Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil. It ranks as the second most populous, the third by gross domestic product, the fourth largest by area in the country; the state's capital and largest city, Belo Horizonte, is a major urban and finance center in Latin America, the sixth largest municipality in Brazil, after the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and Fortaleza, but its metropolitan area is the third largest in Brazil with just over 5,500,000 inhabitants, after those of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Nine Brazilian presidents were born in the most of any state. With an area of 586,528 square kilometres —larger than Metropolitan France—it is the fourth most extensive state in Brazil; the main producer of coffee and milk in the country, Minas Gerais is known for its heritage of architecture and colonial art in historical cities such as São João del Rei, Ouro Preto, Diamantina and Mariana. In the south, the tourist points are the hydro mineral spas, such as Caxambu, Lambari, São Lourenço, Poços de Caldas, São Thomé das Letras, Monte Verde and the national parks of Caparaó and Canastra.
The landscape of the State is marked by mountains and large areas of fertile lands. In the Serra do Cipó, Sete Lagoas and Lagoa Santa, the caves and waterfalls are the attractions; some of Brazil's most famous caverns are located there. In recent years, the state has emerged as one of the largest economic forces of Brazil, exploring its great economic potential. Two interpretations are given for the origin of the name Minas Gerais, it comes from "Minas dos Matos Gerais", the former name of the colonial province. So a first and more common understanding affirms that the name means "General Mines", with the word Gerais serving as an adjective to the mines, which were themselves spread in several spots around a larger region. Another explanation is that this ignores the two large geographical spaces which conformed the state in its history: the region of the mines, the region of the Gerais; these corresponded to the areas of Sertão which were farther and hard to access from the mining spots. The confusion comes from the fact that the term "Gerais" is taken as an adjective to "Minas" in the first version, although according to this point of view it refers to the region called Gerais.
A further complication is that this is not a well-defined area on the map of the state, but rather a designation to these parts outside the mining spots, more related to the geography of Sertão, more isolated from the state's nucleus. Minas Gerais is in the north of the southeastern subdivision of Brazil, which contains the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, it borders on Bahia, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro and the state of Espírito Santo. It shares a short boundary with the Distrito Federal. Minas Gerais is situated between 14°13'58" and 22°54'00" S latitude and between 39°51'32" and 51°02'35" W longitude, it is larger in area than Metropolitan Spain. Minas Gerais features some of the longest rivers in Brazil, most notably the São Francisco, the Paraná and to a lesser extent, the Rio Doce; the state holds many hydroelectric power plants, including Furnas. Some of the highest peaks in Brazil are in the mountain ranges in the southern part of the state, such as Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Cervo, that mark the border between Minas and its neighbors São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
The most notable one is the Pico da Bandeira, the third highest mountain in Brazil at 2890 m, standing on the border with Espírito Santo state. The state has huge reserves of iron and sizeable reserves of gold and gemstones, including emerald and aquamarine mines. Emeralds found in this location are comparable to the best Colombia-origin emeralds, are most a bluish-green color; each region of the state has a distinct character, geographically and to a certain extent culturally. The central and eastern area of the state is hilly and rocky, with little vegetation on the mountains. Around Lagoa Santa and Sete Lagoas a typical Karst topography with caves and lakes is found; some of the mountains are entirely iron ore, which led to extensive mining. Recent advances in environmental policy helped to put limits to mining. About 200 kilometres to the east of Belo Horizonte is the second Metropolitan Region of the state, Vale do Aço, which has iron and steel processing companies along the course of the Rio Doce and its tributaries.
Vale do Aço's largest cities are Coronel Fabriciano and Timóteo. Now that mining is restricted large areas of forest are being removed for timber, charcoal and to clear land for cattle ranching; the original forest cover of these inland hills is much fragmented. The city of Governador Valadares is in the limit of this region with the poorer North; the south of Minas Gerais is green, with coffee and milk production. This region is notably cooler than the rest of the state, some locations are subject to temperatures just below the freezing point during the winter; the region is famed for its mineral-water resorts, including the cities of Poços de Caldas, Lambari, São Lourenço and Caxambu. Many industries are located at Pouso Alegre; the southeast of the state, called Zona da Mata was the richest region unti
Vale do Aço metropolitan area
The Vale do Aço Metropolitan Region is a metropolitan area in Minas Gerais, comprising only the four municipalities of Coronel Fabriciano, Santana do Paraíso and Timóteo, but have an influence area of 22 other municipalities. The name means Steel Valley in Portuguese; this region is known as "a Região de Siderurgia", as it holds a great number of iron and steel processing companies along the course of the Rio Doce and its tributary, the Rio Piracicaba. The industrialization was possible after the construction of the Estrada de Ferro Vitória Minas, a large railway that crossed untouched forest regions in the 1920s, to connect the Metropolitan Area of Vitória to Belo Horizonte. Soon after the conclusion of the railway, the ironcasting Belgo-Mineira started its activity in Coronel Fabriciano, buying local timber for charcoal production, using the it as fuel for its factories. In 1944 Acesita, now called ArcelorMittal Timóteo, is installed in nowadays Timóteo. Acesita produces special steel the stainless steel.
In 1948 the municipality of Coronel Fabriciano is emancipated, including in its domains the area of nowadays Timóteo and Ipatinga. In 1956 Usiminas is installed in the region of Ipatinga. In 1964 both Ipatinga and Timóteo are separated from Coronel Fabriciano. In 1973 Cenibra is installed in Belo Oriente, a municipality located in Vale do aço's influence area; the metropolitan area was defined in 1998 and has a population of 430,700. There is no main city in the Metropolitan Area of Vale do Aço. However, Ipatinga is much larger than the other cities, with about 240,000 inhabitants; the second largest city is Coronel Fabriciano, with about 105,000 inhabitants, followed by Timóteo, that has 80,000. The largest industries of the region are Usiminas, both iron-casting. Cenibra, a pulp factory in Belo Oriente, is large. There are several other minor industries, some of them connected with the major ones, as suppliers or customers of its products; the region has a large eucalyptus monoculture, used to make charcoal for iron-casting.
Imported mineral charcoal was adopted in Usiminas and Acesita, so the eucalyptus is now used to supply the pulp factory of Cenibra as raw material. Silicon valley Food Valley Foodvalley.nl Website of the Santana do Paraiso city
Dores de Campos
Dores de Campos is a Brazilian municipality. It's about 40 kilometers from São João del Rey at BR-265. About 30% of active people work in its principal factory: Marluvas; as its neighbors cities, Dores de Campos is a point of Real Way. It was founded in about 1720 and became a city on December 17, 1938
Belo Horizonte is the sixth-largest city in Brazil, the thirteenth-largest in South America and the eighteenth-largest in the Americas. The metropolis is anchor to the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area, ranked as the third most populous metropolitan area in Brazil and the seventeenth most populous in the Americas. Belo Horizonte is the capital of the state of Brazil's second most populous state, it is the first planned modern city in Brazil. The region was first settled in the early 18th century, but the city as it is known today was planned and constructed in the 1890s, to replace Ouro Preto as the capital of Minas Gerais; the city features a mixture of contemporary and classical buildings, is home to several modern Brazilian architectural icons, most notably the Pampulha Complex. In planning the city, Aarão Reis and Francisco Bicalho sought inspiration in the urban planning of Washington, D. C; the city has employed notable programs in urban revitalization and food security, for which it has been awarded international accolades.
The city is built on several hills and is surrounded by mountains. There are several large parks in the immediate surroundings of Belo Horizonte; the Mangabeiras Park, 6 km southeast of the city centre in the hills of Curral Ridge, has a broad view of the city. It has an area of 2.35 km2. The Jambeiro Woods nature reserve extends over 912 hectares, with vegetation typical of the Atlantic Forest. More than 100 species of birds inhabit the reserve, as well as 10 species of mammals. Belo Horizonte was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city shared the host of the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup and the football tournament during the 2016 Summer Olympics; the metropolis was once a small village, founded by João Leite da Silva Ortiz, a bandeirante explorer from São Paulo. The explorer settled in the region in 1701, he established a farm called "Curral d'el Rey", archaic Portuguese for the "King's Corral", which in modern Portuguese would be spelled Curral do Rei. The farm's wealth and success encouraged people from surrounding places to move into the region, Curral del Rey became a village surrounded by farms.
Another important factor contributing to the growth of the village was the migrants from the São Francisco River region, who had to pass through Curral d'el Rey to reach southern parts of Brazil. Travelers visited a small wooden chapel, where they prayed for a safe trip. Due to this fact, the chapel was named Capela da Nossa Senhora da Boa Viagem, which means "Chapel of Our Lady of the Good Journey." After the construction of Belo Horizonte, the old baroque chapel was replaced by a neo-gothic church that became the city's cathedral. The previous capital of Minas Gerais, Ouro Preto called "Vila Rica", was a symbol of both the monarchic Brazilian Empire and the period when most of Brazilian income was due to mining; that never pleased the members of the Inconfidência Mineira, republican intellectuals who conspired against the Portuguese dominion of Brazil. In 1889, Brazil became a republic, it was agreed that a new state capital, in tune with a modern and prosperous Minas Gerais, had to be set.
In 1893, due to the climatic and topographic conditions, Curral Del Rey was selected by Minas Gerais governor Afonso Pena among other cities as the location for the new economic and cultural centre of the state, under the new name of "Cidade de Minas," or City of Minas. Aarão Reis, an urbanist from the State of Pará, was set to design the second planned city of Brazil. Cidade de Minas was inaugurated in 1897, with many unfinished constructions as the Brazilian government set a deadline for its completion. Inhabitation of the city was subsidised by the local government, through the concession of free empty lots and funding for building houses. An interesting feature of Reis' downtown street plan for Belo Horizonte was the inclusion of a symmetrical array of perpendicular and diagonal streets named after Brazilian states and Brazilian indigenous tribes. In 1906, the name was changed to Belo Horizonte. At that time the city was experiencing a considerable industrial expansion that increased its commercial and service sectors.
From its beginning, the city's original plan prohibited workers to live inside the urban area, defined by Avenida do Contorno, reserved for the public sector functionaries, bringing about an accelerated occupation outside the city's area well provided with infrastructure since its beginning. The city's original planners did not count on its population growth afterwards, which proved intense in the last 20 years of the 20th century. In the 1940s, a young Oscar Niemeyer designed the Pampulha Neighbourhood to great acclaim, a commission he got thanks to then-mayor, soon-to-be-president Juscelino Kubitschek; these two men are responsible for the wide avenues, large lakes and jutting skylines that characterise the city today. A 1949 American government film favorably reviewed the building of the city. Belo Horizonte is fast becoming a regional centre of commerce; the Latin American Research and development centre of Google, situated in Belo Horizonte, was responsible for the management and operation of the former social networking website Orkut.
It continues to be a tren
Barroso, Minas Gerais
Barroso is a Brazilian municipality located in the south of the state of Minas Gerais. Its population as of 2007 was 19,353 people living in an area of 83 km²; the elevation is 920 meters. The city belongs to the microregion of Barbacena. An important regional center, Barbacena, is located 27 km to the east and is connected by MG-265. List of municipalities in Minas Gerais
The Doce River is a river in southeast Brazil with a length of 853 kilometres. The river basin is economically important. In 2015 the collapse of a dam released contaminated water from mining into the river causing an ecological disaster; the Doce River is formed by the junction of the Piranga and the Carmo near the historical city of Ouro Preto, whose sources are located in the foothills of the Mantiqueira and Espinhaço mountain chains at altitudes of about 1,200 m. It flows in a northeastern direction via Ipatinga, makes a wide curve near Governador Valadares, flows in a southeastern direction passing through Conselheiro Pena, to enter the Atlantic Ocean near Linhares in Espírito Santo state, its main tributaries are the Piracicaba, Matipó, Caratinga-Cuieté, Manhuaçu, Santo Antônio and Suaçuí Grande, in Minas Gerais. Part of the river basin is contained in the 3,562 hectares Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve, a protected area. South of the point where the Piracicaba enters the river near Ipatinga the river forms the eastern boundary of the Rio Doce State Park.
The Doce river has great economic importance for the region. The basin is home to the largest steel making complex in Latin America. Three of the five largest companies in Minas Gerais state in the year 2000, Companhia Siderúrgica Belgo Mineira, Arcelor Mittal and Usiminas, are located there; the largest open-pit mine in the world is operated in the basin by the Companhia Vale do Rio Doce. These industrial conglomerates have an important role in Brazilian exports of iron ore and cellulose. In addition, the Doce basin contributes to production of coffee from Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo as well as fruit pulp from Espírito Santo. Fifteen percent of the GDP of the state of Minas Gerais is produced in the region with the municipality of Ipatinga accounting for 5.4% of that total. Ipatinga is the major city of the Vale; the economy of the basin is based on the following activities: agriculture: dairy and beef cattle, pig raising, sugar cane and vegetables and cocoa. According to the Anuário Estatístico do Brasil the Doce basin has a population of about 3,100,000, with the urban population making up 68.7% of the total population.
In recent years the population has declined, with small towns and rural areas losing up to 40% of their population. Major cities located along the Doce or in its basin are: Timóteo, Coronel Fabriciano, Governador Valadares and Linhares. According to the Koppen classification, there are three climatic types in the Doce basin: Tropical with altitude climate with summer rains and cool summers, present on the slopes of the Mantiqueira and the Espinhaço Mountains and at the sources of the Doce river. Tropical with altitude climate with summer rains and hot summers, present at the sources of its tributaries. Hot climate with summer rains, present in the middle and lower sections of the Doce and its tributaries. On 5 November 2015, a mine dam holding back waste water from an iron ore mine in Mariana, South-Eastern Brazil, owned by Samarco, a joint venture between Vale and BHP Billiton, devastating a nearby town with mudslides, killing at least 17 people, injuring more than 50 and causing an enormous ecological damage, threatening life along the Rio Doce and the Atlantic sea near the mouth of the Rio Doce.
About 60 million cubic meters of iron waste flowed into the Doce River. Toxic brown mudflows reached the Atlantic Ocean 17 days later. Map of Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers Copied from Documents Found in the House of Representatives from the 19th century
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro