Alta California, known sometimes unofficially as Nueva California, California Septentrional, California del Norte or California Superior, began in 1804 as a province of New Spain. Along with the Baja California peninsula, it had comprised the province of Las Californias, but was split off into a separate province in 1804. Following the Mexican War of Independence, it became a territory of Mexico in April 1822 and was renamed "Alta California" in 1824; the claimed territory included all of the modern US states of California and Utah, parts of Arizona, Wyoming and New Mexico. Neither Spain nor Mexico colonized the area beyond the southern and central coastal areas of present-day California, small areas of present-day Arizona, so they exerted no effective control in modern-day California north of the Sonoma area, or east of the California Coast Ranges. Most interior areas such as the Central Valley and the deserts of California remained in de facto possession of indigenous peoples until in the Mexican era when more inland land grants were made, after 1841 when overland immigrants from the United States began to settle inland areas.
Large areas east of the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges were claimed to be part of Alta California, but were never colonized. To the southeast, beyond the deserts and the Colorado River, lay the Spanish settlements in Arizona. Alta California ceased to exist as an administrative division separate from Baja California in 1836, when the Siete Leyes constitutional reforms in Mexico re-established Las Californias as a unified department, granting it more autonomy. Most of the areas comprising Alta California were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War in 1848. Two years California joined the union as the 31st state. Other parts of Alta California became all or part of the U. S. states of Arizona, Utah and Wyoming. The Spanish explored the coastal area of Alta California by sea beginning in the 16th century and prospected the area as a domain of the Spanish monarchy. During the following two centuries there were various plans to settle the area, including Sebastián Vizcaíno's expedition in 1602–03 preparatory to colonization planned for 1606–07, canceled in 1608.
Between 1683 and 1834, Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries established a series of religious outposts from today's Baja California and Baja California Sur into present-day California. Father Eusebio Kino missionized the Pimería Alta from 1687 until his death in 1711. Plans in 1715 by Juan Manuel de Oliván Rebolledo resulted in a 1716 decree for extension of the conquest which came to nothing. Juan Bautista de Anssa proposed an expedition from Sonora in 1737 and the Council of the Indies planned settlements in 1744. Don Fernando Sánchez Salvador researched the earlier proposals and suggested the area of the Gila and Colorado Rivers as the locale for forts or presidios preventing the French or the English from "occupying Monterey and invading the neighboring coasts of California which are at the mouth of the Carmel River." Alta California was not accessible from New Spain: land routes were cut off by deserts and hostile Native populations and sea routes ran counter to the southerly currents of the distant northeastern Pacific.
New Spain did not have the economic resources nor population to settle such a far northern outpost. Spanish interest in colonizing Alta California was revived under the visita of José de Gálvez as part of his plans to reorganize the governance of the Interior Provinces and push Spanish settlement further north. In subsequent decades, news of Russian colonization and maritime fur trading in Alaska, the 1768 naval expedition of Pyotr Krenitsyn and Mikhail Levashev, in particular, alarmed the Spanish government and served to justify Gálvez's vision. To ascertain the Russian threat, a number of Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest were launched. In preparation for settlement of Alta California, the northern, mainland region of Las Californias was granted to Franciscan missionaries to convert the Native population to Catholicism, following a model, used for over a century in Baja California; the Spanish Crown funded the construction and subsidized the operation of the missions, with the goal that the relocation and enforced labor of Native people would bolster Spanish rule.
The first Alta California mission and presidio were established by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra and Gaspar de Portolá in San Diego in 1769. The following year, 1770, the second mission and presidio were founded in Monterey. In 1773 a boundary between the Baja California missions and the Franciscan missions of Alta California was set by Francisco Palóu; the missionary effort coincided with the construction of presidios and pueblos, which were to be manned and populated by Hispanic people. The first pueblo founded was San José in 1777, followed by Los Ángeles in 1781. By law, mission land and property were to pass to the indigenous population after a period of about ten years, when the natives would become Spanish subjects. In the interim period, the Franciscans were to act as mission administrators who held the land in trust for the Native residents; the Franciscans, prolonged their control over the missions after control of Alta California passed from Spain to independent Mexico, continued to run the missions until they were secularized, beginning in 1833.
The transfer of property never occurr
Irwindale Event Center
The Irwindale Event Center' is a motorsports facility located in Irwindale, United States. It opened on March 1999 under the official name Irwindale Speedway. Toyota purchased the naming rights to the facility in 2008, from that time until 2011 it was known as the Toyota Speedway at Irwindale; the speedway features paved 1/2 - and 1/3-mile oval tracks and a 1/8-mile drag strip. From its opening until 2011 it was used for NASCAR races such as NASCAR K&N Pro Series West and Whelen All-American Series events. In late 2011, NASCAR announced; the company that manages the track, Irwindale Speedway LLC, filed Chapter 7 bankruptcy on February 13, 2012. In January 2013, it was announced that the track would be re-opening as the Irwindale Event Center, would operate as a Whelen All-American Series venue for the 2013 season. For the past decade, the Formula D Championship Series has featured sold out events at the venue. In 2015, plans were made to demolish Irwindale Speedway and build an outlet mall on the site of the track.
As of 2016, the track is still open for business. On August 9, 2017 it was announced that Jim Cohan, CEO of Team 211 Entertainment, who operates the track under the name of Irwindale Event Center, would cease operation. On December 29, 2017 it was announced that the track would not close in January 2018 as former Irwindale Late Model driver and track champion Tim Huddleston, along with K&N West owner Bob Bruncatti, bought the speedway to have it remain open for another 5 years. From 2003 to 2010, the main 1/2-mile oval hosted the NASCAR Toyota All-Star Showdown. In this event, the top 30 drivers in the NASCAR K&N Pro Series and the top 40 drivers in the NASCAR Whelen All-American Series come from their respective regional tours to compete in a "best-of-the-best" race; the races were televised. It was the home of the Turkey Night Grand Prix race, a Thanksgiving midget car racing tradition in southern California since 1934, when the race debuted at Gilmore Stadium. Among the 2005 participants were Tony Stewart, Jason Leffler, J. J. Yeley.
It was seen in an episode of Malcolm in the Middle, titled "Stock Car Races" and used in the opening scene of the pilot episode of Fastlane. In 2012, Irwindale Speedway LLC, the management group that ran the track, filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy on the same day track management canceled the 2012 racing season. In the paperwork filed at the United States Bankruptcy Court, Central District, it shows that Irwindale Speedway LLC owed creditors $331,773.11. The largest amount is $150,000 owed on a personal-injury claim. Irwindale Speedway LLC owed Nu-Way Industries Inc. the company that owns the property where the track and offices are built, $55,000 in rent. Irwindale Speedway LLC has two more outstanding personal injury claims with unknown values. There is a debt of $8,093.51 owed to the city of Irwindale Police Department, $16,379.58 owed to the Golden State Water Company and $1,437.50 owed to the San Gabriel Valley Tribune for advertising. In late 2012, Jim Cohan, who ran the LA Driving Experience at the track was able to secure funding to re-open the speedway under his management.
The track is back on the NASCAR Home Tracks schedule running a bi-weekly schedule for 2013 and up to the present. In 2010, they hosted the first Lucas Oil California Classic on Thanksgiving weekend; this was a two-day event for the Spears SRL Southwest Tour, Super Late Models, Late Models. They will run 125, 100, 75 laps for a $50,000+ purse. However, attendance declined in recent years, with only 900 viewers in the stands at a race prior to closure; the 1/8-mile drag racing strip opened on September 29, 2001. In 2003, in cooperation with local law enforcement, Irwindale Speedway opened its own dragstrip and hosts legal drag races for street-legal cars and motorcycles; the dragstrip is proud to extinguish the "nowhere else to go" excuse used by illegal street racers, local police hand out flyers to offenders for free entry into drag races at the dragstrip to promote safe racing and has re-opened. The venue is known for drifting events. Since it has become the series regular opening round in February and a non championship event in December and has hosted a round of the domestic series, Formula D.
The venue has been expanded to accommodate 15,000 spectators. The circuit is regarded as one of the most popular courses for crowds and drivers despite the unforgiving concrete wall which drivers brush through with their rear bumpers; because of its popularity, the circuit is nicknamed the House of Drift. The 2003 Guinness Book of World Records lists the fastest-ever top speed of a radio-controlled car as 111 mph set by Cliff Lett of Associated Electrics. Lett, a Team Associated professional driver and one of the designers and developers of the aforementioned RC10, set the record with a modified Associated RC10L3 touring car at Irwindale Speedway on January 13, 2001. In September 2013, the property housing the Irwindale Event Center was purchased by Irwindale Outlet Partners, LLC for $22 million; the lease for the Irwindale Event Center continued on a year-by-year basis. In March 2015, plans were made to demolish Irwindale Speedway and replace it with Irwindale Outlet Center, an outlet mall, but the closure has been delayed.
The track is running the 2017 season. On August 9th, 2017, Cohan made an announcement in an e-
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection. President Richard Nixon proposed the establishment of EPA on July 9, 1970 and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order; the order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, appointed by the President and approved by Congress; the current Administrator is former Deputy Administrator Andrew R. Wheeler, acting administrator since July 2018; the EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the Administrator is given cabinet rank. The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D. C. regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions, 27 laboratories. The agency conducts environmental assessment and education, it has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state and local governments. It delegates some permitting and enforcement responsibility to U.
S. states and the federally recognized tribes. EPA enforcement powers include fines and other measures; the agency works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts. In 2018, the agency had 14,172 full-time employees. More than half of EPA's employees are engineers and environmental protection specialists; the Environmental Protection Agency can only act under statutes, which are the authority of laws passed by Congress. Congress must approve the statute and they have the power to authorize or prohibit certain actions, which the EPA has to implement and enforce. Appropriations statutes authorize how much money the agency can spend each year to carry out the approved statutes; the Environmental Protection Agency has the power to issue regulations. A regulation is a standard or rule written by the agency to interpret the statute, apply it in situations and enforce it. Congress allows the EPA to write regulations in order to solve a problem, but the agency must include a rationale of why the regulations need to be implemented.
The regulations can be challenged by the Courts, where the regulation is confirmed. Many public health and environmental groups advocate for the agency and believe that it is creating a better world. Other critics believe that the agency commits government overreach by adding unnecessary regulations on business and property owners. Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing public concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. Senator James E. Murray introduced a bill, the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959, in the 86th Congress; the 1962 publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson alerted the public about the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides. In the years following, similar bills were introduced and hearings were held to discuss the state of the environment and Congress's potential responses. In 1968, a joint House–Senate colloquium was convened by the chairmen of the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Senator Henry M. Jackson, the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Representative George P. Miller, to discuss the need for and means of implementing a national environmental policy.
In the colloquium, some members of Congress expressed a continuing concern over federal agency actions affecting the environment. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was modeled on the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959. RCA would have established a Council on Environmental Quality in the office of the President, declared a national environmental policy, required the preparation of an annual environmental report. President Nixon signed NEPA into law on January 1, 1970; the law created the Council on Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President. NEPA required that a detailed statement of environmental impacts be prepared for all major federal actions affecting the environment; the "detailed statement" would be referred to as an environmental impact statement. On July 9, 1970, Nixon proposed an executive reorganization that consolidated many environmental responsibilities of the federal government under one agency, a new Environmental Protection Agency; this proposal included merging antipollution programs from a number of departments, such as the combination of pesticide programs from the United States Department of Agriculture, Department of Interior, U.
S. Department of Interior. After conducting hearings during that summer, the House and Senate approved the proposal; the EPA was created 90 days before it had to operate, opened its doors on December 2, 1970. The agency's first Administrator, William Ruckelshaus, took the oath of office on December 4, 1970. In its first year, the EPA had 5,800 employees. At its start, the EPA was a technical assistance agency that set goals and standards. Soon, new acts and amendments passed by Congress gave the agency its regulatory authority. EPA staff recall that in the early days there was "an enormous sense of purpose and excitement" and the expectation that "there was this agency, going to do something about a problem, on the minds of a lot of people in this country," leading to tens of thousands of resumes from those eager to participate in the mighty effort to clean up America's environment; when EPA first began operation, members of the private sector felt that the environ
San Gabriel River (California)
The San Gabriel River is a urban waterway flowing 58 miles southward through Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California in the United States. It is the central of three major rivers draining the Greater Los Angeles Area, the others being the Los Angeles River and Santa Ana River; the river's watershed stretches from the rugged San Gabriel Mountains to the developed San Gabriel Valley and a significant part of the Los Angeles coastal plain, emptying into the Pacific Ocean between the cities of Long Beach and Seal Beach. The San Gabriel once ran across a vast alluvial flood plain, its channels shifting with winter floods and forming extensive wetlands along its perennial course, a scarce source of fresh water in this arid region; the Tongva people and their ancestors have inhabited the San Gabriel River basin for thousands of years, relying on the abundant fish and game in riparian habitats. The river is named for the nearby Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, established in 1771 during the Spanish colonization of California.
Its water was used for irrigation and ranching by Spanish and American settlers before urbanization began in the early 1900s transforming much of the watershed into industrial and suburban areas of greater Los Angeles. Severe floods in 1914, 1934 and 1938 spurred Los Angeles County, the federal government to build a system of dams and debris basins, to channelize much of the lower San Gabriel River with riprap or concrete banks. There is an extensive system of spreading grounds and other works to capture stormwater runoff and conserve it for urban use. Today, the river provides about one-third of the water used in southeast Los Angeles County; the upper San Gabriel has been intermittently mined for gold since the 1860s, its deep gravel bed has been an important source of construction aggregate since the early 1900s. The river is a popular recreation area, with parks and trails in the many flood basins along its course; the headwaters of the San Gabriel River have retained their natural character and are a popular attraction of the Angeles National Forest.
The San Gabriel River basin drains a total of 689 square miles and is located between the watersheds of the Los Angeles River to the west, the Santa Ana River to the east, the Mojave Desert to the north. The watershed is divided into three distinct sections; the northern third, located within the Angeles National Forest of the San Gabriel Mountains, is steep and mountainous. Elevations reach up to 10,064 feet at the highest point of the range. During the winter, many elevations above 6,000 feet are covered in snow; the middle third, the San Gabriel Valley, the southern third, the coastal plain of the Los Angeles Basin, are separated by the Puente Hills and Montebello Hills. With the exception of some recreation areas and lands set aside for flood control, the valleys are entirely urbanized. 2 million people live in the watershed, divided between 35 incorporated cities. Rainfall is higher in the San Gabriel Valley than the coastal plain due to its proximity to the mountains. However, the climate as a whole is arid, with only moderate precipitation in winter and nearly none in summer.
The lower watershed consists of alluvial plains that once experienced seasonal flooding from the San Gabriel River, creating vast swamps and wetlands. Today little of this original environment remains; the San Gabriel is one of the largest natural streams in Southern California, but its discharge varies from year to year. Between 1895 and 1957 the mean unimpaired runoff at Azusa was estimated at 114,000 acre feet, with a range from 9,600 to 410,000 acre feet; the San Gabriel River reached its highest flows in the winter and spring, with runoff dropping after early June before rising again with November or December storms. Today, the flow of the San Gabriel River has been dried up in places by dams and groundwater recharge operations, increased in other sections by wastewater run-off; the East Fork, 17 miles long, is the largest headwater of the San Gabriel River. S. Geological Survey considers it part of the main stem. However, it is colloquially known as the "East Fork" to distinguish it from the West Fork of the San Gabriel.
Its furthest tributary, the Prairie Fork, originates at 9,648-foot Pine Mountain in the Sheep Mountain Wilderness to the southwest of Wrightwood. Draining a high, remote subalpine valley characterized by extensive meadows, it flows west to join with Vincent Gulch, below which the stream is known as the East Fork. Here it turns abruptly south, flowing through a rugged canyon, it is joined from the east by the Fish Fork, which originates on the northwest slopes of Mount Baldy. Below the Fish Fork the East Fork flows through the "Narrows", one of the deepest gorges in Southern California. From the floor of the canyon at 3,000 feet, Iron Mountain rises 8,007 feet to the southeast, while Mount Hawkins, 8,850 feet, rises to the northwest; the Iron Fork tributary joins from the west in the middle of the Narrows. Near the lower end of the Narrows, the river passes under the Bridge to Nowhere, a 120-foot high arch bridge, abandoned after the huge flood of 1938 washed out a highway under construction along the East Fork.
The bridge remains today as a popular destination for hikers and bungee jumpers. After emerging from the Narrows the river continues flowing south through a som
North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses twenty-five distinct regions in twenty countries in North America, including the Caribbean. Some North American countries, most notably Mexico, do not participate in the NANP; the NANP was devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America to unify the diverse local numbering plans, established in the preceding decades. AT&T continued to administer the numbering plan until the breakup of the Bell System, when administration was delegated to the North American Numbering Plan Administration, a service, procured from the private sector by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States; each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator. Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium; the NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a three-digit telephone number prefix called the area code.
Each telephone is assigned a seven-digit telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a four-digit station number; the combination of an area code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the international calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union; the North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, which establishes an international numbering framework. From its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from local or regional telephone systems; these systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks. It was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth.
As a result, the Bell System as a whole developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a nationwide system for long-distance telephone communication. By the 1940s, the Bell System set out to unify the various numbering plans in existence and developed the North American Numbering Plan as a unified, systematic approach to efficient long-distance service that did not require the involvement of switchboard operators; the new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into eighty-six numbering plan areas. Each NPA was assigned a numbering plan area code abbreviated as area code; these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices. The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10, 1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was subsequently introduced across the country.
By the early 1960s, most areas of the Bell System had been converted and DDD had become commonplace in cities and most larger towns. In the following decades, the system expanded to include all of the United States and its territories, Canada and seventeen nations of the Caribbean. By 1967, 129 area codes had been assigned. At the request of the British Colonial Office, the numbering plan was first expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies because of their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with Canada during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. Exceptions include Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the Central American countries and some Caribbean countries; the only Spanish-speaking state in the system is the Dominican Republic. Mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after three area codes had been assigned, Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52.
The area codes in use were subsequently withdrawn in 1991. Area code 905 for Mexico City, was reassigned to a split of area code 416 in the Greater Toronto Area. Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721; the NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration. Today, this function is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission, which assumed the responsibility upon the breakup of the Bell System; the FCC solicits private sector contracts for the role of the administrator. The service was provided by a division of Lockheed Martin. In 1997, the contract was awarded to Neustar Inc.. In 2012, the contract was renewed until 2017. In 2015, the contract beginning 2017 was granted to Ericsson; the vision and goal of the architects of the North American Numbering Plan was a system by which telephone subscribers in the United States and Canada could themselves dial and establish a telephone call to any other subscriber wi
The jalapeño is a medium-sized chili pepper pod type cultivar of the species Capsicum annuum. A mature jalapeño chili is 5–10 cm long and hangs down with a round, smooth flesh of 25–38 mm wide, it can have a range of pungency, with Scoville heat units of 3,500 to 8,000. Picked and consumed while still green, it is allowed to ripen and turn red, orange, or yellow, it is wider and milder than the similar Serrano pepper. The Chile Pepper Institute is known for developing colored variations; the jalapeño is variously named huachinango, for the ripe red jalapeño, chile gordo known as cuaresmeño. The name jalapeño is Spanish for "from Xalapa", the capital city of Veracruz, where the pepper was traditionally cultivated; the name Xalapa is itself of Nahuatl origin, formed from roots xālli "sand" and āpan "water place". Genetic analysis of Capsicum annuum places jalapeños as a distinct genetic clade with no close sisters that are not directly derived from jalapeños. Jalapeños were in use by the Aztecs prior to the Spanish conquest.
The use of peppers in the Americas dates back thousands of years, including the practice of smoking some varieties of peppers in order to preserve them. In 1999 107,000 acres in Mexico were dedicated towards growing jalapeños and as of 2011, that number had fallen to 101,000 acres. Jalapeños account for thirty percent of Mexico's chili production, while acreage has decreased, there has been a 1.5% increase in volume yield per year in Mexico due to increasing irrigation, use of greenhouses, better equipment and improved techniques so that in 2009, 619,000 tons of jalapeños were produced with 42% of the crop coming from Chihuahua, 12.9% from Sinaloa, 6.6% from Jalisco, 6.3% from Michoacán. La Costeña controls about 60% of the world market and, according to company published figures, exports 16% of the peppers that Mexico produces, an 80% share of the 20% that Mexico exports in total; the US imports 98% of La Costeña's exports. According to the USDA, starting since 2010, California produces the most jalapeños followed by New Mexico and Texas, for a total of 462.5 million pounds of peppers in 2014.
It is difficult to get accurate statistics on chilies and specific chilies as growers are not fond of keeping and sharing such data and reporting agencies lump all green chilies together, or all hot chilies, with no separation of pod type. In New Mexico in 2002 the crop of jalapeños were worth $3 million at the farm gate and $20 million with processing. China, Peru and India are producers of commercial chilies, including jalapeños. Jalapeños are a pod type of Capsicum annuum; the growing period is 70–80 days. When mature, the plant stands 70–90 cm tall. A plant produces 25 to 35 pods. During a growing period, a plant will be picked multiple times; as the growing season ends, the peppers turn red. Jalapeños thrive in a number of soil types and temperatures, though they prefer warmer climates, provided they have adequate water; the optimum temperature for seed germination is 29 °C, with degradation of germination seen above 30 °C and little to no germination occurring at 40 °C. A pH of 4.5 to 7.0 is preferred for growing jalapeños and keeping the soil well drained is essential for keeping the plants healthy.
Jalapeños need at least 6 to 8 hours of sunlight per day. Experimental results show that unlike bell peppers at least 7.5 millimolar Nitrogen is needed for optimal pod production and 15 to 22 mM Nitrogen produces the best result, the plant produces both more leaves and more pods, rather than just more leaves. Once picked, individual peppers may turn to red of their own accord; the peppers can be eaten red. Though grown as an annual they are perennial and if protected from frost can produce during multiple years, as with all Capsicum annuum. Jalapeños are subject to root rot and foliar blight, both caused by Phytophthora capsici. However, the cause is not itself over-watering but the fungus. Crop rotation can help, resistant strains of jalapeño, such as the NuMex Vaquero and TAM Mild Jalapeño, have been and are being bred as this is of major commercial impact throughout the world; as jalapeños are a cultivar, the diseases are common to Capsicum annuum: Verticillium wilt, Cercospora capsici, Powdery mildew, Colletotrichum capsici, Erwinia carotovora, Beet curly top virus, Pepper mottle virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, Pepper Geminiviridae, Root-knot nematode being among the major commercially important diseases.
After harvest if jalapeños are stored at 7.5 °C they have a shelf life of up to 3–5 weeks. Jalapeños produce 0.1-0.2 µl/kg⋅h of ethylene, low for chiles and do not respond to ethylene treatment. Holding jalapeños at 20-25 °C and high humidity can be used to complete the ripening of picked jalapeños. A hot water dip of 55 °C for 4 minutes is used to kill off molds that may exist on the picked peppers without damaging them; the majority of jalapeños are wet processed, canned o
To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance