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Isaac Barrow

Isaac Barrow was an English Christian theologian and mathematician, given credit for his early role in the development of infinitesimal calculus. His work centered on the properties of the tangent, he is notable for being the inaugural holder of the prestigious Lucasian Professorship of Mathematics, a post held by his student, Isaac Newton. Barrow was born in London, he was the son of a linen draper by trade. In 1624, Thomas married Ann, daughter of William Buggin of North Cray and their son Isaac was born in 1630, it appears. Ann died around 1634, the widowed father sent the lad to his grandfather, the Cambridgeshire J. P. who resided at Spinney Abbey. Within two years, Thomas remarried. From this marriage, he had at least one daughter, a son, who apprenticed to Edward Miller and won his release in 1647, emigrating to Barbados in 1680. Isaac went to school first at Charterhouse, subsequently to Felsted School, where he settled and learned under the brilliant puritan Headmaster Martin Holbeach who ten years had educated John Wallis.

Having learnt Greek, Hebrew and logic at Felsted, in preparation for university studies, he continued his education at Trinity College, Cambridge. His uncle and namesake Isaac Barrow, afterwards Bishop of St Asaph, was a Fellow of Peterhouse, he took to hard study, distinguishing himself in mathematics. Barrow received an MA from Cambridge in 1652 as a student of James Duport, he spent the next four years travelling across France, Italy and Constantinople, after many adventures returned to England in 1659. He was known for his courageousness. Noted is the occasion of his having saved the ship he was upon, by the merits of his own prowess, from capture by pirates, he is described as "low in stature, of a pale complexion", slovenly in his dress, having a committed and long-standing habit of tobacco use. In respect to his courtly activities his aptitude to wit earned him favour with Charles II, the respect of his fellow courtiers. In his writings one might find accordingly, a somewhat stately eloquence.

He was an altogether impressive personage of the time, having lived a blameless life in which he exercised his conduct with due care and conscientiousness. On the Restoration in 1660, he was ordained and appointed to the Regius Professorship of Greek at Cambridge. In 1662 he was made professor of geometry at Gresham College, in 1663 was selected as the first occupier of the Lucasian chair at Cambridge. During his tenure of this chair he published two mathematical works of great learning and elegance, the first on geometry and the second on optics. In 1669 he resigned his professorship in favour of Isaac Newton. About this time, Barrow composed his Expositions of the Creed, The Lord's Prayer and Sacraments. For the remainder of his life he devoted himself to the study of divinity, he was made a D. D. by Royal mandate in 1670, two years Master of Trinity College, where he founded the library, held the post until his death. Besides the works above mentioned, he wrote other important treatises on mathematics, but in literature his place is chiefly supported by his sermons, which are masterpieces of argumentative eloquence, while his Treatise on the Pope's Supremacy is regarded as one of the most perfect specimens of controversy in existence.

Barrow's character as a man was in all respects worthy of his great talents, though he had a strong vein of eccentricity. He died unmarried in London at the early age of 46, was buried at Westminster Abbey. John Aubrey, in the Brief Lives, attributes his death to an opium addiction acquired during his residence in Turkey, his earliest work was a complete edition of the Elements of Euclid, which he issued in Latin in 1655, in English in 1660. His lectures, delivered in 1664, 1665, 1666, were published in 1683 under the title Lectiones Mathematicae, his lectures for 1667 were published in the same year, suggest the analysis by which Archimedes was led to his chief results. In 1669 he issued his Lectiones Opticae et Geometricae, it is said in the preface that Newton revised and corrected these lectures, adding matter of his own, but it seems probable from Newton's remarks in the fluxional controversy that the additions were confined to the parts which dealt with optics. This, his most important work in mathematics, was republished with a few minor alterations in 1674.

In 1675 he published an edition with numerous comments of the first four books of the On Conic Sections of Apollonius of Perga, of the extant works of Archimedes and Theodosius of Bithynia. I

1994 Oregon Ballot Measure 11

Measure 11 known as "One Strike You're Out", was a citizens' initiative passed in 1994 in the U. S. State of Oregon; this statutory enactment established mandatory minimum sentencing for several crimes. The measure was approved in the November 8, 1994 general election with 788,695 votes in favor, 412,816 votes against; the sentencing judge cannot give a lesser sentence than that prescribed by Measure 11, nor can a prisoner's sentence be reduced for good behavior. Prisoners cannot be paroled prior to serving their minimum sentence; the measure applies to all defendants aged 15 and over, requiring juveniles 15 and over charged with these crimes to be tried as adults. The measure was placed on the ballot via initiative petition by Crime Victims United, a tough-on-crime political group. Then-State Representative Kevin Mannix, who sponsored the measure, has since argued that violent criminals cannot be reformed through probation or short prison sentences, that the time they are kept incarcerated is itself a benefit to society.

Ballot Measure 10 passed in 1994, permitted the Oregon Legislative Assembly to change Measure 11, but only with a 2/3 vote in each chamber. The legislature has done so several times. Legislative Attempts to Alter or Repeal Measure 11: House Bill 3439 passed June 1995: Added Attempted Murder and Attempted Aggravated Murder. Senate Bill 1049 passed July 1997: Added Arson I, Compelling Prostitution, Use of Child in Display of Sex Act; this allowed for departures from the mandatory minimum sentencing for some Assault II, Kidnapping II, Robbery II convictions. House Bill 2494 passed August 1999: Allowed for departures from the mandatory minimum sentence for some Manslaughter II convictions committed after October 23, 1999. Measure 94 defeated November 2000: Attempt to repeal mandatory minimum sentencing in Oregon. House Bill 2379 passed July 2001: Allowed for departure from the mandatory minimum sentence for some Rape II, Sodomy II, Sexual Penetration II, Sexual Abuse I convictions after January 1st, 2002.

Senate Bill 1008 passed in May of 2019: The bill is a major overhaul of many Measure 11 stipulations. Key parts of the bill seek to address the impacts of Measure 11 on youth reported by the Oregon Justice Resource Center, such as: "Second Look" hearings for any juvenile convicted in adult court after completion of half their sentence. Judges are to consider factors such as remorse and rehabilitation, may reduce the remainder of the juvenile's sentence to community-based supervision. Prohibiting life without parole for minors. Ensuring minors of 15 years or older are not automatically tried as adults for major crimes. Proponents of Measure 11 argued, they saw the measure as critical for lowering crime rates. Opponents of Measure 11 argued that judges should be allowed discretion in sentencing and should be able to account for the particular circumstances of a given crime, they objected to the requirement that many youth defendants be tried as adults. Oregon's prison population increased after Measure 11, as of 2004, 41% of the growth was attributed to the direct or indirect impact of Measure 11.

Crime rates in Oregon decreased between 1994 and 2000, but increased in 2001. The effectiveness of Measure 11 to deter crime is further questioned when compared to research about mandatory minimums. Research has disproven mandatory minimums as public safety tools. For example, a 1993 meta-analysis report compiled from 50 different studies found mandatory minimums’ lengthier prison sentences produced higher rates of recidivism and a tendency for lower-risk offenders to experience more negative outcomes. Prior to 1989, Oregon judges would decide whether a convicted felon should be put on probation or sent to prison, for those sent to prison, set a maximum sentence Based on a subsequent decision by the Parole Board, which used an assessment of good behavior, rehabilitative efforts, criminal case, the average offender would serve a fraction of the sentence handed down by the judge; the Oregon Legislative Assembly established felony sentencing guidelines in 1989, in an attempt to achieve the following four goals: Proportional punishment, imposing the most severe sentences on the most serious offenders Truth in sentencing, so the judge's sentence would more reflect actual prison time Sentence uniformity, to reduce disparities among judges Maintenance of correctional capacity consistent with sentencing policy, so the criminal justice system would be able to deliver proposed penalties.

Parole release for most offenders was abolished by the establishment of these guidelines. The Board of Parole and Post-Prison Supervision continues to have release authority over those prison inmates sentenced for crimes committed prior to November 1, 1989, those sentenced by the courts as dangerous offenders, for murderers and aggravated murderers who are eligible for parole, regardless of the date of their crimes. Other prisoners began serving at least 80% of their sentences. Measure 11, passed in 1994, affected only specific crimes, which were covered by the sentencing guidelines from 1989 to 1994. Various exceptions exist to the guidelines, to Measure 11 restrictions on sentencing. In February 2018, Oregon Council on Civil Rights, in collaboration with the Oregon Justice Resource Center, released a report on the impact of Measure 11 on Oregon's young people and whether the law is out-of-step with legal and scientific developments of recent years. According

Prostitution in Burundi

Prostitution in Burundi is illegal but is commonplace and on the rise. Prostitution is prevalent in all areas of the country, in the largest city and prior to the security crisis in 2015, the tourist areas around Lake Tanganyika. UNAIDS estimate. Many women have turned to prostitution due to poverty. Law enforcement made little effort to curb prostitution. Political pressures, including from the mayor of Bujumbura, Freddy Mbonimpa, have led to crackdowns all over the country. HIV, sex trafficking and child prostitution are problems in the country; as with other sub-Saharan African countries, HIV is a problem in Burundi. Sex workers are one of the high risk groups; the Burundi Second Multisectoral HIV/AIDS Project, funded by the World Bank, ran from 2008 to 2011 and worked to increase availability and use of preventive services to high risk groups. HIV prevalence rates amongst sex workers has fallen from 38% in 2007 to 21% in 2016. Burundi is a source country for children and women subjected to sex trafficking.

Due to a complex political and security crisis in 2015, Burundi’s fragile economic and security environment created an opportunity for criminals, including traffickers, to take advantage of Burundians in precarious or desperate situations. There is little official data available on abuses committed against Burundi’s 60,000 IDPs, 60 percent of whom are younger than age 18 and are vulnerable to exploitation. Between April and December 2015 70,000 Burundians refugees fled to Rwanda, which contributed to an increase in child sex trafficking of both male and female refugees in Rwanda. Burundian refugee girls residing in Rwanda’s Kigeme refugee camp were exploited in sex trafficking in nearby towns. Traffickers include victims’ relatives and friends, who recruit them under false pretences to exploit them in forced labor and sex trafficking. Children are fraudulently recruited from rural areas for domestic work and exploited in sex trafficking, including in Bujumbura. Women offer vulnerable girls room and board within their homes pushing some into prostitution to pay for living expenses.

These brothels are located in poorer areas of Bujumbura, along the lake, on trucking routes, in other urban centers such as Ngozi and Rumonge. Some orphaned girls are exploited in sex trafficking, with boys acting as their facilitators, to pay for school and shelter. Incarcerated women facilitate commercial sex between male prisoners and detained children within the Burundian prison system. Men from East Africa and the Middle East, as well as Burundian government employees including teachers, police officers and gendarmes and prison officials, are among the clients of Burundian girls in child sex trafficking. Business people recruit Burundian girls for exploitation in sex trafficking in Bujumbura, as well as in Rwanda, Kenya and the Middle East. In 2015, Rwandan officials and international and local NGOs reported that Burundian refugee girls were exploited in sex trafficking in Uganda after transiting Rwanda; the United States Department of State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons ranks Burundi as a'Tier 3' country

Index of Vanuatu-related articles

Vanuatu known as the Republic of Vanuatu, is an island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean. The archipelago, of volcanic origin, is some 1,750 kilometres east of northern Australia, 500 kilometres north-east of New Caledonia, west of Fiji, southeast of the Solomon Islands, near New Guinea; the nation's largest town and the capital Port Vila is situated on Efate Island. Topics related to Vanuatu include: Abma language Air Vanuatu Ambrym Aniwa Island Aore Adventist Academy Aquaculture in Vanuatu Araki language Banks Islands Bauerfield International Airport Big Nambas language Bislama Central Vanuatu languages Coat of arms of Vanuatu Demographics of Vanuatu East Ambae language East Vanuatu languages Eastern Gemini Seamount Economy of Vanuatu Edward Natapei Efate Epi Erakor Golden Star Erromango Espiritu Santo Flag of Vanuatu Futuna Island, Vanuatu Geography of Vanuatu History of Vanuatu Josias Moli Kalkot Mataskelekele Kava Lamen Bay Airport Lamenu-Baki languages Languages of Vanuatu Literature of Vanuatu Luganville Maewo Malakula Malampa Province Malo Island Mota language Mount Tabwemasana Mount Yasur Natmasses New Hebrides National United Party North Efate language Northern Vanuatu languages Paama Paama language Parliament of Vanuatu Penama Province Pentecost Island Port Vila Religion in Vanuatu Reserve Bank of Vanuatu Rugby union in Vanuatu Sanma Province Santo languages Santo-Pekoa International Airport Serge Vohor Shefa Province Shepherd Islands South Efate language Survivor: Vanuatu Tamambo language Tafea Province Tangoa language Tari Bunia Bank Tolomako language Torba Province Torres Islands Union of Moderate Parties Vanua Lava Vanua'aku Pati Vanuatu at the Commonwealth Games Vanuatu at the Olympics Vanuatu Council of Trade Unions Vanuatu Football Federation Vanuatu Labour Party Vanuatu national cricket team Vanuatu national football team Vanuatu national rugby union team Vanuatu National Union of Students Vanuatu Premia Divisen Vanuatu rain forests Vanuatu vatu Vanuatu Vanuatuan cuisine Westtan Verts F.

C. Yatel F. C

Schoonoord, Alverna

Schoonoord is a tower mill in Alverna, Netherlands, built in 1887 and is in working order. The mill is listed as a Rijksmonument; the first mill on the site was a post mill, built c.1868. It burnt down in 1887. Schoonoord was built to replace it, its first owner was A van der Heijden. In 1917, ownership passed to G Jansen. In 1923, F A Koning was the owner. On 14 November 1940, the mill caught fire in a storm. Repairs were carried out by millwrights Adriaens of Limburg; the mill ceased working in 1944. F A Koning was followed by Carolus and Cornelis Koning in 1946 and J P J Loeffen in 1949. Restorations were carried out in 1965 and 1987, but neither of these returned the mill to working order. On 29 November 2003, the mill was again damaged in a fire; the cap was replaced in 2005 and new sails were fitted in March 2006. The mill is listed as a Rijksmonument, № 39639. Schoonoord is what the Dutch describe as a "Beltmolen", it is a three-storey tower mill built into a mound. The cap is covered in dakleer.

The mill is winded by winch. The sails are Common sails, they have a span of 22.40 metres. The sails are carried on a cast iron windshaft, cast by Enthoven & Co. in 1861. The windshaft carries the brake wheel which has 64 teeth; this drives the wallower at the top of the upright shaft. At the bottom of the upright shaft is the great spur wheel, which has 78 cogs; the great spur wheel drives two pairs of 1.50 metres French Burr millstones via lantern pinion stone nuts which have 33 staves each. Schoonoord is open to the public by appointment

SM UB-26

SM UB-26 was a German Type UB II submarine or U-boat in the German Imperial Navy during World War I. The U-boat was ordered on 30 April 1915 and launched on 14 December 1915, she was commissioned into the German Imperial Navy on 7 January 1916 as SM UB-26. UB-26 was trapped in anti-submarine nets trailed by the French destroyer Trombe and was scuttled in Le Havre harbour on 5 April 1916, she was served as Roland Morillot. On 23 October 1922, Roland Morillot sprang a leak and was abandoned in the English Channel west of Guernsey, Channel Islands, her crew were rescued by the French ship Daphne. Roland Morillot was subsequently towed into France by the French tug Centaure. Roland Morillot was repaired and remained in service until 21 January 1925, she was used in tests before being broken up in Cherbourg in 1935. A German Type UB II submarine, UB-26 had a displacement of 265 tonnes when at the surface and 291 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 36.13 m, a beam of 4.36 m, a draught of 3.66 m.

The submarine was powered by two Daimler six-cylinder diesel engines producing a total 270 metric horsepower, two Siemens-Schuckert electric motors producing 280 metric horsepower, one propeller shaft. She was capable of operating at depths of up to 50 metres; the submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 5.72 knots. When submerged, she could operate for 45 nautical miles at 4 knots. UB-26 was fitted with two 50 centimetres torpedo tubes, four torpedoes, one 5 cm SK L/40 deck gun, she had a complement of twenty-one crew members and two officers and a thirty-second dive time