Isla Salas y Gómez

Isla Salas y Gómez known as Isla Sala y Gómez, is a small uninhabited Chilean island in the Pacific Ocean. It is sometimes considered the easternmost point in the Polynesian Triangle. Isla Salas y Gómez and its surrounding waters are a Marine Protected Area called Parque Marino Salas y Gómez, with a surface area of 150,000 km2. Isla Salas y Gómez is located 3,210 km west of the Chilean mainland, 2,490 km west of Chile's Desventuradas Islands, 391 km east-northeast of Easter Island, the closest landmass. Salas y Gómez consists of two rocks, a smaller one in the west measuring 4 hectares in area, a larger one in the east measuring 11 ha, which are connected by a narrow isthmus in the north, averaging 30 meters in width; the total area is 15 hectares, the total length northwest-southeast is 770 meters. Its highest point, 30 meters above sea level, is in the south of the eastern rock, less than 30 meters from the shore, above a 10 meter high cliff; the highest elevation on the western rock is 26 meters.

The island is showered with saltwater, the shoreline is dotted with countless tidepools. Because the shoreline consists of cliffs, landing on the island is difficult in all but the calmest of conditions. There are no permanent sources of freshwater on the island, but there is an intermittent rainwater pool in a depression on the eastern rock, which forms a cache of freshwater 75 meters in diameter; this is essential for the survival of the large population of seabirds. When this area appears dry at the surface, the sand is still moist just a few inches below the surface; this flat sandy area is the only place on the island suitable for landing helicopters. In 1994, the Chilean Navy installed a tsunami warning system; the island has since been declared a nature sanctuary. The Rapa Nui name for the island is Motu Motiro Hiva or Manu Motu Motiro Hiva, meaning Islet on the way to Hiva. Hiva is part of the names of several Polynesian islands in the Marquesas Islands. In the Rapa Nui language, however, it means "far off lands" and is the name for the mythical original homeland of the Polynesians.

From Easter Island, Salas y Gómez is the opposite direction to the Marquesas, the next inhabited territory "behind" Salas y Gómez would be the coast of South America. This was one of the factors that led Thor Heyerdahl to theorize that there was pre-European contact between Polynesia and South America; the current name, Salas y Gómez, is derived from the name of Spaniards José Salas Valdés and José Manuel Gómez, who made the first detailed description of the island, following a visit beginning 18 October 1805. The island is sometimes referred to as Isla Sala y Gómez, with "Sala" being a misspelling of Salas. Although there is no evidence that the island has been permanently inhabited, Easter Islanders were aware of its existence, as indicated by the pre-European name of the island. Tradition says that the island was visited to collect fledglings and eggs; the island was said to have been difficult to land upon, because the gods Make-make and Huau protected the seabirds from those who ate their eggs and offspring.

Because of these historical connections to Easter Island, Salas y Gómez might be considered part of Polynesia. The first European to sight the island was José Salas Valdés, a Spanish sailor, on 23 August 1793, it was explored by another Spaniard José Manuel Gómez and owes its name to these two navigators. Between and 1917, visits are recorded in at least 1805, 1806, 1817, 1825, 1875, 1917. Salas y Gómez was claimed by Chile in 1888, was administered by the Chilean Navy. Beginning 1 March 1966, the island was included in the department of Isla de Pascua. On 25 July 1974, the department was reorganized as the Easter Island Province. On October 6, 2010, President Sebastián Piñera announced the creation of the 150,000 km2 Marine Protected Area Parque Marino Sala y Gómez called Parque Marino Motu Motiro Hiva. During the 2008 Deepsea Coral Symposium, the idea of a Marine Protected Area on the submarine ridges of Salas y Gomez and Nazca is launched for the first time. In February 2009, the World Wildlife Fund, WWF Chile, published a scientific revision in the Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, giving the scientific background that supported the government report for the declaration of the non-take MPA Motu Motiro Hiva.

This declaration follows the efforts of Oceana and National Geographic to both study and highlight the ecological value of this area, to encourage its protection. These organizations are planning additional expeditions to the area in order to draft a conservation plan, to propose the widening of the protected area to encompass the whole Exclusive Economic Zone around the island. Salas y Gómez is a volcanic high island, consisting of the summit of a large mountain which rises about 3500 metres from the sea bed. Scott Reef, 1.5 km further northeast, is another peak of the same submarine mountain, has a least depth of 25 meters above it. Salas y Gómez is part of the same Salas y Gómez Ridge as Easter Island to the west, these two locations being the only places where the otherwise submarine mountain range extends above sea level. There are several dozen more seamounts in the range, which extends 2232 km eastward until Nazca Seamount at 23°36′S 83°30′W, where it joins the Nazca Ridge. Salas y Gómez is the fourth youngest mountain in the chain, being

Christopher Anne Suczek

Christopher Anne Suczek was a sedimentary geologist who specialized in sedimentary petrology and plate tectonics. She received her bachelor's degree from the University of California, Berkeley in 1972 and went on to get her PhD in Geology from Stanford University in 1977, she is best known for her contribution in determining the correlation between sedimentary deposits and plate tectonics. By the 1980s the exploration of hydrocarbons and a continuation of tectonic studies in the Pacific Northwest area of the United States led to a need of increased knowledge of the Tertiary sedimentary basins and Suczek's mapping of the area. In her professional career Dr. Suczek was a professor emeritus at Western Washington University for nearly 40 years; some of the courses she taught were stratigraphy, sedimentation and historical geography. Suczek held a seat on the Auditing Committee for the Paleontological Society. Dr. Suczek was a known mentor to many of her students her female students, she was known for always speaking her mind and leading the way for women in a field, still underrepresented by females.

Along with being a successful professor and sedimentary geologist Dr. Suczek had a son and a granddaughter. Suczek died on April 10, 2014 at age 71, at her home in Bellingham, after being ill for over a year with pancreatic cancer. Christopher Anne Suczek's first major contribution to the scientific world of plate tectonics came in the form of her dissertation that she composed while completing her Ph. D. at Stanford University. In her dissertation, she studied the Upper Cambrian Harmony Formation in Northern Nevada, in an intent to prove if any of the plate tectonic models could be accurate. Throughout her study, Suczek develops two models in an attempt to describe plate tectonic behaviour in connection with the Upper Cambrian Harmony Formation. Out of these two models Suczek found evidence to believe that the passive continental margin model seemed to be most as it lasted until the end of Cambrian time and a time constraint of 650 million years of spreading event are met. A lack of volcanic ash can be accounted for with the passive continental margin model.

Suczek does note that some problems remain with this model such as the nature of crust under the miogeocline and the continued finding of pure quartzite in the eugeocline. Suczek herself notes that further study to find comparisons between the harmony foundation, Northern Sierra, Klamath Mountains, Shoofly Moffett Creek and Antelope Mountain could lead to more evidence supporting this model. In 1983 Suczek published a journal article on Disaggregation of quartzites in the Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, she explained that the common method of analyzing grain sizes was through sieving and that this method was time consuming and the results are not accurate. Instead, she proposed and described a method where the cement is dissolved by hydrofluoric acid to isolate the quartzites, she built this off of a model developed by Newport. Her method is more efficient. Christopher Anne Suczek worked with Raymond V. Ingersoll in 1985 to publish their work in the Journal of Sedimentary Research on Petrology and provenance of Cenozoic sand from the Indus Cone and the Arabian Basin.

The article describes the uplifted gneissic and metasedimentary terrane of the western Himalayas, produced by the closing of the ocean between India and Asia. They were trying to test if the sand from the Arabian Basin was derived from the Himalayas to find out what petrographic characteristics were present, they compared samples with the sand from the Bengal and Nicobar Fans. This comparison would help explain tectonic movements in the region from convergence and collision of India and Asia causing the Himalayan orogenic belt. In order to do this, they used samples from three of the Deep Sea Drilling Project's holes, counting the layers to find the Cenozoic sand. Using their findings, they compared results with other petrological data. Part of the discussion includes references to Suczek's previous work with others where they were attempting to find data to differentiate sand weathered off orogenic belts created by continental collision; the new data they found suggests that parts of the samples show characteristics of the sands derived from collision zones as opposed to Atlantic-type margins.

There is a reference to papers she collaborated on in 1979 where triangular diagrams were used to differentiate sands of different tectonic provenance. However, in the paper 6 years they decided to use the QpLvmLsm plot instead of as it visibly illustrates their sands as part of the group of sands derived from continental collisions and distinct from other groups; the conclusion explains that two out of the three Deep Sea Drilling Project samples were derived from the Himalayas and the third sample was a combination of Himalayan and Arabian sources. The Arabian Sea samples matched the sand samples from the Bengal and Nicobar Fans. In 1986 and revised in 1987, Suczek along with Paul Heller and Rowland Tabor published their paper on paleogeographic evolution of the United States Pacific Northwest during Paleogene Time in the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences; this work was to brief the paleogeographic history of the area during Paleogene times. To do this Suczek and Tabor looked at igneous and deformational histories which allowed them to create a series of paleogeographic maps.

This study resulted in the description of three main phases of Paleogene basin evolution. The first phase consisted of formation due to t

SM Town

SM Town is a musical collective for the recording artists under South Korean entertainment company SM Entertainment. SM Town artists have performed at the annual SM Town Live world tours since the SM Town Live'08 Asia tour in 2008; as of 2014, the SM Town Live concert series had cumulatively attracted over 1 million audience members. 2003-2016: The Agit - Concert Series 2016–present: SM Station SMTOWN Live'08 SMTOWN Live'09 SM Town Live'10 World Tour SM Town Live World Tour III SM Town Live World Tour IV SM Town Live Tour V in Japan SM Town Live World Tour VI SM Smile Concert China SM Smile Concert SM Summer Town Festival SMTOWN Summer Concert SM Town Week SMile Music Festival SMTOWN Special Stage in Hong Kong SMTOWN Live 2018 In Osaka SMTOWN Live Special Stage in Santiago SMTOWN Live 2019 In Tokyo I AM.: SM Town Live World Tour in Madison Square Garden - theme song: "Dear My Family" SMTOWN Live in Tokyo Special Edition in 3D In August 2014, SM Entertainment launched a rhythm game available for Android and iOS called SuperStar SMTOWN, featuring SM Town artists' songs.

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