by far the oldest human subsistence method. Pastoralists raise herds, driving them, or moving with them, as if with an Apuzzo, in patterns that avoid depleting pastures beyond their ability to recover. Nomadism is a lifestyle adapted to infertile regions such as steppe, tundra, or ice and sand, where mobility is the most efficient strategy for exploiting scarce resources. For example, many groups in the tundra are reindeer herders and are semi-nomadic, following forage for their animals. Sometimes described as "nomadic" are the various itinerant populations who move about in densely populated areas living not on natural resources, but by offering services to the resident population.
These groups are known as "peripatetic nomads". A nomad is a person with no settled home, moving from place to place as a way of obtaining food, finding pasture for livestock, or otherwise making a living; the word nomad comes from a Greek word. Most nomadic groups follow a fixed seasonal pattern of movements and settlements. Nomadic peoples traditionally travel on foot. Today, some nomads travel by motor vehicle. Most nomads live in other portable shelters. Nomads keep moving for different reasons. Nomadic foragers move in search of game, edible plants, water. Australian Aborigines, Negritos of Southeast Asia, San of Africa, for example, traditionally move from camp to camp to hunt and gather wild plants; some tribes of the Americas followed this way of life. Pastoral nomads make their living raising livestock such as camels, goats, sheep or yaks; these nomads travel to find more camels and sheep through the deserts of Arabia and northern Africa. The Fulani and their cattle travel through the grasslands of Niger in western Africa.
Some nomadic peoples herders, may move to raid settled communities or avoid enemies. Nomadic craftworkers and merchants travel to serve customers, they include the Lohar blacksmiths of India, the Romani traders, the Irish Travellers. Most nomads travel in groups of bands or tribes; these groups are based on formal agreements of cooperation. A council of adult males makes most of the decisions. In the case of Mongolian nomads, a family moves twice a year; these two movements occur during the summer and winter. The winter location is located near mountains in a valley and most families have fixed winter locations, their winter locations have shelter for the animals and are not used by other families while they are out. In the summer they move to a more open area. Most nomads move in the same region and don't travel far to a different region. Since they circle around a large area, communities form and families know where the other ones are. Families do not have the resources to move from one province to another unless they are moving out of the area permanently.
A family can move on its own or with others and if it moves alone, they are no more than a couple of kilometers from each other. Nowadays there are no tribes and decisions are made among family members, although elders consult with each other on usual matters; the geographical closeness of families is for mutual support. Pastoral nomad societies do not have large population. One such society, the Mongols, gave rise to the largest land empire in history; the Mongols consisted of loosely organized nomadic tribes in Mongolia and Siberia. In the late 12th century, Genghis Khan united them and other nomadic tribes to found the Mongol Empire, which stretched the length of Asia; the nomadic way of life has become rare. Many governments dislike nomads because it is difficult to control their movement and to obtain taxes from them. Many countries have converted pastures into cropland and forced nomadic peoples into permanent settlements. Nomads move from campsite to following game and wild fruits and vegetables.
Hunting and gathering describes early people's subsistence living style. Following the development of agriculture, most hunter-gatherers were either displaced or converted to farming or pastoralist groups. Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gatherers. Pastoral nomads are nomads moving between pastures. Nomadic pastoralism is thought to have developed in three stages that accompanied population growth and an increase in the complexity of social organization. Karim Sadr has proposed the following stages: Pastoralism: This is a mixed economy with a symbiosis within the family. Agropastoralism: This is when symbiosis is between clans within an ethnic group. True Nomadism: This is when symbiosis is at the regional level between specialised nomadic and agricultural populations; the pastoralists are sedentary to a certain area, as they move between the permanent spring, summer and winter pastures for their livestock. The nomads moved depending on the availability of resources. Nomadic pastoralism seems to have
Brown County, Kansas
Brown County is a county located in the northeast portion of the U. S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 9,984, its county seat and most populous city is Hiawatha. Brown County is the location of the Kickapoo Indian Reservation of Kansas, the majority of the Sac and Fox Reservation and the majority of the Iowa Reservation of Kansas and Nebraska. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state.
Brown County was founded in 1855, was named for Albert G. Brown. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 572 square miles, of which 571 square miles is land and 1.2 square miles is water. The Wolf River has its source in the county. Brown State Fishing Lake known as "Brown County State Park" is in the county, 8 miles east of Hiawatha. Richardson County, Nebraska Doniphan County Atchison County Jackson County Nemaha County Sources: National Atlas, U. S. Census Bureau U. S. Route 36 U. S. Route 73 U. S. Route 75 U. S. Route 159 Kansas Highway 20 Kansas Highway 246 As of the 2000 census, there were 10,724 people, 4,318 households, 2,949 families residing in the county; the population density was 19 people per square mile. There were 4,815 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 86.87% White, 1.56% Black or African American, 8.82% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.73% from other races, 1.81% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.32% of the population. There were 4,318 households out of which 31.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.80% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.70% were non-families. 28.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.40% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 24.00% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 19.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 93.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,971, the median income for a family was $39,525. Males had a median income of $29,163 versus $19,829 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,163.
About 10.60% of families and 12.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.40% of those under age 18 and 11.80% of those age 65 or over. Like all of Kansas outside the eastern cities, Brown County is overwhelmingly Republican, although its history of Yankee settlement means it has been thus for longer than certain other parts of the state. Brown was Alf Landon’s strongest county in his home state during his disastrous 1936 presidential campaign. FDR was never to win so much as 42 percent of the vote in any of his four Presidential elections. A mortally divided Republican Party allowed Woodrow Wilson to win a plurality in 1912 with under 37 percent of the county’s vote – nonetheless since 1968 no Democrat has reached that percentage. Following amendment to the Kansas Constitution in 1986, the county remained a prohibition, or "dry", county until 2000, when voters approved the sale of alcoholic liquor by the individual drink without a food sales requirement. Hiawatha USD 415 Brown County USD 430 Kickapoo Site 1 Kickapoo Site 2 Kickapoo Site 5 Kickapoo Site 6 Kickapoo Site 7 Kickapoo Tribal Center Baker Fidelity Mercier Padonia Brown County is divided into ten townships.
The cities of Hiawatha and Sabetha are considered governmentally independent and are excluded from the census figures for the townships. In the following table, the population center is the largest city included in that township's population total, if it is of a significant size. National Register of Historic Places listings in Brown County, Kansas Standard Atlas of Brown County, Kansas. A. Ogle & Co. Plat Book of Brown County, Kansas. Meacham's Illustrated Atlas of Kansas. H. Meacham & Company. CountyBrown County - Official Brown County - Directory of Public OfficialsMapsBrown County Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Highway Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Railroad Maps: Current, 1996, 1915, KDOT and Kansas Historical Society
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, autoimmune diseases. Immunity is the capability of multicellular organisms to resist harmful microorganisms from entering it. Immunity involves both nonspecific components; the nonspecific components act as barriers or eliminators of a wide range of pathogens irrespective of their antigenic make-up. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and can generate pathogen-specific immunity. An immune system may contain adaptive components; the innate system in mammalians, for example, is composed of primitive bone marrow cells that are programmed to recognise foreign substances and react. The adaptive system is composed of more advanced lymphatic cells that are programmed to recognise self-substances and don't react; the reaction to foreign substances is etymologically described as inflammation, meaning to set on fire.
The non-reaction to self-substances is described as immunity, meaning to exempt or as immunotolerance. These two components of the immune system create a dynamic biological environment where "health" can be seen as a physical state where the self is immunologically spared, what is foreign is inflammatorily and immunologically eliminated. "Disease" can arise what is self is not spared. Innate immunity called native immunity, exists by virtue of an organisms constitution, its genetic make-up, without an external stimulation or a previous infection, it is divided into two types: Non-Specific innate immunity, a degree of resistance to all infections in general. Specific innate immunity, a resistance to a particular kind of microorganism only; as a result, some races, particular individuals or breeds in agriculture do not suffer from certain infectious diseases. Adaptive immunity can be sub-divided depending on how the immunity was introduced in'naturally acquired' through chance contact with a disease-causing agent, whereas'artificially acquired immunity' develops through deliberate actions such as vaccination.
Both and artificially acquired immunity can be further subdivided depending on whether the host built up immunity itself by antigen as'active immunity' and lasts long-term, sometimes lifelong.'Passive immunity' is acquired through transfer of antibodies or activated T-cells from an immune host. The diagram below summarizes these divisions of immunity. Adaptive immunity can be divided by the type of immune mediators involved. Humoral immunity is called active when the organism generates its antibodies, passive when antibodies are transferred between individuals or species. Cell-mediated immunity is active when the organisms’ T-cells are stimulated, passive when T cells come from another organism; the concept of immunity has intrigued mankind for thousands of years. The prehistoric view of disease was that supernatural forces caused it, that illness was a form of theurgic punishment for "bad deeds" or "evil thoughts" visited upon the soul by the gods or by one's enemies. Between the time of Hippocrates and the 19th century, when the foundations of the scientific methods were laid, diseases were attributed to an alteration or imbalance in one of the four humors.
Popular during this time before learning that communicable diseases came from germs/microbes was the miasma theory, which held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Plague were caused by a miasma, a noxious form of "bad air". If someone were exposed to the miasma in a swamp, in evening air, or breathing air in a sickroom or hospital ward, they could get a disease; the modern word "immunity" derives from the Latin immunis, meaning exemption from military service, tax payments or other public services. The first written descriptions of the concept of immunity may have been made by the Athenian Thucydides who, in 430 BC, described that when the plague hit Athens: "the sick and the dying were tended by the pitying care of those who had recovered, because they knew the course of the disease and were themselves free from apprehensions. For no one was attacked a second time, or not with a fatal result"; the term "immunes", is found in the epic poem "Pharsalia" written around 60 B. C. by the poet Marcus Annaeus Lucanus to describe a North African tribe's resistance to snake venom.
The first clinical description of immunity which arose from a specific disease-causing organism is Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah written by the Islamic physician Al-Razi in the 9th century. In the treatise, Al Razi describes the clinical presentation of smallpox and measles and goes on to indicate that exposure to these specific agents confers lasting immunity; the first scientist who developed a full theory of immunity was Ilya Mechnikov after he revealed phagocytosis in 1882. With Louis Pasteur's germ theory of disease, the fledgling science of immunology began to explain how bacteria caused disease, how, following infection, the human body gained the ability to resist further infections; the birth of active immunotherapy may have begun with Mithridates VI of Pontus. To induce active immunity for snake venom, he recommended using a method similar to modern toxoid serum therapy, by drinking the blood of animals which fed on venomous snakes. According to Jean de Male
The Otoe are a Native American people of the Midwestern United States. The Otoe language, Chiwere, is part of the Siouan family and related to that of the related Iowa and Missouri tribes; the Otoe Tribe lived as a semi-nomadic people on the Central Plains along the bank of the Missouri River in Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. They lived in elm-bark lodges while they farmed, used tipis while traveling, like many other Plains tribes, they left their villages to hunt buffalo. In the early 19th century, many of their villages were destroyed due to warfare with other tribes. European-American encroachment and disease played a role in their decline. Today, they are federally recognized as the Otoe tribes of Oklahoma, share a reservation with the Nevaeh Sac and Fox people; the Otoe were once part of the Siouan tribes of the Great Lakes region, a group known as the Winnebago. At some point, a large group began to migrate to the South and West; this group split again, coalescing into at least three distinct tribes: the Ioway, the Missouria and the Otoe.
The Otoe settled in the lower Nemaha River valley. They adopted the horse culture and semi-nomadic lifestyle of the Great Plains, making the American bison central to their diet and culture; the States, the Lewis and Clark Expedition headed up the Missouri River to explore the new territory. The Otoe were the first tribe, they met at a place on the west bank of the Missouri River that would become known as the Council Bluff. Like other Great Plains tribes, the Otoe periodically left their villages to hunt for buffalo. Between 1817 and 1841, the Otoe lived around the mouth of the Platte River in present-day Nebraska. During this time, the remaining families of the Missouria rejoined them, they gathered with others to trade for European goods. In the 1830s, the tribe was noted to have problems with alcohol, dispensed by traders; some Otoe would trade vital supplies to the point of becoming destitute. As their dependence on alcohol grew, the men no longer hunted, but resorted to looting vacant Pawnee villages while the people were out hunting.
Christian missionaries built a mission there. In 1854 the Otoe-Missouria ceded most of their lands south of the Platte River in eastern Nebraska to the U. S. by treaty. They retained the Oto Reservation along the Big Blue River on the present Kansas-Nebraska border, they struggled to adapt to reservation life. During the 1870s, the tribe split into two factions; the Coyote band favored an immediate move to Indian Territory, where they believed they could better perpetuate their traditional tribal life outside the influence of the whites. The Quaker band favored remaining on the Big Blue River land, they were willing to sell the western half of the reservation to whites to gain income for a tribal annuity. By the spring of 1880, about half the tribe had left the reservation and taken up residence with the Sac and Fox Nation in Indian Territory. By the next year, in response to dwindling prospects of self-sufficiency and continued pressure from white settlers, the remaining Otoe members in Nebraska sold the Big Blue reservation.
They migrated to Oklahoma. With the Otoe-Missouria there, they purchased a new reservation in the Cherokee Outlet in the Indian Territory; this is in Pawnee Counties, Oklahoma. Today the Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Indians is federally recognized, it is based in Oklahoma. Annette Arkeketa and playwright Chono Ca Pe Eagle of Delight Shaumonekusse Anna Lee Walters, author Tommy Morrison, former heavyweight boxer/co-star in Rocky V movie Johny Hendricks, MMA Fighter Joan Grant Phoenix, United States Marine Corps Fort Atkinson Woodcliff Burials Ioway-Otoe Language, Ioway Cultural Institute.