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Irish Republican Army (1919–1922)

The Irish Republican Army was an Irish republican revolutionary paramilitary organisation. The ancestor of many groups known as the Irish Republican Army, distinguished from them as the Old IRA, it was descended from the Irish Volunteers, an organisation established on 25 November 1913 that staged the Easter Rising in April 1916. In 1919, the Irish Republic, proclaimed during the Easter Rising was formally established by an elected assembly, the Irish Volunteers were recognised by Dáil Éireann as its legitimate army. Thereafter, the IRA waged a guerrilla campaign against the British occupation of Ireland in the 1919–21 Irish War of Independence. Following the signing in 1921 of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, which ended the War of Independence, a split occurred within the IRA. Members who supported the treaty formed the nucleus of the Irish National Army. However, the majority of the IRA was opposed to the treaty; the anti-treaty IRA fought a civil war against the Free State Army in 1922–23, with the intention of creating a independent all-Ireland republic.

Having lost the civil war, this group remained in existence, with the intention of overthrowing the governments of both the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland and achieving the Irish Republic proclaimed in 1916. The Irish Volunteers, founded in 1913, staged the Easter Rising, which aimed at ending British rule in Ireland, in 1916. Following the suppression of the Rising, thousands of Volunteers were imprisoned or interned, leading to the break-up of the organisation, it was reorganised in 1917 following the release of first the internees and the prisoners. At the army convention held in Dublin in October 1917, Éamon de Valera was elected president, Michael Collins Director for Organisation and Cathal Brugha Chairman of the Resident Executive, which in effect made him Chief of Staff. Following the success of Sinn Féin in the general election of 1918 and the setting up of the First Dáil, Volunteers commenced military action against the Royal Irish Constabulary, the paramilitary police force in Ireland, subsequently against the British Army.

It began with the Soloheadbeg Ambush, when members of the Third Tipperary Brigade led by Séumas Robinson, Seán Treacy, Dan Breen and Seán Hogan, seized a quantity of gelignite, killing two RIC constables in the process. The Dáil leadership worried that the Volunteers would not accept its authority, given that, under their own constitution, they were bound to obey their own executive and no other body. In August 1919, Brugha proposed to the Dáil that the Volunteers be asked to swear allegiance to the Dáil, but another year passed before the Volunteers took an oath of allegiance to the Irish Republic and its government, "throughout August 1920". During this time, the Volunteers became known as the Irish Republican Army. A power struggle continued between Brugha and Collins, both cabinet ministers, over who had the greater influence. Brugha was nominally the superior as Minister for Defence, but Collins's power base came from his position as Director of Organisation of the IRA and from his membership on the Supreme Council of the IRB.

De Valera resented Collins's clear power and influence, which he saw as coming more from the secretive IRB than from his position as a Teachta Dála and minister in the Aireacht. Brugha and de Valera both urged the IRA to undertake larger, more conventional military actions for the propaganda effect but were ignored by Collins and Mulcahy. Brugha at one stage proposed the assassination of the entire British cabinet; this was discounted due to its presumed negative effect on British public opinion. Moreover, many members of the Dáil, notably Arthur Griffith did not approve of IRA violence and would have preferred a campaign of passive resistance to British rule; the Dáil belatedly accepted responsibility for IRA actions in April 1921, just three months before the end of the Irish War of Independence. In practice, the IRA was commanded with Richard Mulcahy as second in command; these men were able to issue orders and directives to IRA guerrilla units around the country and at times to send arms and organisers to specific areas.

However, because of the localised and irregular character of the war, they were only able to exert limited control over local IRA commanders such as Tom Barry, Liam Lynch in Cork and Seán Mac Eoin in Longford. The IRA claimed a total strength of 70,000, but only about 3,000 were engaged in fighting against the Crown; the IRA distrusted those Irishmen who had fought in the British Army during the First World War as potential informers, but there were a number of exceptions such as Emmet Dalton, Tom Barry and Martin Doyle. The IRA divided its members into three classes, namely "unreliable", "reliable" and "active"; the "unreliable" members were those who were nominally IRA members but did not do much for the struggle, "reliable" members played a supporting role in the war while fighting and the "active" men those who were engaged in full-time fighting. Of the IRA brigades only about one to two-thirds were considered to be "reliable" while those considered "active" were smaller. A disproportionate number of the "active" IRA men were teachers.

The Canadian historian Peter Hart wrote "...the guerrillas were disproportionately skilled and urban". Farmers and fishermen tended to be underrepresented in the IRA; those Irishmen engaged in white-collar trades or working as skilled labourers were much more to be involved in cultural nationalist groups like the Gaelic League than farm

Morse (1784 ship)

Morse was launched in 1747 for the British Royal Navy. After 1775 she was John and Alice, Betsy, in 1782 Resolution. In 1784 S. Mellish purchased she became the whaler Morse, she engaged in whale hunting in the British Northern Whale Fishery. From 1787 she made numerous voyages as a whaler in the Southern Whale Fishery, but with some returns to the Northern Fishery. There is no further mention of her in Lloyd's List Ship arrival and departure data after August 1802. Although Morse began as a Royal Navy vessel launched in 1747, it has so far proved impossible using online resources to determine her original name, so to fill in the details between 1747 and her appearance in 1775 as John and Alice, she was rebuilt in 1763, but whether this was before or after the Navy sold her is an open question, as are any other names she may have borne during this period. Resolution last appeared in Lloyd's Register in 1784. Morse first appeared in 1784 with R. Brown, master, S. Mellish and trade London–Greenland.

She had been rebuilt in 1763, repaired in 1775, 1777, 1779, had undergone a thorough repair in 1784. In August 1785 Morse, master, arrived at Yarmouth with 5½ "fish", she arrived at Gravesend on 9 August. A report in July 1786 of vessels still fishing at Greenland reported Morse with two fish. On 14 July Morse, master, returned to Gravesend having taken six fish and 250 seals. On 28 July 1787 Morse, master, returned to Gravesend with six fish. On 27 August 1788 Morse, master returned to Gravesend from Greenland with three fish. 1st southern whale fishery voyage: Captain R. Mills sailed from London on 16 October 1789. Early in 1790 Morse was driven ashore in Saldanha Bay, she was reported to have been at Thompson's Island c. October with 600 barrels of right whale oil. Morse arrived back at London on 19 June 1791, under the command of Captain Mallen, who at some point had replaced Mills. 2nd southern whale fishery voyage: Captain Abijah Lock sailed from London on 27 October 1791, bound for the Pacific and the coast of Peru.

Morse returned on 19 April 1793 with 113 tuns of 850 seal skins. Northern whale fishery voyage: Between 1793 and 1794 Morse was under the command of Captain Coulson, who sailed her to the Greenland fishery. 3rd South Whale Fishery voyage: Captain James Coulson sailed from England on 27 February 1795, bound for Africa. Morse returned on 21 December with 173 tuns of whale oil and 135 cwt of whale bone, having returned via St Helena, she had left St Helena on 23 October in a convoy under the escort of HMS St Albans4th southern whale fishery voyage: Captain James Coulson sailed from England on 12 April 1796, bound for the west coast of Africa. Morse returned on 27 July 1797 with 850 seal skins.5th southern whale fishery voyage: Captain Abijah Lock sailed from London on 17 February 1798, bound for Walvis Bay. Morse returned to London on 17 July 1799 6th southern whale fishery voyage: Morse, J. French, master sailed in late 1799; the whaler Morse, on her way to London, parted from the China Fleet on 29 April 1801, off Ascension Island.

On 28 June, Ingiter, arrived at Cork from South Georgia. Morse arrived back at Portsmouth from the South Seas on 11 August 1801. Northern whale fishery voyage: Morse, master, arrived back at Gravesend on 11 August 1802 from Greenland; the return from Gravesend in August 1802 was the last mention of Morse in Lloyd's List's SAD data. The registers continued to carry her with stale or out of date date for some years thereafter


Shaphan is the name of a scribe or court secretary mentioned several times in the Old Testament. When the chief Temple priest Hilkiah discovers an ancient Torah scroll, he gives it to the scribe Shaphan, who in turn brings it to King Josiah. Josiah reads it aloud to a crowd in Jerusalem. Many scholars believe this was either a copy of the Book of Deuteronomy or a text that became a part of Deuteronomy as we have it. According to the Bible, Shaphan had sons named Ahikam and Gemariah; the latter appears not to be the same Gemariah named as a son of Hilkiah in Jeremiah 29:3. Assuming it is the same Shaphan, he had a son named Jaazaniah, among the idol worshippers depicted in the vision of Ezekiel described in Ezekiel 8:11. Shaphan's grandson is Gedaliah, the short-lived governor of Judah appointed by Nebuchadnezzar after the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BCE. Whether influenced by Shaphan's part in Josiah's reforms or not, both Ahikam and Gedaliah appear to have played significant roles in protecting Jeremiah from persecution.

During the excavations at the City of David headed by Israeli archeologist Yigal Shiloh, a number of bullae were discovered in stratum X, destroyed by the Babylonians in ca. 586 BCE. Bulla 2 reads: belonging to Gemaryahu ben Shaphan. Shiloh posited that the Gemaryahu of this bulla is to be identified with "Gemaryahu son of Shaphan the scribe", mentioned in a biblical text, a figure during the reign of Jehoiakim. If this is the case, it could confirm Gemaryahu alongside Ahikam as a son of Shaphan. However, archaeologist Yair Shoham notes: "It should be borne in mind, that the names found on the bullae were popular in ancient times and it is possible that there is no connection between the names found on the bullae and the person mentioned in the Bible." List of artifacts significant to the Bible

Prathi Poovankozhi

Prathi Poovankozhi is a 2019 Indian Malayalam-language thriller film, directed by Rosshan Andrrews and written by Unni R. It stars Rosshan Andrrews and Anusree. Central Pictures released the film in theaters. Madhuri is a sales girl from one of the leading clothing stores in the city. Madhuri and her mother lives on sewing job. Madhuri hates when she does not know what to do first, but Madhuri wants to beat back the person who touched her badly. At the end of the investigation, Madhuri discovers that it was the goon named Antappan, mistreating her. Madhuri's aim is to beat him. Manju Warrier as Madhuri Anusree as Rosamma/ Madhuri's friend Rosshan Andrrews as Antony "Antappan" Joseph Saiju Kurup as Sub Inspector Sreenath K. Grace Antony as Sheeba Alencier Ley Lopez as Gopi S. P. Sreekumar Divya Prabha as Antappan's wife Sasi Kala Sekhar Menon as Happymon, Rosamma's fiancée Chali Pala as Madhuri's employer Boban Alummoodan as Madhuri's suitor Cris of The News Minute rated the movie 2.5 out of 5 stating: "Manju gives devoted performance in a film that tells off harassers."

Cris praised the film's director Rosshan Andrrews and wrote that "Rosshan and his team do deserve a pat for delivering this message clearly. Only if they had the backing of some good writing, the film would have reached out a lot more." Padmakumar K. of Malayala Manorama rated it 3 out of 5 stars and gave the verdict: "Telling it point-blank." He concluded that "Prathi Poovankozhi may not instil a sense of integrity among probable abusers, but will sure give them a fair idea about how a woman feels when she is objectified." Sify awarded 3 in a scale of 5 and commented: "Topical and hits you hard!" The reviewer appreciated Manju Warrier's performance and wrote that she "performs her well written role with dedication and confidence." Sajin Shrijith of The New Indian Express gave the film a 3.5 out of 5 rating and wrote: "Manju Warrier and Rosshan Andrrews stand out in this tense thriller." The Original Soundtrack of the film was composed by Gopi Sundar and The lyrics of the songs were written by Anil Panachooran

Humane Farm Animal Care

Humane Farm Animal Care was established to promote and administer its certification and labeling program, Certified Humane Raised & Handled, for meat, dairy and poultry raised under its animal care standards in the USA. It is a non-profit organization governed by a Board of Directors and retains a Scientific Committee which includes scientists and veterinarians; the organization is endorsed by the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Both the organization and the Certified Humane Raised & Handled program were founded in 2003, by Adele Douglass. In the late 1990s, Douglass had traveled to England to study "Freedom Food", a single brand of farm products which claimed to derive from "humanely raised" animals. Humane Farm Animal Care's mission is "improving the lives of farm animals in food production from birth through slaughter." The certification program requires the inspection of aspects of production, including raising of live animals and the processing/packaging of animal products, to ensure the authenticity of the Certified Humane Raised & Handled label.

It publishes an annual Policy Manual which describes its certification program requirements and specifications. The program has obtained International Organization for Standardization, ISO Guide 65 certification and is the only humane organization in the US to have received this designation

Cyclone Prema

Severe Tropical Cyclone Prema was among the worst tropical cyclones to hit Vanuatu since 1987's Cyclone Uma. The twenty-third storm of the season, Prema formed early on 26 March 1993 as a weak tropical depression. During 25 March, the Fiji Meteorological Service reported that a tropical depression, had developed within an otherwise inactive monsoon trough, about 200 km to the west of the Fijian dependency of Rotuma. During the next day the system moved north-westwards, before it turned and moved south-westwards as it organised and developed further. During that day the depression moved towards the northwest, before it turned and started to move towards the southwest during 26 March as it developed further. During 27 March, both TCWC Nadi and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center reported that the depression had developed into a tropical cyclone with Nadi naming it as Prema. Severe Tropical Cyclone Prema was the first named tropical cyclone to affect Vanuatu after six systems had affected the archipelago during the previous season.

Prema affected the island nation between 29 –30 March, where it caused extensive damage parts of Shefa Province, including on Epi and the Shepherd Islands. Due to the impact of this system, the name Prema was subsequently retired, by the World Meteorological Organization's RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee. Cyclone Bola Cyclone Ivy World Meteorological Organization Australian Bureau of Meteorology Fiji Meteorological Service New Zealand MetService Joint Typhoon Warning Center