click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Islamic Courts Union

The Islamic Courts Union was a group of Sharia courts that united themselves to form a rival administration to the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia, with Sharif Sheikh Ahmed as their head. They were known as the Joint Islamic Courts, Union of Islamic Courts, Supreme Islamic Courts Council or the Supreme Council of Islamic Courts; until the end of 2006, they controlled most of southern Somalia and the vast majority of its population, including most major cities such as Jowhar, Kismayo and the capital Mogadishu. The ICU was supported by warlord Yusuf "Indho Ade" Mohamed Siad who ruled Lower Shabelle but became defense chief of the ICU, who aided in the defeat of the Mogadishu warlords. Only the Northern regions, the furthest interior regions of the south were outside their control. In December 2006, the ICU lost much territory after defeats at the battles of Baidoa and Beledweyne, retreating to the capital, Mogadishu. On 28 December they abandoned Mogadishu, leaving the city in chaos while they moved south towards Kismayo, which allowed the TFG and Ethiopian troops to take over the city.

After a stand at the Battle of Jilib, the ICU abandoned the city of Kismayo on 1 January 2007. Stripped of all their territory, it was speculated the ICU would pursue guerrilla-style warfare against the government. Instead, hardline Islamists broke ranks from the ICU and formed other militant groups, such as Al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam, to continue the war against the government; the less-militant members of the ICU went into exile in Eritrea and Djibouti, where they formed the Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia in September 2007. In the two years following the ICU's ouster from Mogadishu, the hardline Islamist groups concentrated their power in the south and west of Somalia, taking ground from both the TFG and ICU. By January 2009, a reconciliation and power-sharing deal was brokered between the Transitional Federal Government and the Djibouti contingent from the former Islamic Courts Union which resulted in the expansion of the Parliament and the election of Sheik Sharif Ahmed, former leader of the ICU, as President of the Transitional Federal Government.

After the collapse of the Somali government in 1991, a system of sharia-based Islamic courts became the main judicial system, funded through fees paid by litigants. Over time the courts began to offer other services such as health care; the courts acted as local police forces, being paid by local businesses to reduce crime. The Islamic courts took on the responsibility for halting robberies and drug-dealing, as well as stopping the showing of what it claims to be pornographic films in local movie houses. Somalia is entirely Muslim, these institutions had wide public support; the early years of the courts include such outfits as Sheikh Ali Dheere's, established in north Mogadishu in 1994 and the Beled Weyne court initiated in 1996. They soon saw the sense in working together through a joint committee to promote security; this move was initiated by four of the courts - Ifka Halan, Circolo and Hararyaale - who formed a committee to co-ordinate their affairs, to exchange criminals from different clans and to integrate security forces.

In 1999 the group began to assert its authority. Supporters of the Islamic courts and other institutions united to form the an armed militia. In April of that year they took control of the main market in Mogadishu and, in July, captured the road from Mogadishu to Afgoi, their system of government, controlled by judges, is known as a krytocracy. According to the United Nations and various sources, the Eritrean government has armed and financed the ICU for many years. Together with some Ethiopian opposition groups such as the ONLF, Eritrea sent "shiploads" of arms to the ICU and other rebels in Southern Somalia. After many denials from the Eritrean government, Islamic Courts Union leader Aweys admitted that the Eritrean government had been assisting the ICU. After the Somali transitional government defeated the Islamists and took Mogadishu, the Somali Prime Minister alleged that Eritrean soldiers had been captured in Mogadishu. Further Eritrean fighters were killed by Somali security officers in June 2007.

A governor of one of Somalia's southern districts confirmed the continued alliance of Eritrean fighters with Al-Qaeda & ICU militants. According to the Los Angeles Times, various ICU fighters were caught as they tried to escape to Eritrea. Many of the ICU leadership and jihadist leaders are believed to have found refuge in Eritrea. Various foreign fighters were said to be helping the ICU; as suicide bombing tactics are rare among extremist Somali Muslims, the use of such bombers suggested deeper foreign jihadist assistance. In January, Somali sources said they had arrested many Arab fighters. In June, numerous foreign pro-ICU fighters were detected trying to flee in boats from the Puntland region; the U. S. military targeted other jihadist and Al-Qaeda cells those affiliated with the bombers of the U. S. embassy in Kenya in 1998. The BBC reported a Pentagon claim that a senior Al-Qaeda member associated with the ICU had been captured in Somalia and transferred to the US military prison in Guantanamo Bay.

In the year 2000, the courts formed a union of Islam

Janusz Dzięcioł

Janusz Andrzej Dzięcioł was a Polish politician, known for winning the first season of Big Brother. From 2007 to 2015, he was a member of Sejm of Poland from Toruń constituency. From 2002 to 2007, he was a Grudziądz City Councillor, he was chief of the Świecie straż miejska, the municipal police force. Between March 2001 and June 2001 he participated in the first season of Polish Big Brother, he was the winner of that season. After that program, he starred in the comedy movie Gulczas, a jak myślisz?. In the 2002 election he joined the Grudziądz City Council IV term representing the 5th district, he was second on the Electorate committee "Ruch dla Grudziądza" list. In the 25 September 2005 he ran for the Senate of Poland VI term from the 5th constituency with the Civic Coalition, he failed to win election as one of the top three candidates with 28,549 votes leaving him 12th of 18 candidates. In the 12 November 2006 he was re-elected to the Grudziądz City Council, he got 1,028 votes on the Civic Platform list.

In 2007, when he was elected to the Sejm, his seat on the City Council was replaced by Wiesław Bernard Poliński, next on the party list. In the 2007 Polish parliamentary election, he joined the Sejm of Poland VI term representing the 5th constituency, he was third on the Civic Platform list. In the 2009 European Parliament election he was a candidate of the Civic Platform from Kuyavian-Pomeranian constituency. In the 2011 Polish parliamentary election, he was reelected to the Sejm of Poland VII term, he did not seek reelection in 2015 Janusz Dzięcioł died in an accident after his car collided with a train on a level crossing in Biały Bór. List of Sejm members List of Sejm members Profil on the Sejm VI term webside

Scorias spongiosa

Scorias spongiosa is a sooty mould fungus that grows on aphid honeydew. It is a member of the Capnodiaceae family of ascomycete fungi, it is found only on Fagus grandifolia. Scorias spongiosa is a specialist and grows on the honeydew formed by colonies of the beech blight aphid, Grylloprociphilus imbricator; this aphid is found only on one host plant, the American beech tree, Fagus grandifolia, where it congregates on branches and twigs, creating copious amounts of honeydew that drip onto vegetation below. The large quantity of honeydew enables this fungus to grow to a large size, much bigger than other sooty mould fungi, which produce only a thin black layer on the surface of leaves. On tree trunks this fungus has been known to grow into a mass of hyphae as big as a football, but it is more usual for the agglomeration on branches or twigs to reach a diameter of about fifteen centimetres; the aphids accumulate in late autumn, forming large colonies. Spores of Scorias spongiosa are borne by wind and rain and fall on the honeydew secretions found below the aphids.

The first hyphal growth is straw unpigmented. The hyphae adhere to each other for short distances, diverging and re-adhering to form a loose stranded structure. Pigmentation begins to occur on the surfaces of outer strands and the stroma begins to darken; the hyphae coalesce and form mycelial strands which radiate outward and upward from the supporting structure. Flask-shaped, spore-bearing pycnidia appear on the mycelia, which have a waxlike appearance: the matrix turns from brittle to soft as it absorbs moisture; as further quantities of honeydew accumulate, the fungus grows larger until it resembles a gelatinous sponge resting on the branches or leaves of the beech tree. Pigmented strands in the mature stoma produce bowl-shaped pseudothecia and these outermost hyphae cease to grow; the inner strands force their way to the exterior. Asexual conidia are extruded in a slimy matrix in liquid droplets from the pycnidia; as time passes the stroma becomes a spongy black mass and produces sexual spores called ascospores in the pseudothecia, which remain embedded in the stroma

Part 3 (Twin Peaks)

"Part 3" known as "The Return, Part 3", is the third episode of the third season of the TV series Twin Peaks. It was written by Mark Frost and David Lynch, directed by Lynch, stars Kyle MacLachlan. "Part 3" was released on Showtime's streaming service Showtime Anytime along with Part 4 on May 21, 2017 after the broadcast of the double prémiere. The episode received positive reviews. Call for help; the small town of Twin Peaks, has been shocked by the murder of schoolgirl Laura Palmer and the attempted murder of her friend Ronette Pulaski. FBI special agent Dale Cooper has been sent to the town to investigate and has come to the realization that the killer was Laura's father, Leland Palmer, who acted while possessed by a demonic entity, Killer BOB. At the end of the original series, BOB trapped Cooper in the Black Lodge, an extra-dimensional place, let out Cooper's doppelgänger to use him for physical access to the world. 25 years Cooper's doppelgänger roams through the world, with Cooper still inside the Lodges' world.

Cooper is told by Laura Palmer. Cooper lands on a glass box in New York City. Cooper continues to descend through space, he lands on a balcony. Cooper enters the building through a set of windows. Cooper asks the woman where they are, but she can only produce disjointed, high-pitched breath noises. A loud pounding is heard, as if something powerful is trying to enter the room, the woman signals Cooper to be quiet, he notices a large electrical throw-switch mechanism on the wall labeled with the number "15", but she keeps him away from it and leads him up a ladder. They reach the roof, where the structure they had been inside manifests itself as a metallic cuboid floating into space with a bell-shaped mechanism on its top; the woman throws a switch on the mechanism and receives an electric shock, which throws her into the void. After she has fallen out of sight, Garland Briggs' head floats under the structure and says "Blue rose." Cooper encounters another woman, sitting in front of the fireplace.

Cooper approaches her. In South Dakota, Mr. C is driving along a deserted road; the cigarette lighter in his car begins to exercise an electric force on him. Cooper observes the mechanism as the woman by the fireplace tells him "When you get there, you will be there. Mr. C continues to feel uncomfortable, while back in the purple room, more insistent pounding is heard, the American Girl tells Cooper to hurry up and leave because her mother is coming. Cooper approaches the throw-switch mechanism again, it begins to suck him into itself and deforming his body and leaving only his shoes behind. Meanwhile, Mr. C begins to lose consciousness and loses control of the car and crashes on the side of the road, he holds back his vomit. In a house for sale in the Rancho Rosa estates, Las Vegas, Dougie Jones, a man identical to Cooper but for his physical weight and clothes sits with prostitute Jade on his lap, lamenting that his arm feels "tingly." Jade takes her payment and proceeds to shower. He falls down.

Dougie crawls down the corridor and failing to alert Jade. As red curtains faintly appear in front of him, Dougie vomits and is transported away with a loud noise, which at last alerts Jade; the red curtains fade away, Mr. C vomits a mixture of garmonbozia and engine oil, passes out. Inside the Black Lodge, Dougie is seated before MIKE, who explains that someone manufactured him for a purpose. Dougie's hand begins to shrink, the ring falls down. Dougie's body deflates; the egg-like object deflates as well. When MIKE looks back, a small golden orb is on the chair. In the house, a cloud of black smoke pours out of the socket and materializes into

Tolworth railway station

Tolworth railway station, in the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames in south London, is a station on the Chessington Branch Line, 12 miles 6 chains down the line from London Waterloo. The station is part of the London suburban network of South Western Railway and is in Travelcard Zone 5; the station, like all others on the branch, is built in the art deco style of the 1930s using concrete arcs for canopies. Station buildings are below at street level on the Kingston Road; the original goods depot is now a National Rail Freight Depot, operated by DB Schenker Rail. The remaining area of the site is owned by London United. South Western Railway operate all the services on the Chessington Branch Line and all trains that stop at Tolworth station. In the inbound direction, trains service the station every thirty minutes during both peak and off-peak hours. Local trains run at all times to London Waterloo, calling at all stations for exception of Queenstown Road; these trains take 33 minutes to arrive at London Waterloo.

In the outbound direction all services call locally, taking four minutes to arrive at Chessington South. London Buses routes 406, 418, Mobility route 965 serve the station directly. Routes 281 and K1 are accessible with a short walk, though given they both service the busy main line Surbiton railway station, interchange is less popular by virtue of the greater frequency of service from Surbiton to London Waterloo

Television in Belgium

Television in Belgium was introduced in 1953 and began with one channel each in Dutch and French. The country is cabled, with 93% of households watching television through cable as of 2003; the three Belgian Communities – Dutch and German-speaking – have legal responsibility for audiovisual communication. They constitute separate markets, the common feature of, the fact that they have been extensively cabled for three decades and are thus able to receive neighbouring countries' channels; until 1978, Radio-Television Belgium was Belgium's national public television broadcaster. When broadcasting was devolved to the language communities in 1977, the old organization split into three separate organisations now known as VRT, RTBF and BRF respectively. VRT and RTBF share broadcasting facilities in Brussels. There are no national TV channels in Belgium; because of the language divide, there are only channels either in Dutch or French, there is no single company operating TV channels in both the Flemish and the French part.

Media laws are controlled on a regional level. Thus the Flemish channels are controlled by Flemish law and the French-speaking ones are controlled by the French community; the public broadcasters still share a building in Brussels, a leftover from the time when the Public Television was still a national competence, they have split operations altogether with French language broadcaster RTBF occupying the right half of the building and Flemish broadcaster VRT occupying the left half of the building. They are both governed by different law and a different parliament an example of this is the fact that the French languages public broadcaster RTBF is allowed to sell advertising on television and have actual ad breaks, while the Flemish public broadcaster can only sell product placement and sponsor billboards on television. On their radio channels both are allowed to sell full ad breaks. Both public broadcasters work in a different competitive environment; the two main Belgian public TV networks, VRT in the Flemish Community and RTBF in the French Community of Belgium, broadcast their channels via operators using cable, satellite, IPTV and terrestrial television.

The Belgian commercial TV stations are only available on cable, satellite and IPTV. Terrestrial broadcasting is limited to public service TV stations because of the high adoption rate of cable in Belgium which makes it unnecessary to broadcast commercially. In the Flemish part there are three main broadcast groups: VRT which has the TV channels één, Ketnet and Sporza. DPG Media is the main Flemish commercial TV group which runs the channels vtm, Q2, Vitaya, JIM, VTM Kids. SBS Belgium is the 2nd Flemish commercial group which runs vijf; these three broadcast groups combined take about 85% of the total market with VRT being the biggest with a market share of just above 40%, DPG Media taking about 35% and SBS Belgium taking about 10%. The channels één and vtm are the main players in terms of daily newscasts and local content with primetime being filled for 90% with local productions or local versions of international formats. Vier has started programming local productions in the primetime slot. All other channels air a majority of international productions in original language with subtitles.

The only exception is children's programming, dubbed in Dutch. Apart from these main groups there are dozens of other local or localised versions of other channels. E.g. MTV, National Geographic, Discovery Channel. In the French part there are 3 main broadcast groups. RTL Group attracts about 30% of market share daily and RTBF has about 20% average daily market share; the channels La Une and RTL-TVI are the main channels with local newscasts and the most local programming. Local programming however is limited in the French part. Primetime is filled with international shows dubbed in French. Only 55% of the French-speaking Belgians turn on a domestic channel on average every night; the success of French channels TF1 and France 2 makes this a more fragmented market with TF1 having up to 20% market share in the French part of Belgium. Local Belgian channels find it difficult to compete with French TV which has vastly larger production budgets due to the market size difference. Apart from the channels listed above, most cable, satellite and IPTV platforms in Belgium distribute television stations from other European countries including the Netherlands, Germany and the United Kingdom.

Most people are able to receive NPO 1, NPO 2, NPO 3 from Netherlands Public Broadcasting as well as ARD and ZDF, BBC One, BBC Two, BBC World News, BBC Entertainment, TF1, France 2, France 3 and Rai 1. In Belgium, over 95% of all households have cable television. Telenet, the main cable network operator in Flanders, the northern region of Belgium, has around 25 analogue TV channels which are available digitally on a DVB-C Multimedia Home Platform TV service. In total about 80 TV channels are availabl