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Islam in China

Islam has been practiced in China for 1,400 years. Muslims are a minority group in China, representing between 0.45% to 2.85% of the total population according to the latest estimates. Though Hui Muslims are the most numerous group, the greatest concentration of Muslims is in Xinjiang, with a significant Uyghur population. Lesser but significant populations reside in the regions of Ningxia and Qinghai. Of China's 55 recognized minority peoples, ten groups are predominantly Sunni Muslim. Chinese Muslims have been in China for the last 1,400 years of continuous interaction with Chinese society; the Silk Road, a series of extensive inland trade routes that spread all over the Mediterranean to east Asia, was used since 1000 B. C and continued to be used for millennia. During this large period of time, most of the traders were moved towards the East. Not only did these traders bring their goods, they carried with them their culture and beliefs to East Asia. Islam was one of the many religions that began to spread across the Silk Road during the "7th to the 10th centuries through war and diplomatic exchanges."

According to Chinese Muslims' traditional legendary accounts, Islam was first introduced to China in 616-18 AD by Sahaba of Prophet Muhammad: Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, Wahab ibn Abu Kabcha and another Sahaba. Wahab ibn abu Kabcha may have been be a son of al-Harth ibn Abdul Uzza, it is noted in other accounts that Wahab Abu Kabcha reached Canton by sea in 629 CE. The introduction of Islam happened through 2 routes: From the southeast following an established path to Canton and from the northwest through the Silk Road. Sa`ad ibn Abi Waqqas, along with three Sahabas, namely Suhayla Abuarja, Uwais al-Qarani, Hassan ibn Thabit, returned to China from Arabia in 637 by the Yunan-Manipur-Chittagong route reached Arabia by sea; some sources date the introduction of Islam in China to 650 AD, the third sojourn of Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, when he was sent as an official envoy to Emperor Gaozong during Caliph Uthman's reign. Earlier visits of Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas were noted in Arab accounts since it was a period of nascent Islam mixed with events of much hectic preaching and warfare.

They were more concerned with writings of verses of the Koran as revealed to Muhammad, his sayings and ways of life. According to Chinese Muslims' traditional legendary accounts, Islam was first brought to China by an embassy led by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, sent by Uthman, the third Caliph, which are confusions with Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas's earlier visits; the embassy was led by the second cousin of Muhammad. Emperor Gaozong, the Tang emperor who received the envoy ordered the construction of the Memorial mosque in Canton, the first mosque in the country, in memory of Muhammad. While modern secular historians tend to say that there is no evidence for Waqqās himself coming to China, they do believe that Muslim diplomats and merchants came to Tang China within a few decades from the beginning of the Muslim Era; the Tang dynasty's cosmopolitan culture, with its intensive contacts with Central Asia and its significant communities of Central and Western Asian merchants resident in Chinese cities, which helped the introduction of Islam.

The first major Muslim settlements in China consisted of Persian merchants. It is recorded; the same year and Persian pirates who had their base in a port on the island of Hainan. This caused some of the trade to divert to Northern Vietnam and the Chaozhou area, near the Fujian border. Arab and Persian pirates raided and looted warehouses in Guangzhou in AD 758, according to a local Guangzhou government report on October 30, 758, which corresponded to the day of Guisi of the ninth lunar month in the first year of the Qianyuan era of Emperor Suzong of the Tang dynasty. During the Tang and the Song eras, comparatively well-established if somewhat segregated, mercantile Muslim communities existed in the port cities of Guangzhou and Hangzhou on China's southeastern seaboard, as well as in the interior centers such as Chang'an, Yangzhou. After critical analysis, it is evident that Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas and the three other Sahabas who were preaching from 616-18 were noticed by Emperor Gaozong by 618 AD.

Guangzhou is home to four mosques, including the famous Huaisheng Mosque believed to have been built by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, the second cousin of Muhammad. The city has a grave believed to be that of ibn Abi Waqqas. Hamada Hagras in which he recorded "The Umayyad period witnessed the great expansion of Islam to the east. In 713, the Umayyad campaign under the command of Qutayba b. Muslim al‐Bahili Invaded Khurasan and closed to western Chinese borders. In 751 the Chinese decided to fight the Arabs and assist the Turkish Uighurs, the Chinese army under the command of Gao Xian Zhi was defeated in Talas by Ziyad b. Saleh who sent by Abu Muslim al‐Khurasani, which led to the spread of Islam in those areas. During the Abbasid era, there were diplomatic relations between Arabs and the Tang dynasty, the most important of which occurred in 757 when Emperor Suzong asked the Abbasid caliph al-Mansur to help quell an internal Tatar revolt; the Caliph accordingly set a military campaign of 10.000 soldiers.

The Islamic forces were able to control the capital Chang’an". Islam was brought to China during the Tang d

Gama Bomb

Gama Bomb is a thrash metal band based in Northern Ireland. Their 2009 album Tales from the Grave in Space was one of the first albums released as a free download while signed to a record label. School friends Joe McGuigan and Philly Byrne formed Gama Bomb with the guitarist Luke Graham in Newry in 2002 and soon built up a small but loyal following which they consolidated with a rigorous touring schedule and frequent forays into self-released recording; the band first gained attention with their demo "The Survival Option" in the same year. In 2003, they released "The Fatal Mission" single. During this period Byrne appeared on stage in fancy dress as a chef, pirate or scientist in an colourful stage show which included a thrash metal version of the theme tune from the 1980s TV show Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Gama Bomb's first tour dates outside Ireland were in 2004, supporting the punk band The Dangerfields on a tour of Scotland. Gama Bomb released their full-length album, Survival of the Fastest, through the European music label Witches Brew in early 2006.

The album, independently released in a limited edition format in late 2005, included many of the bands live staples of which many, aside from those present on previous EP releases, had never been commercially available. At this point, the band's line-up changed with the original guitarist Kevy Canavan leaving and the addition of drummer Paul Caffrey. In late 2005, Domo Dixon filled the vacant guitar spot; the 2006 version of the album features the bonus tracks "M. A. D." and "The Survival Option" from their 2004 "Fatal Mission" single. In April 2006, as the album was released, Gama Bomb embarked on their first UK tour; the "Insane Quest for Flesh" tour had support from Mutant and Deceptor and is seen as a landmark event in the rise of the resurgent UK thrash scene. After live dates in summer 200, as well as coverage in music magazines like the NME and Terrorizer, Gama Bomb self-recorded a demo of their new album Citizen Brain to show to interested labels. Seeking a larger label to help them tour Europe, the demo did the rounds with most of the major metal labels.

Around this point Earache Records began to take a serious interest in the band. In May 2007, Gama Bomb joined the Hungarian thrash band Black Sister on a split 7" EP released by Problem? Records; the Gama Bomb side had new tracks "Zombi Brew" and "Frightmare On Hell St.", together with a cover of the punk band The Dangerfields' song, "Maniac". The EP was released on 7" vinyl and limited to 200 copies. In September 2007, Gama Bomb announced that they had signed a recording contract with Earache Records; the band contributes the song "Zombi Brew" to the Thrashing Like A Maniac compilation released by Earache Records, alongside other new thrash artists such as Evile, Municipal Waste, Short Sharp Shock and Send More Paramedics. In April 2008, Earache confirmed the release for early June of Gama Bomb's first album for the label, Citizen Brain; the album was released in July 2008 to overwhelmingly positive reviews. The band toured Europe extensively to support the album. Since the release of Citizen Brain, the band has been vocal in its support of music downloading, led a campaign to'Stamp Out Inferior Metal' on their 2008 Thrashing Like A Maniac Tour, asking fans to bring along CDs they regret buying and to destroy them at shows.

In summer 2009, the band played mainstage bookings at the European metal festivals Hellfest in France and Tuska Open Air in Finland alongside Mötley Crüe, WASP, Anthrax and Suicidal Tendencies. In January 2009, they were voted best newcomer in a Terrorizer magazine readers' poll, toured Europe with Exodus and Overkill in early 2009 as part of the Killfest tour. Gama Bomb announced via their MySpace blog in August 2009 that they were returning to the studio to record their third album Tales from the Grave in Space for a November 2009 release; the album was produced by Scott Atkins. On September 8, the band announced that Tales from the Grave in Space would be released online free on November 5 via Rapidshare, making them the first metal band to release an album for free while signed to a record label. Issue 200 of the UK version of Metal Hammer, sold in branches of Tesco, came with a copy of the CD as a free cover mount. A physical version of the album was released; the bass guitarist Joe McGuigan has said that despite it being given away for free, Tales from the Grave in Space had outsold Citizen Brain physically.

In March 2010, Gama Bomb was nominated in the Best Underground Band category of the Metal Hammer Golden Gods Awards, losing to the black metal band Immortal on the night. They supported Sepultura on their July UK tour; the band embarked on its first US tour, in support of Overkill, Forbidden and DRI, from October to December 2010, played a series of shows in Europe beforehand with the original lead guitarist Canavan back in the line-up, filling in for Domo Dixon. In February 2011, Gama Bomb announced they would undertake a final UK tour to'say goodbye' to Tales from the Grave in Space before writing a new album in the summer; the band revealed on Facebook that a possible new track would be titled "The Cannibals Are In The Streets All Flesh Must Be Eaten". The band played at two shows in Mexico in May, toured the UK in support of Onslaught in September, undertook a European tour in October and played their first-ever South American shows in December, supporting Dark Funeral on a tour of Brazil.

In March 2012, the band revealed via Facebook that vocalist Byrne had undergone surgery for vocal fold nodules, sustained over the last year's touring, was recovering

James Harvey Crawford

James Harvey Crawford was the founder of Steamboat Springs, Colorado. He was a man of many vocations: soldier, pioneer, miner, land developer, politician, he was called the "Father of Steamboat Springs", his wife Margaret Emerine Crawford was called the "Mother of Routt County". Sandra Dallas said in Gaslights and Gingerbread, "American tradition likes to believe the West was settled by honest brave men, not by greedy, grubbing miners as it was, but by men with a vision, pioneers with a dream. Steamboat Springs was founded by just such a man, James H. Crawford." James Harvey Crawford was born March 30, 1845 on his father John Edward Crawford's farm along Spring Fork Creek, six miles south of the present town of Sedalia, Missouri. His future wife, Margaret Emerine Bourn, lived on the adjacent farm. James enlisted in the Union Army, Company E, 7th Missouri State Militia Cavalry, on February 10, 1862, while only 16, he was promoted to Second Sergeant on April 12 and to First Lieutenant on November 8.

During the Civil War, he served in both Arkansas and Kansas, but spent most of the time in central and southern Missouri. On May 25, 1865, one month after he was mustered out of service and Margaret married, they bought land near their parents' farms, for seven years led the quiet life of farmers. Three of their four children were born on the farm: Lulie on March 25, 1867, Logan on September 9, 1869, John on February 8, 1873. In 1872 James made an exploratory trip to Colorado, where he traveled with Robert W. Steele, the first provisional governor of Colorado Territory from 1859 to 1861. Based on this trip, James sold his farm and in May 1873 he packed his family and belongings onto two wagons and led a small wagon train of friends along the Smoky Hill Trail across the prairie to Denver, they spent their first winter in the foothills to the west of Denver. The following spring they were the first wagon to cross the Continental Divide on the new road over Rollins Pass. At Hot Sulphur Springs in Middle Park, James won a race to build the first permanent house, where they lived for over a year.

During the spring of 1874, James took an exploratory trip west to the Yampa River with Missouri friends and staked his homestead claim at the site that became Steamboat Springs. In the spring of 1876 the Crawford family returned to live permanently in Steamboat Springs. Over the next five years, they were the only permanent family in the area, their most frequent visitors were the Ute Indian families that came to the area during the summer months to enjoy the many springs. The Crawfords traded with the Indians, shared food and medical supplies, became friends and playmates with the Ute children. Over the following years the Crawford cabin became the center of a growing pioneer community, it was the first post office, the first school, the first church, the first library. During the scare of the Meeker Massacre, the cabin became a haven for the area. Governor John Routt appointed James as the first county judge of Routt County, the first Postmaster, the first Superintendent of Schools, he was twice elected to represent the county in the Colorado legislature, once elected as county judge.

When Routt County became a separate county, he was the foreman for the first grand jury to convene. In 1883 the first school was built with their daughter Lulie as the first teacher. In 1884 Margaret helped organize and build Union Church, a non-denominational church, the first church building in northwest Colorado. In 1884 James organized the Steamboat Springs Town Company with the financial backing of investors from Boulder. With James as manager, the company laid out the town, sold lots, built a bathhouse, promoted the town in diverse ways such as running the quarry and financing the first printing presses for the Steamboat Pilot newspaper. With the addition of the Suttle sawmill in 1883, the town grew over the late 1880s and 1890s; the Crawfords built a small frame house in 1886 and a large stone house in 1894, both within sight of their log cabin. In 1900, the Steamboat Springs Company incorporated the town, with James as the first mayor of Steamboat Springs, he continued to be instrumental in developing the land for the new town: half of the original town site lies on his homestead.

James discovered the largest onyx mine in Colorado within sight of his home, on the side of Howelson Hill. He became the manager of the Colorado Onyx Company; the mine supplied the onyx used to form the columns and walls at the entrance to the Colorado Mineral Exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis in 1904. James discovered a large coal deposit northwest of Steamboat Springs which became known as the Crawford field and was sold to the Elkhead Anthracite Coal Company. Throughout their lives, the Crawfords welcomed one and all to visit and spend the night, their house was always the social hub of the community. Charles Leckenby, long-time editor of the Steamboat Pilot, said about James, "By unanimous consent he is conceded to have been the foremost and most influential private citizen of Northwestern Colorado for many years." Margaret was one of 18 women honored during the Colorado State Centennial by being depicted in a tapestry that now hangs in the Colorado Capitol. The Crawford House is on the National Register of Historic Places.

James Harvey Crawford Collection, History Colorado, Colorado. Dallas, Sandra and Gingerbread. Denver: Sage Books, 1964, pp. 196–201. Leckenby, Charles H. "The Founding of Steamboat Springs and of Hahns Peak", Colorado Magazine, May 1929, pp

Furnace Mountain

Furnace Mountain is an American Zen Buddhist retreat center in Clay City, Kentucky, co-founded in 1986 by Seung Sahn Soen Sa Nim and Dae Gak Soen Sa Nim as part of the international Kwan Um School of Zen. In 1990 the main Meditation Hall was completed, in 1994 the temple was constructed and opened. Kwan Se Um San Ji Sah is modeled after a traditional Korean Buddhist Temple—located on 850 acres of woods in part of The Daniel Boone National Forest; the exact site of Kwan Se Um San Ji Sah was determined by the use of geomantic divination, intended to help foster harmony. The Abbott and guiding teacher is Dae Gak Zen Master. Buddhism in the United States Timeline of Zen Buddhism in the United States Ford, James Ishmael. Zen Master Who?: A Guide to the People and Stories of Zen. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-509-8. Ho Youn Kwon. Korean Americans and Their Religions: Pilgrims and Missionaries from a Different Shore. Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-02073-3. Morreale, Don; the Complete Guide to Buddhist America.

Shambhala Publications. ISBN 1-57062-270-1. Strecker, Zoe Ayn. Kentucky Off 8th Edition. Globe Pequot. ISBN 0-7627-4201-1. Media related to Furnace Mountain at Wikimedia Commons Furnace Mountain website


Anya is a feminine given name. It is a unisex name in several African countries, it is found as a surname. Anya is a Russian diminutive of Anna. Ania is the spelling in Polish, a diminutive of Anna; the spelling Anja is common in Croatian, Danish, Swedish, Dutch, Slovenian, Montenegrin and Serbian. Áine is the Irish spelling of the name. Anya is a Hungarian word for "mother". Anya is a Nigerian Igbo name, word for "eye." Anya is an Amazigh/Berber name. It means " Rhythm " or " Melody " in Berber languages. Anya is an Indian/Hindu name. Anya Ayoung-Chee, former Miss Trinidad and Tobago and winner of season 9 of Project Runway Anya Chalotra, British-Indian actress Anya Corke, Woman Grandmaster and the top female chess player in Hong Kong Anya Gallaccio, British artist Anya Garnis, Siberian Ballroom and Latin Dancer Anya Hindmarch, British fashion designer Anya Kamenetz, American writer and journalist Anya Lahiri, British singer Anja Ringgren Lovén, Danish charity worker Anya Major, actress and singer Anya Marina, American singer-songwriter Anya Monzikova, Russian-American model and actress Anya Rozova, fashion model, runner-up in America's Next Top Model under the name Anya Kop Anya Schiffrin, international business professor at Columbia University Anya Seton, author of historical romances Anya Shrubsole, cricketer for Somerset and England Anya Taranda, American model Anya Taylor-Joy, Argentinian-British actress Anya Teixeira, Ukrainian-born British street photographer Anya Rowbotham, English super-model Anja Andersen, Danish handball player Anja Blacha, German mountaineer Anja Garbarek, Norwegian musician Anja Hammerseng-Edin, Norwegian handball player Anja Hazekamp, Dutch politician Anja Plaschg, alias Soap&Skin, Austrian musician Anja Pärson, Swedish alpine skier Anja Rubik, Polish fashion model Anja Steinlechner, Austrian-American musician Anja Spasojević, Serbian volleyball player Anja Spiegelman, author Art Spiegelman's mother in the graphic novel Maus Ania, Polish singer and composer Ania Said Chaurembo, Tanzanian politician Ania Walwicz, Australian poet and prose writer Ania Wiśniewska, Polish singer Anya, or Princess Anastasia, protagonist of the 1997 film Anastasia Anya, a character in the video game Diablo II: Lord of Destruction Anya, daughter of the Marvel Comics character Magneto Anya, a character in the video game Project I.

G. I. Anya, or Princess Ann, a character in the film Roman Holiday Anya, a character in the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation Anya, a character in the television series The 100 Anya, a character in the manga series Negima! Anya Alstreim, character in the anime series Code Geass Anya Amasova, a character in the film The Spy Who Loved Me Anya Borzakovskaya, a character in the graphic novel Anya's Ghost Anya Claus, a character in the film Santa Claus: The Movie Anya Corazon, a character in Marvel Comics Anya Forger, a character in the manga series Spy × Family Anya Hepburn, a character in the manga series Soul Eater Not! Anya Jenkins, a character in the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer |Buffy the Vampire Slayer Anya MacPherson in the television series Degrassi: The Next Generation Anya Oliwa, a character in the video game Wolfenstein: The New Order Anya Stroud, a character in the video game Gears of War Ania Williams, a character in the soap opera Family Affairs Ikechi Anya, Scottish professional footballer Áine, an Irish given name with the same pronunciation Anya, other meanings Ania Anya

Peter of Lucedio

Peter was an Italian Cistercian monk and prelate. He was the abbot of Rivalta from 1180 until 1185, abbot of Lucedio from 1185 until 1205, abbot of La Ferté from 1205 until 1206, bishop of Ivrea from 1206 until 1209 and patriarch of Antioch from 1209 until his death, he is known as Peter of Peter of Lucedio or Peter of Ivrea. Peter had a reputation as an mediator, he served several popes as a papal judge-delegate. He was on good terms with Pope Innocent III, in whose general reform of the clergy in Lombardy he played a major role, he participated in the Fourth Crusade and the establishment of the Latin Empire of Constantinople and in the preaching of the next crusade in Lombardy. Peter was born in the 1140s into a family of feudatories of the bishop of Vercelli associated with the town of Magnano, he had a brother named Obertus, living in 1185. Peter was educated in the cathedral of Vercelli before entering the Cistercian monastery of Santa Maria di Lucedio. In January 1180 he became the first abbot of San Giovanni di Rivalta Scrivia, a church that became with Peter's appointment a daughter house of Lucedio and a subject of the bishop of Tortona.

During his abbacy in Rivalta, he established the monastic granges of Bassignana and Isello. In 1185, Peter returned to Lucedio as abbot, he adopted a program of consolidating the abbey's properties. He obtained privileges of protection and confirmation from Popes Urban III, Clement III and Celestine III, he obtained a diploma of confirmation from the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. In April 1186, he obtained from Milo, bishop of Turin, an exemption from the tolls of Rivoli for the abbey's subjects. In February 1192, he obtained a confirmation of this exemption from Arduin, he built up the manors of Montarolo, Ramazzana, Pobietto and Gazzo in the region of Vercelli and won a dispute over property with the monastery of San Genuario. Peter was close to the Marquis Boniface I of Montferrat, whose family, the Aleramici, had founded Lucedio in 1124. In 1193, when Boniface needed money, Peter gave him a loan with the forest surrounding the monastery serving as a pledge. For this, Peter was sanctioned by the Cistercian general chapter.

In 1194, Bonifce drew up his will at Moncalvo in the abbot's presence. He left the mills at Trino to Lucedio. Owing to his skills as an administrator, Peter served several times as a papal judge-delegate alongside Bishop Albert of Vercelli in the 1190s. On 20 July 1191, Albert and Peter handed down a judgement in favour of the cathedral of Genoa against the church of Santa Maria di Castello. In 1196, they were charged with settling a dispute between Boniface, archbishop of Genoa, his cathedral chapter; the case dragged on until 1201. Sometime between 1195 and 1198, Albert and Peter settled a dispute between the canonry of Oulx and the monastery of San Giusto di Susa in favour of the former. In 1196, they were present at an imperial court in Mortara. Pope Innocent III made extensive use of Peter in Lombardy between September 1198 and 1201 without Albert of Vercelli by his side. Peter resolved disputes between the dioceses of Pavia and Piacenza in April 1199 and between Piacenza and Parma in May.

With the abbot of San Salvatore di Pavia, he performed a canonical visitation of monastery of Bobbio in November–December 1199. In 1200, alongside Boiamondo, abbot of Chiaravalle della Colomba, he settled a property dispute between the bishop of Tortona and the Humiliati on the one side and the Knights Templar on the other. In late 1200 or early 1201, Innocent sent the representatives of the Humiliati to present their proposed rule of life to Peter and Albert, their rule was approved in 1201. In that year he arbitrated a dispute between the monastery of Fruttuaria and its dependency, San Gemolo di Ganna. In the spring of 1201, Peter joined the Marquis Boniface in the preparing for the Fourth Crusade, he was with Boniface at Soissons in the summer, where the marquis formally made his crusading vow before the assembling French army. He accompanied Boniface to Paris to meet King Philip Augustus as well. In September 1201, he was at Cîteaux to obtain the permission of the general chapter to go on the crusade with Boniface.

There he took a formal crusader's vow, although the record of the general chapter meeting does not list him among the abbots permitted to go on the crusade. In May 1202 he was back in Lucedio, he went with Boniface to Venice, where the army was gathering, thence to Rome. During their absence, the crusaders agreed to join the Venetians in an attack on Zadar. In September 1202, Peter was entrusted to carry back a letter from Innocent forbidding the attack on Zadar, it is not certain if Peter arrived in Venice before the army embarked, at Zadar before or during the siege or after the surrender of the city. It has been alleged that he deliberately withheld the letter from the army, but this is unlikely, since Peter retained the confidence of Innocent III until the pope's death, it is more that he gave the letter to Abbot Guy of Vaux-de-Cernay in Venice and that Guy read the letter before the leadership at Zadar. Peter was with the army that arrived before Constantinople in June 1203. From until March 1205 he was far from Boniface.

With Cardinal Soffredo of Santa Prassede, he convinced Boniface's new Greek wife, widow of Emperor Isaac II, to convert to the Catholic faith. In a letter addressed to the pope on 25 August 1203, the Emperor Alexius IV credited Peter, whose zeal he praises, as one of several who persuaded him to restore commun