Carlton County, Minnesota
Carlton County is a county in the State of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 35,386, its county seat is Carlton. The county was formed in 1857 and organized in 1870, it was named for Reuben B. Carlton, a member of the Minnesota Senate. Part of the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation lies in NE Carlton County. Carlton County is included in MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Carlton County lies on the east side of Minnesota, its east boundary line abuts the west boundary line of the state of Wisconsin. The Saint Louis River flows east-southeasterly through the county's NE corner, discharging into Lake Superior as it exits the county; the Moose Horn River flows southwesterly through the central part of the county, discharging into the Kettle River SW of the county's south boundary. The Nemadji River and the South Fork Nemadji River flow eastward through the eastern and SE part of the county, meeting a few miles east of the county's eastern boundary before flowing to Lake Superior.
The county terrain consists of low rolling hills wooded. The terrain slopes to the several river valleys; the county has a total area of 875 square miles, of which 861 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Carlton have ranged from a low of 1 °F in January to a high of 80 °F in July, although a record low of −45 °F was recorded in January 1912 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.87 inches in February to 4.34 inches in September. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 35,386 people residing in the county. 89.7% were White, 5.9% Native American, 1.4% Black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% of some other race and 2.4% of two or more races. 1.4% were Hispanic or Latino. 16.4 % were of 13.5 % Finnish, 8.9 % Norwegian, 8.6 % Swedish and 5.6 % American ancestry. As of the 2000 census, there were 31,671 people, 12,064 households, 8,408 families in the county.
The population density was 36.8/sqmi. There were 13,721 housing units at an average density of 15.9/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 91.75% White, 0.97% Black or African American, 5.19% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 1.52% from two or more races. 0.84% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.5 % were of 11.8 % Swedish and 5.8 % Polish ancestry. 95.5 % spoke 1.8 % Finnish and 1.1 % Spanish as their first language. There were 12,064 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.50% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.30% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.00. The county population contained 25.40% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 102.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,021, the median income for a family was $48,406. Males had a median income of $38,788 versus $25,555 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,073. About 5.40% of families and 7.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.20% of those under age 18 and 9.30% of those age 65 or over. Big Lake Esko Mahtowa Clear Creek North Carlton Carlton County voters are traditionally Democratic. In no national election since 1928 has the county selected the Republican Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Carlton County, Minnesota Cloquet Fire of 1918 Carlton County official website Carltoncountyhelp.org: A guide to service organizations in Carlton County MN Mn/DOT – map of Carlton County
Lake Superior, the largest of the Great Lakes of North America, is the world's largest freshwater lake by surface area, the third largest freshwater lake by volume. The lake is shared by the Canadian province of Ontario to the north, the U. S. state of Minnesota to the west, Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to the south. The farthest north and west of the Great Lakes chain, Superior has the highest elevation of all five great lakes and drains into the St. Mary's River; the Ojibwe name for the lake is gichi-gami, meaning "great sea." Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote the name as "Gitche Gumee" in The Song of Hiawatha, as did Gordon Lightfoot in his song, "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald". According to other sources, the actual Ojibwe name is Anishinaabe Gichigami; the 1878 dictionary by Father Frederic Baraga, the first one written for the Ojibway language, gives the Ojibwe name as Otchipwe-kitchi-gami. The first French explorers approaching the great inland sea by way of the Ottawa River and Lake Huron during the 17th century referred to their discovery as le lac supérieur.
Properly translated, the expression means "Upper Lake,". The lake was called Lac Tracy by 17th century Jesuit missionaries; the British, upon taking control of the region from the French in the 1760s following the French and Indian War, anglicized the lake's name to Superior, "on account of its being superior in magnitude to any of the lakes on that vast continent." Lake Superior empties into Lake Huron via the Soo Locks. Lake Superior is the largest freshwater lake in the world in area, the third largest in volume, behind Lake Baikal in Siberia and Lake Tanganyika in East Africa; the Caspian Sea, while larger than Lake Superior in both surface volume, is brackish. Lake Superior has a surface area of 31,700 square miles, the size of South Carolina or Austria, it has maximum breadth of 160 statute miles. Its average depth is 80.5 fathoms with a maximum depth of 222.17 fathoms. Lake Superior contains 2,900 cubic miles of water. There is enough water in Lake Superior to cover the entire land mass of North and South America to a depth of 30 centimetres.
The shoreline of the lake stretches 2,726 miles. American limnologist J. Val Klump was the first person to reach the lowest depth of Lake Superior on July 30, 1985, as part of a scientific expedition, which at 122 fathoms 1 foot below sea level is the second-lowest spot in the continental interior of the United States and the third-lowest spot in the interior of the North American continent after Iliamna Lake in Alaska and Great Slave Lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada at. While the temperature of the surface of Lake Superior varies seasonally, the temperature below 110 fathoms is an constant 39 °F; this variation in temperature makes the lake seasonally stratigraphic. Twice per year, the water column reaches a uniform temperature of 39 °F from top to bottom, the lake waters mix; this feature makes the lake dimictic. Because of its volume, Lake Superior has a retention time of 191 years. Annual storms on Lake Superior feature wave heights of over 20 feet. Waves well over 30 feet have been recorded.
The lake is fed by over 200 rivers. The largest include the Nipigon River, the St. Louis River, the Pigeon River, the Pic River, the White River, the Michipicoten River, the Bois Brule River and the Kaministiquia River. Lake Superior drains into Lake Huron via the St. Marys River. There are rapids at the river's upper end where the river bed has a steep gradient; the Soo Locks were built to enable ships to bypass the rapids and to overcome the 25-foot height difference between Lakes Superior and Huron. The lake's average surface elevation is 600 feet above sea level; until 1887, the natural hydraulic conveyance through the St. Marys River rapids determined the outflow from Lake Superior. By 1921, development in support of transportation and hydroelectric power resulted in gates, power canals and other control structures spanning St. Marys rapids; the regulating structure is known as the Compensating Works and is operated according to a regulation plan known as Plan 1977-A. Water levels, including diversions of water from the Hudson Bay watershed, are regulated by the International Lake Superior Board of Control, established in 1914 by the International Joint Commission.
Lake Superior's water level was at a new record low in September 2007 less than the previous record low in 1926. However, the water levels returned within a few days. Historic high water The lake's water level fluctuates from month to month, with the highest lake levels in October and November; the normal high-water mark is 1.17 feet above datum (601.1 ft
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
The Duluth Complex, the related Beaver Bay Complex, the associated North Shore Volcanic Group are rock formations which comprise much of the basement bedrock of the northeastern part of the U. S. state of Minnesota in central North America. The Duluth and Beaver Bay complexes are intrusive rocks formed about 1.1 billion years ago during the Midcontinent Rift. These formations are part of the Superior Upland physiographic region of the United States, associated with the Laurentian Upland of the Canadian Shield, the core of the North American Craton; the Duluth Complex includes much of Minnesota's Arrowhead Region north of Lake Superior. From the west near Duluth, Minnesota, it arcs north and northeast to about 48° north latitude south of Knife Lake, proceeds east at that latitude some five to twenty kilometers distant from and south of the Canada–US border to about 90° west longitude where it joins the border at the Pigeon River, thence runs east near and along the border to Lake Superior; the Duluth and Beaver Bay complexes lie south of this line.
Near Lake Superior these intrusive formations intermingle in a complex mosaic with the rocks of the associated North Shore Volcanics, which are relics of the Midcontinent rifting event. The Duluth and Beaver Bay Complexes extend a short distance under Lake Superior south of the present lakeshore, but in most places along and near that shore their southern reaches are overlain by the North Shore Volcanic Group; some 1,100 million years ago the North American craton began to split apart in the Midcontinent Rift. Over a period of some 15 to 22 million years, magma rose through the earth’s crust, separating the older formations and cooling into new rock in the area of the rift; the rock sequences thereby created. Rocks of this group north of Lake Superior are the layers of the North Shore Volcanic Group and the adjoining formations of the Duluth and Beaver Bay Complexes; the North Shore Volcanics originated c. 1109-1096 mya from hundreds of individual lava flows, forming six distinct tilted and stacked plateaus which total more than 8,000 meters in thickness.
These tilt toward the syncline under Lake Superior, as shown in the adjacent picture of the Sawtooth Mountains, the slopes of which mirror those of the shoreline rocks. While principally basaltic, these flows include rhyolites and other types; as part of the Middle Proterozoic Keweenawan sequence, these volcanic layers are part of one of the oldest and best-preserved plateau lava provinces in the world. These volcanics created the "roof rocks" into which were emplaced the mafic formations of the Duluth Complex. Formed after 1102 mya, the oldest formations are near Duluth, the youngest to the northeast near Tofte. Insulated by the overlying roof rock, upwelling magma cooled and the mafic rock into which it cooled therefore is coarse-grained; these intrusions formed a sill some 16 km thick of gabbro, but with significant amounts of anorthosite and other related granitic rocks. The Duluth Complex is one of the largest intrusions of gabbro on earth, one of the largest layered mafic intrusions known.
It covers an area of 4715 km2. The upper differentiated portions of the intrusion include ilmenite-bearing labradorite anorthosites; the lower portion along the northwestern margin consists of ultramafic cumulates with associated segregations of nickel and platinum group elements. Those metallic ores have attracted the interest of resource companies, their attempts to mine are opposed by conservationists. Along its northern margin, the Duluth Complex adjoins older structures, the Archaen Ely Greenstones, the ore-bearing Mesabi and Gunflint iron ranges deposited as part of the Animikie Group from the Penokean orogeny, a mountain-building event from Paleoproterozoic times; those two Middle Precambrian ranges are thought to have once been joined, but intruding magma of the Duluth Complex baked and engulfed the center of the mountain chain, separating it into the two ranges present today, as shown in the image at the top of this page. To the east, the complex abuts and intrudes into the Rove Formation, an older structure of sedimentary rocks.
Gabbro and diabase structures of the Duluth Complex trend from southwest to northeast, the differential erosion has left a series of ridges comprising these harder mafic rocks rising from the softer sedimentary rocks of the Rove Formation. Elongated lakes lie in many of these depressions. To the south near Lake Superior, rock strata of the Duluth and Beaver Bay complexes are interspersed with and underlie the extrusive rock of the North Shore Volcanic Group; the Beaver Bay Complex occupies the center of the North Shore Volcanics, is younger in age than the other mafic rocks of the Duluth Complex, dating from c. 1096 mya. The volcanics and more recent sedimentary rocks were once thought to be underlain by the Duluth Complex all the way across Lake Superior to Wisconsin, where gabbro formations exist; the Duluth Complex was considered to be a giant lopolith, a lens-shaped structure depressed in the center, connecting gabbro exposures on opposite sides of the lake, but now is recognized to extend only a few kilometers south of Superior's North Shore.
The Precambrian bedrock of the Duluth Complex and the North Shore Volcanics are not buried beneath layers of sedimentary rock, as is common further south. Glaciers scoured away earlier soils, as is typical of the Canadian Shield, the new topsoils are thin and poor, being derived from the r
Chert is a hard, fine-grained sedimentary rock composed of crystals of quartz that are small. Quartz is the mineral form of silicon dioxide. Chert is of biological origin but may occur inorganically as a chemical precipitate or a diagenetic replacement. Geologists use chert as a generic name for any type of cryptocrystalline quartz. Chert is of biological origin, being the petrified remains of siliceous ooze, the biogenic sediment that covers large areas of the deep ocean floor, which contains the silicon skeletal remains of diatoms, silicoflagellates, radiolarians. Depending on its origin, it can contain small macrofossils, or both, it varies in color, but most manifests as gray, grayish brown and light green to rusty red. Chert occurs in carbonate rocks as oval to irregular nodules in greensand, limestone and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral, where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. Where it occurs in chalk or marl, it is called flint, it occurs in thin beds, when it is a primary deposit.
Thick beds of chert occur in deep marine deposits. These thickly bedded cherts include the novaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and similar occurrences in Texas and South Carolina in the United States; the banded iron formations of Precambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides. Chert occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense, hard chert. Beds of marine diatomaceous chert comprising strata several hundred meters thick have been reported from sedimentary sequences such as the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and occur in rocks as old as the Cretaceous. In petrology the term "chert" is used to refer to all rocks composed of microcrystalline, cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz; the term does not include quartzite. Chalcedony is a microfibrous variety of quartz. Speaking, the term "flint" is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk and marly limestone formations.
Among non-geologists, the distinction between "flint" and "chert" is one of quality – chert being lower quality than flint. This usage of the terminology is prevalent in North America and is caused by early immigrants who brought the terms from England where most true flint was indeed of better quality than "common chert". Among petrologists, chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure. Since many cherts contain both microcrystalline and microfibrous quartz, it is sometimes difficult to classify a rock as chalcedony, thus its general inclusion as a variety of chert; the cryptocrystalline nature of chert, combined with its above average ability to resist weathering, recrystallization and metamorphism has made it an ideal rock for preservation of early life forms. For example: The 3.2 Ga chert of the Fig Tree Formation in the Barbeton Mountains between Swaziland and South Africa preserved non-colonial unicellular bacteria-like fossils. The Gunflint Chert of western Ontario preserves not only bacteria and cyanobacteria but organisms believed to be ammonia-consuming and some that resemble green algae and fungus-like organisms.
The Apex Chert of the Pilbara craton, Australia preserved eleven taxa of prokaryotes. The Bitter Springs Formation of the Amadeus Basin, Central Australia, preserves 850 Ma cyanobacteria and algae; the Rhynie chert of Scotland has remains of a Devonian land flora and fauna with preservation so perfect that it allows cellular studies of the fossils. In prehistoric times, chert was used as a raw material for the construction of stone tools. Like obsidian, as well as some rhyolites, felsites and other tool stones used in lithic reduction, chert fractures in a Hertzian cone when struck with sufficient force; this results in a characteristic of all minerals with no cleavage planes. In this kind of fracture, a cone of force propagates through the material from the point of impact removing a full or partial cone; the partial Hertzian cones produced during lithic reduction are called flakes, exhibit features characteristic of this sort of breakage, including striking platforms, bulbs of force, eraillures, which are small secondary flakes detached from the flake's bulb of force.
When a chert stone is struck against an iron-bearing surface sparks result. This makes chert an excellent tool for starting fires, both flint and common chert were used in various types of fire-starting tools, such as tinderboxes, throughout history. A primary historic use of common chert and flint was for flintlock firearms, in which the chert striking a metal plate produces a spark that ignites a small reservoir containing black powder, discharging the firearm. Cherts are subject to problems. Weathered chert develops surface pop-outs when used in concrete that undergoes freezing and thawing because of the high porosity of weathered cher
Crow Wing County, Minnesota
Crow Wing County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 62,500, its county seat is Brainerd. The county was formed in 1857, was organized in 1870. Crow Wing County is included in MN Micropolitan Statistical Area; this area was long occupied by the Ojibwe people, known as Chippewa in the United States. In addition, numerous Dakota people lived in central and southern Minnesota before European settlement. European Americans established a trading post by 1837 in this area, on the east side of the Mississippi River opposite the mouth of the Crow Wing River; the post soon became a center of trading with the Native Americans on the region, with a general-supply store that serviced the area. By 1866, the village contained Chippewa; the territorial government enacted the county's creation on May 23, 1857, named Crow Wing as the county seat. The governmental structure of the county was not effected until March 3, 1870; the county was named for the river, itself named for an island in the river that resembles a crow's wing.
Brainerd township was founded in 1870 when the Northern Pacific Railroad selected this site for a crossing of the Mississippi River. It attracted population, soon surpassing Crow Wing, it was designated as the new county seat, drawing off more residents and businesses from what became known as a ghost town, Old Crow Wing. Crow Wing State Park encompasses much of the former village site along the river. Brainerd City was incorporated on 19 November 19, 1881, named for Lawrence Brainerd, the father-in-law of J. Gregory Smith, the first president of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company. Smith had served as governor of Vermont before moving west, he is called the founder of Brainerd. Lawrence Brainerd was the first president of the Vermont Central Railroad; the Northern Pacific Railroad ran a special train as its first service to Brainerd on March 11, 1871. Its regular passenger service began the next September; the first passenger train from the Twin Cities, by way of Sauk Rapids, did not arrive until November 1, 1877.
The Minnesota legislature on February 18, 1887 annexed a portion of Cass County to Crow Wing County, which doubled the former area of Crow Wing County. Crow Wing County has a total area of 1,157 square miles, of which 999 square miles is land and 157 square miles is water. Crow Wing County has the Crow Wing State Forest and the Emily State Forest; the Cuyuna Lakes State Trail lies in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. The topography of the region is rolling to flat wooded and dotted with waters and wetlands, it is home to an abundance of wildlife, including white-tailed deer, cottontail rabbit, snowshoe hare, red fox, gray fox, mink, squirrels, occasional American black bear, Bald eagle and many other waterfowl. The main river is the Mississippi River, there are several smaller streams in the county, it has about 417 recognized lakes. The top ten ranked according to size are: Gull Lake – 9,419 acres Pelican Lake – 8,254 acres Upper and Lower White Fish Lake – 7,372 acres North Long Lake – 5,997 acres Lake Edward – 2,576 acres Bay Lake – 2,393 acres Cross Lake – 1,752 acres Round Lake – 1,645 acres Big Trout Lake – 1,343 acres Lower South Long Lake – 1,312 acres The presence of railroads increased development in the county, but they brought environmental problems.
The Burlington Northern EPA Superfund site is here, between Baxter. Burlington Northern Railroad had a treatment plant here for railroad ties, to protect the wood from weather and insects. Wastewater generated from the wood-treating process was sent to unlined ponds; this created a sludge, which contaminated both the underlying soils and the groundwater with creosote and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 55,099 people, 22,250 households, 15,174 families in the county; the population density was 55.2/sqmi. There were 33,483 housing units at an average density of 33.5/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 97.64% White, 0.31% Black or African American, 0.78% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races. 0.69% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 32.5% were of German, 16.4% Norwegian, 9.4% Swedish, 6.2% Irish and 5.2% American ancestry. There were 22,250 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.70% were married couples living together, 8.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.80% were non-families.
26.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.93. The county population contained 24.80% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 25.60% from 25 to 44, 24.40% from 45 to 64, 17.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,589, the median income for a family was $44,847. Males had a median income of $33,838 versus $22,896 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,174. About 6.50% of families and 9.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.40% of those under age 18 and 9.90% of those age 65 or