Laval is a Canadian city in southwestern Quebec, north of Montreal. It forms its own administrative region of Quebec, it is the largest suburb of Montreal, the third largest municipality in the province of Quebec, the thirteenth largest city in Canada with a population of 422,993 in 2016. Laval is geographically separated from the mainland to the north by the Rivière des Mille Îles, from the Island of Montreal to the south by the Rivière des Prairies. Laval occupies all of Île Jésus as well as the Îles Laval. Laval constitutes the 13th region of the 17 administrative regions of Quebec as well as a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality and census division with geographical code 65, it constitutes the judicial district of Laval. The first European Settlers in Laval were Jesuits in 1636. Agriculture first appeared in Laval in 1670. In 1675, François de Montmorency-Laval gained control of the seigneury. In 1702 a parish municipality was founded, dedicated to Saint-François de Sales.
Beginning in 1845, after nearly 200 years of a rural nature, additional municipalities were created. The only built-up area on the island, Sainte-Rose, was incorporated as a village in 1850, remained as the main community for the remainder of the century. With the dawn of the 20th century came urbanization. Laval-des-Rapides became Laval's first city in 1912, followed by L'Abord-à-Plouffe being granted village status three years later. Laval-sur-le-Lac was founded in the same year on its tourist-based economy from Montrealers. Laval began to grow throughout the following years, due to its proximity to Montreal that made it an ideal suburb. To deal with problems caused by urbanization, amalgamations occurred; the amalgamation turned out to be so successful for the municipalities involved that the Quebec government decided to amalgamate the whole island into a single city of Laval in 1965. Laval was named after the first owner of Île Jésus, François de Montmorency-Laval, the first Roman Catholic Bishop of Quebec.
At the time, Laval had a population of 170,000. Laval became a Regional County Municipality in 1980. Prior to that, it was the County of Laval; the 14 municipalities, which existed prior to the incorporation of the amalgamated City of Laval on 6 August 1965, were: The island has developed over time, with most of the urban area in the central region and along the south and west river banks. Laval is bordered on the south by Montreal across the Rivière des Prairies, on the north by Les Moulins Regional County Municipality and by Thérèse-De Blainville Regional County Municipality and on the west by Deux-Montagnes Regional County Municipality across the Rivière des Mille Îles. According to the 2011 Census of Canada, the population of Laval was an estimated 401,553, an 8.9 percent increase from the earlier census in 2006. Women constitute 51.5% of the total population. Children under 14 years of age total 17.3%, while those of retirement age number 15.6% resulting in a median age of 40.9 years. Laval is linguistically diverse.
The 2011 census found that French was the only mother tongue of 60.8% of the population, was spoken most at home by 65.2% of residents. The next most common mother tongues were English, Italian, Spanish, Creoles and Portuguese; the city's longtime mayor, Gilles Vaillancourt, resigned on 9 November 2012, following allegations of corruption made against him in hearings of the provincial Charbonneau Commission. City councillor Basile Angelopoulos served as acting mayor until Alexandre Duplessis was selected in a council vote on 23 November. Duplessis, in turn, stepped down after just seven months in office after facing allegations of being implicated in a prostitution investigation. Past mayors have been: Jean-Noël Lavoie, 1965 Jacques Tétreault, 1965–1973 Lucien Paiement, 1973–1981 Claude Lefebvre, 1981–1989 Gilles Vaillancourt, 1989–2012 Alexandre Duplessis, 2012–2013 Martine Beaugrand, 2013 Marc Demers, 2013–presentOn 3 June 2013, the provincial government of Pauline Marois placed the city under trusteeship due to the ongoing corruption scandal affecting the city.
Florent Gagné, a former head of the Sûreté du Québec, will serve as the city's head trustee, with responsibility for reviewing and approving or rejecting all decisions made by city council. Municipal Affairs Minister Sylvain Gaudreault said that Laval's Mayor Alexandre Duplessis and his council will continue to serve, but council decisions must be approved by the trustees. Duplessis, in turn, resigned as mayor on 28 June 2013, after being implicated in a separate prostitution allegation. On a white-yellow background, the emblem of Laval illustrates the modernism of a city in full expansion; the sign of the city symbolizes the "L" of Laval. The colours have a significant meaning: Dark red represents the affluence and represents here the great economic potential of Laval. Blue symbolizes the installation of a human city; the "L" of Laval is made of cubes. The letters of the Laval signature are related one to the other to point out the merger of the 14 municipalities of Jesus island in 1965; the logo has existed since the flag since the 1990s.
The Lachine Canal is a canal passing through the southwestern part of the Island of Montreal, Canada, running 14.5 kilometres from the Old Port of Montreal to Lake Saint-Louis, through the boroughs of Lachine and Sud-Ouest. Before the canal construction there was a lake, "Lac St Pierre"; the lake and its rivers can be seen on the maps of Montreal of the years 1700, 1744 and on the map titled "The isles of Montreal. As they have been surveyed by the french engineers"; the canal gets its name from the French word for China. The European explorers sought to find a route from New France to the Western Sea, from there to China and hence auspiciously the region where the canal was built was named Lachine. Due to the continuous disposal of industrial waste, the canal contains harmful substances, though the water quality is said to be good; the canal is situated on land granted by the King of France to the Sulpician Order. Beginning in 1689, attempts were made by the French Colonial government and several other groups to build a canal that would allow ships to bypass the treacherous Lachine Rapids.
After more than 130 years of failure, a consortium that included the young Scottish immigrant John Redpath was successful. John Richardson was Chairman of the Committee of Management of the canal project and its chief engineer was Thomas Brunett; the contractors were Thomas McKay and John Redpath, plus the firms of Thomas Phillips & Andrew White and Abner Bagg & Oliver Wait. The Lachine Canal was built to bypass the rapids at Lachine, upstream of Montreal. Freight and passengers destined for points past Lachine had to portage the 8 or 9 miles from Montreal's port to the village of Lachine where they could resume their trip by boat. Work on the canal commenced on July 17, 1821 under Chief Engineer Thomas Burnett and Construction Engineer John Richardson; the original canal was 14 kilometres long and had seven locks, each 30 metres long, 6 metres wide and 1.5 metres deep. The new canal opened in 1825, helping turn Montreal into a major port and attracting industry to its banks when the Society of Sulpician Order decided to sell lots.
During the 1840s, the Lachine Canal was deepened to allow heavier ships to pass through and hydraulic power was introduced to the industries located on its banks. Through the enlargement of the canal, its use changed from a means of avoiding the Lachine rapids to that of an industrial region within Montreal. There were two major effects on the development of Montreal due to the enlargement of the Lachine Canal; the first was that by creating a route that bypassed the Lachine rapids and therefore opened the upper St Lawrence River to navigation, Montreal became a more convenient area for trade taking away shipping traffic from Quebec City and moving it to Montreal. The second important shift that can be noted through the growth and development of the canal is the creation of industrial suburbs. Before the Lachine Canal, Montreal’s industrial region was located in what would be considered the downtown area; the impact of the Lachine Canal on Montreal during the mid to late 19th century can be seen through the emergence of new working-class neighbourhoods such as Griffintown, St Henri, Pointe St Charles.
Furthermore, the population of Montreal grew by over four times between the middle of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. One of the main reasons behind the growth of the Lachine Canal region was the access to hydraulic power, provided through the deepening of canal in the 1840s. Throughout the mid to late 19th century, industries all along the banks of canal experienced consistent growth through the access to this energy source. By the end of the 19th century, factories began to utilize steam powered factories as opposed to hydraulic power; the top three manufacturing industries in Montreal were wood and steel. In 1871 these three sectors made up 60% of the total Canadian manufacturing production. Other industries that had factories along the canal were the leather industries and the garment industries, which apart from the leather industry all increased; as wood was on the decline and industries were growing at a much faster pace and steel were still the dominant industries.
By world war two, industries needed more water to power their machines, the hydraulic system was not providing enough power. Many of the factories needed another source of power; the new source of power came from coal. With the Grand Trunk Railway on hand at Point St. Charles, industries were able to import coal from many different sources, they were able to import coal from Nova Scotia, Ohio and across the ocean from Great Britain. The Lachine Canal was busy acting as a hub for the city of Montreal. Although this switch did not affect the Lachine canal region in a negative manner, factories were no longer dependent on the canal as an energy source. Industries now had the option of building further and further away from the canal itself, helped by the development of a railway system throughout Montreal’s industrial region. However, while the Lachine Canal proved an enormous boom for Montreal and the Province of Quebec, time would show that for Canada's Maritime Provinces, it was the first major nail in that region's economic coffin.
The first enlargements took place between 1848, under the supervision of Alfred Barrett. Five new locks, each 61 metres long, 13.5 metres wide and 2.7 metres deep replaced the original seven locks. A second enlargement of the canal took place between 1873-85 at which time the locks were lengthened to 82 metres and deepened to 4.3 metres. The main reason for the second enlargement came
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Île Jésus is an island in southwestern Quebec, separated from the mainland to the north by the Rivière des Mille Îles, from the Island of Montreal to the south by the Rivière des Prairies. The second-largest island in the Hochelaga Archipelago, Île Jésus is the major component of the City of Laval, along with the Îles Laval and several other islands; the island is still rural in nature, with most of the urban area in the central region and along the south and west river banks. Olivier Charbonneau City of Laval official website www. INFOLaval.com Online Commercial and Industrial directory of the island of Laval
The Hochelaga Archipelago known as the Montreal Islands, is a group of islands at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa rivers in the southwestern part of the province of Quebec, Canada. Estimates of the number of islands in the archipelago vary; the most accepted number seems to be 234, although the number has been put as high as 325. The largest island in the group is the Island of Montreal, which contains most of the city of Montreal and the central section of its metropolitan area; the city has jurisdiction over 74 smaller islands in the archipelago, most notably Nuns' Island, Île Bizard, the two islands that served as the site of Expo 67, namely Saint Helen's Island and the artificial Île Notre-Dame. The second-largest island in the archipelago is Île Jésus, which along with the Îles Laval and several smaller islands makes up the city of Laval. Other islands include the Îles de Boucherville, featuring a Québec National Park, Île Perrot, Salaberry-de-Valleyfield and the neighbouring Grande-Île, as well as the smaller Dorval Island and Dowker Island.
Île à l'Aigle Île Avelle Île Barwick Île Béique Île Bellevue Île Bizard Île au Bois Blanc Île Bonfoin Îles de Boucherville, including: Île Charron Île de la Commune Île Dufault Île Grosbois Île Lafontaine Île Montbrun Île à Pinard Île Saint-Jean Île Sainte-Marguerite Île Tourte Blanche Île Bourdon Île Boutin Île Cadieux Île aux Canards Île aux Chats Île aux Cerfeuils Île aux Chèvres Île aux Plaines Île Claude Île Daoust Île Deslauriers Île Dixie Île Dorval Île Dowker Île au Foin Île Gagné Île Hiam Île Hog Île Jasmin Île Jésus Île Lamontagne Île Lapierre Îles Laval, including: Île Bigras Île Pariseau Île Ronde Île Verte Île Madore Île Ménard Île Mercier Île Migneron Île Mitan Île de Montréal Île du Moulin de Saint-François Île aux Moutons Île Notre-Dame Îles de la Paix, including: Île au Diable Île du Docteur Île à Tambault Île à Thomas Île aux Veaux Île Paton Île aux Plaines Île Perrot Île Perry Île de Pierre Île aux Pins Île aux Pruches Îles des Rapides de Lachine or Îles du Sault-Saint-Louis, including: Île aux Hérons Île aux Chèvres Île au Diable les Sept-Soeurs Île aux Sternes Île Roussin Île de Roxboro Île Saint-Joseph Île Saint-Laurent Île Sainte-Hélène Île Saint-Pierre Île Sainte-Thérèse Île Serre Île des Sœurs Île Sunset Île Todd Île aux Tourtes Île du Tremblay Île à la Truie Île aux Vaches Îles de Varennes Île Vert Île de la Visitation Île Wight The archipelago takes its name from Hochelaga, an Iroquoian settlement on the Island of Montreal, settled by the French and grew to become the modern city of Montreal.
Montreal Archipelago Ecological Park Thousand Islands
Saint Helen's Island
Saint Helen's Island is an island in the Saint Lawrence River, in the territory of the city of Montreal, Canada. It is situated southeast of the Island of Montreal, in the extreme southwest of Quebec, it forms part of the Hochelaga Archipelago. The Le Moyne Channel separates it from Notre Dame Island. Saint Helen's Island and Notre Dame Island together make up Parc Jean-Drapeau, it was named in 1611 by Samuel de Champlain in honour of his wife, Hélène de Champlain, née Boullé. The island belonged to the Le Moyne family of Longueuil from 1665 until 1818, when it was purchased by the British government. A fort and blockhouse were built on the island as defences for the city, in consequence of the War of 1812. In 1838 plans were in place by the British Ordnance Department to establish an observatory, but it was moved to Toronto instead; the newly formed Canadian government acquired the island in 1870. The public used it as a swam in the river. In the 1940s, during World War II, Saint Helen's Island, along with various other regions within Canada, such as the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean and Hull, had Prisoner-of-war camps.
St. Helen's prison was number forty seven and remained unnamed just like most of Canada's other war prisons; the prisoners of war were sorted and classified into categories including their nationality and civilian or military status. In this camp, POWs were of Italian and German nationality. Prisoners were forced into hard labour which included farming and lumbering the land. By 1944 the camp would be closed and shortly afterwards destroyed because of an internal report on the treatment of prisoners; the archipelago of which Saint Helen's Island is a part was chosen as the site of Expo 67, a World's Fair on the theme of Man and His World, or in French, Terre des Hommes. In preparation for Expo 67, the island was enlarged and consolidated with several nearby islands, using earth excavated during the construction of the Montreal metro; the nearby island, Notre Dame Island, was built from scratch. After Expo, the site continued to be used as a fairground, now under the name Man and His World or Terre des Hommes.
Most of the Expo installations were dismantled and the island was returned to parkland. Several important attractions are found on the island, including the Stewart Museum, the La Ronde amusement park, the Biosphere, an Aquatic Complex that includes three exterior pools; the park is a primary recreational site for Montrealers and hosts frequent concerts and shows, including the L’International des Feux Loto-Québec international fireworks competition and the annual Osheaga music festival. During the summer season, on Sundays, electronic music fans can enjoy live DJs during the Piknic Elektronic event; the island can be accessed by car, by bicycle or by foot. The Concordia Bridge links St. Helen's Island to Montreal's Cité du Havre neighbourhood on the Island of Montreal as well as Notre Dame Island; the island is accessible via the Jacques Cartier Bridge from both the Island of Montreal and Longueuil on the south shore. The Yellow Line of the Montreal Metro has a stop on St. Helen's Island: Jean-Drapeau station.
Young, Richard. “Blockhouses in Canada, 1749-1841: a Comparative Report and Catalogue.” Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History, Canadian Historic Site, 1980. Parc Jean-Drapeau Site Internet de la Biosphère - The Biosphère's Web Site Sainte-Hélène Island at Expo 67 Saint Helen's Island Collection McGill University Library & Archives. Site de l'exile de Napoléon à Sainte Hélène - Napoleon at St Helena