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San Gabriel Valley

The San Gabriel Valley is one of the principal valleys of Southern California, lying to the east of the city of Los Angeles. Surrounding features include: San Gabriel Mountains on the north, San Rafael Hills to the west, with Los Angeles Basin beyond; the San Gabriel valley derives its name from the San Gabriel River that flows southward through the center of the valley, which itself was named for the Spanish Mission San Gabriel Arcángel built in the Whittier Narrows in 1771. At one time predominantly agricultural, the San Gabriel Valley is today entirely urbanized and is an integral part of the Greater Los Angeles metropolitan area, it is one of the most ethnically diverse regions in the country. About 200 square miles in size, the valley includes thirty-one cities and five unincorporated communities. In 1886, Pasadena was the first independent incorporated city still located in Los Angeles County; the San Gabriel Valley is in Los Angeles County. The incorporated cities and unincorporated neighborhoods of the San Gabriel Valley include: Whittier, like Montebello, is considered a part of the Gateway Cities region.

An unincorporated portion of Whittier, Rose Hills, sits below the Puente Hills. Although most of the city sits around the San Gabriel Mountains Whittier is not a San Gabriel Valley city; this is different from Montebello, a member of the Gateway Cities Council of Governments, despite geographically being part of the San Gabriel Valley. Claremont, Diamond Bar, La Verne, San Dimas and Walnut are adjacent to the San Gabriel Valley, although are properly considered part of the Pomona Valley, they are commonly considered part of the San Gabriel Valley; the 57 Freeway is considered the dividing line between the Pomona and San Gabriel valleys. However, for statistical and economic development purposes, the County of Los Angeles includes these six cities as part of the San Gabriel Valley; the community of El Sereno, in the city of Los Angeles, is situated at the westernmost edge of the Valley. Unofficial estimates place the combined population of the San Gabriel Valley at around 2 million—roughly a fifth of the population of Los Angeles County.

Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the land along the Rio Hondo River, a branch of the San Gabriel River, was populated by the Tongva part of the Uto-Aztecan family Native Americans. The Tongva occupied much of the Los Angeles basin and the islands of Santa Catalina, San Nicolas, San Clemente and Santa Barbara. In the northern part of the valley were the Hahanog-na Indian tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation who lived in villages scattered along the Arroyo Seco and the canyons from the mountains down to the South Pasadena area. In 1542, when the explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo arrived off the shores of San Pedro and Santa Catalina; the Tongva were the people. The language of the Tongva was different from the neighboring Indian tribes and it was called Gabrielino by the Spanish; the Tongva provide the origin of many current names. The Gabrielinos lived in dome-like structures with thatched exteriors. Both sexes tattooed their bodies. During warm weather the men wore little clothing, but the women would wear minimal skirts made of animal hides.

During the cold weather they would wear animal skin capes. European diseases killed many of the Tongva and by 1870 the area had few remaining native inhabitants. Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area; the first Europeans to see inland areas of California were the members of the 1769 Portolà expedition, which traveled north by land after establishing the first Spanish settlement in today's state of California at San Diego. On July 30, the expedition crossed the San Gabriel River and continued north toward what is now the city of Los Angeles. To cross the river, the expedition built a rough bridge, which gave the name La Puente to today's San Gabriel Valley city, hills to the south are called the Puente Hills. A few years a mission was established near the river crossing. Mission San Gabriel Arcangel was founded by Franciscan Father Junipero Serra, first head of the Spanish missions in California, on September 8, 1771, its original location, called Mission Vieja, was near where San Gabriel Boulevard now crosses the Rio Hondo, near the present day Juan Matias Sanchez Adobe.

Angel Somera and Pedro Cambon were the first missionary priests at the new mission, which marked the beginning of the Los Angeles region's settlement by Spaniards. The San Gabriel mission was the third of twenty-one missions that would be established along California's El Camino Real; the San Gabriel mission did well in establishing cattle ranching and farming, but six years after its founding a destructive flood led the mission fathers to relocate the establishment to its current location farther north in present-day city of San Gabriel. The original mission site is now marked by a California Historical Landmark. During the early years of the mission, the region operated under a Rancho system; the lands which now compose the city of Montebello were parts of Rancho San Antonio, Rancho La Merced, Rancho Paso de Bartolo. The Juan Matias Sanchez Adobe, built in 1844, remains standing at the center of old Rancho La Merced in East

Bolo (1987 video game)

Bolo is a video game created for the BBC Micro computer by Stuart Cheshire in 1987, ported to the Macintosh in its most popular incarnation. It is a networked multiplayer game, it was one of the earliest simultaneous multiplayer networked games. A named tank game was created for the Apple II in 1982. Cheshire says this was "an unfortunate coincidence", that his Indian wife inspired the name; as Cheshire noted in his original documentation for the game, "Bolo is the Hindi word for communication. Bolo is about computers communicating on the network, more important about humans communicating with each other, as they argue, form alliances, agree strategies, etc." In Bolo, the player commands a tank that can be driven around a battlefield within an orthogonal, top-down view. This gives the visual impression that the battlefield is being viewed from above with the player's tank being controlled remotely; the tank is well armored and will take a number of "hits" before being destroyed. Tanks can be destroyed by driving them into deep sea.

The tank's primary weapon is its cannon, which fires only in the direction the tank is pointed and has a fast rate of fire. The tank carries mines as a secondary weapon, which can be dropped on the move, or planted by an engineer who runs from the tank and "drills" the mine into the ground. In games where the "Hidden Mines" setting is activated, such mines are invisible to other players until they drive quite close to them. Hidden mines remain visible to the player who planted them, to other members of his team. Ammunition, both for the cannon and mines, can be refilled at a limited number of supply bases scattered around the map; the bases repair damage to tanks, but this depletes the "armor" of the base. Bases' supplies of ammunition and armor refill slowly; the strategic goal of the game is to capture all of the bases on the map. Unclaimed "neutral" bases may be claimed by driving one's tank over them, after which the player and his/her team may draw upon such "friendly" bases' resources. "Hostile" bases can be captured by shooting them until their armor supply is reduced to zero, after which any player may drive over them to claim them for one's own team.

Bases that have re-armored damaged tanks are more seized since their armor supplies take some time to regenerate. A primary tactic of the game is the capture and planting of pillboxes, which are scattered around the map. Pillboxes are neutral and will shoot at any tank that approaches them. Like the supply bases, pillboxes can be shot at until destroyed, after which they can be redeployed and become friendly to that player's team. Unlike the bases, pillboxes can be picked up by the tank's engineer and moved to more strategic locations. In the early Macintosh versions, the pillboxes were easy to kill. Players have developed an array of tactical tricks to accomplish speedy pillbox capture, such as the decoy and various pilltakes; the engineer, better known as the "LGM" can perform building tasks. In order to do this he must first be sent into a forest to cut trees, which act as cash in the Bolo world, he can build roads in order to speed travel, or concrete walls to protect bases and form traps. The engineer can be killed on these missions, a replacement will parachute in after a time delay.

Killing enemy engineers has developed its own set of tactics, one of the nastiest being to plant a mine in a forest where an enemy is known to be collecting trees. Internet games begin with a period in which teams are set up while players remain in deep sea returning to agreed-upon starting points prior to an agreed-upon signal initiating active gameplay; the next phase is a base run where players attempt to seize as many neutral bases as possible. After this initial phase, various strategies may be employed. Most involve the quick capture of a number of neutral pillboxes, which may be used defensively to prevent opponents from aggressive attacks on one's bases, which can result in resource depletion. Pillboxes are used offensively, however, by pushing them forward toward an opponent's bases, using their firepower to control territory. Games feature fronts of opposing pillboxes – when one side breaks through or flanks the opponent's front, they will deploy pillboxes to spike bases and force the opposition to refuel farther back.

The successful team will push more pillboxes forward and/or seize ill-defended enemy bases, progressively limiting the territory of its opponent until all of the enemy's bases are captured or under fire. Although it is possible to set a time limit, this feature was used. Instead, the game ends when one side has captured all of the supply bases, preventing the other team from gaining ammunition. In practice, most games end before all the bases have been captured, as the losing team concedes that its supply situation has become untenable due to a combination of lost and spiked bases. Bolo's networking support allows up to sixteen players to join a single game. Networked games were still rare in the late 1980s, those that were available were fairly simple; the game supported only AppleTalk and did so through an implementation that formed the basis of Che

Brush Creek Township, Adams County, Ohio

Brush Creek Township is one of the fifteen townships of Adams County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,236. Located in the central part of the county, it borders the following townships: Meigs Township - north Jefferson Township - east Green Township - south Monroe Township - southwest Tiffin Township - westNo municipalities are located in Brush Creek Township, although the unincorporated community of Lynx lies in the township's southwest. Statewide, other Brush Creek Townships are located in Jefferson and Scioto counties, plus a Brushcreek Township in Highland County; the township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1. Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election.

Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees. County website