SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Isola di San Michele

San Michele is an island in the Venetian Lagoon, northern Italy. It is associated with the sestiere of Cannaregio. Along with neighbouring San Cristoforo della Pace, the island was a popular place for local travellers and fishermen to land. Mauro Codussi's Chiesa di San Michele in Isola of 1469, the first Renaissance church in Venice, a monastery lie on the island, which served for a time as a prison. San Cristoforo was selected to become a cemetery in 1807, designed by Gian Antonio Selva, when under French occupation it was decreed that burial on the mainland was unsanitary; the canal that separated the two islands was filled in during 1836, subsequently the larger island became known as San Michele. Bodies were carried to the island on special funeral gondolas. Among those buried there are Igor Stravinsky, Joseph Brodsky, Jean Schlumberger, Christian Doppler, Frederick Rolfe, Horatio Brown, Sergei Diaghilev, Ezra Pound, Luigi Nono, Catherine Bagration, Franco Basaglia, Paolo Cadorin, Zoran Mušič, Helenio Herrera, Emilio Vedova, Salvador de Iturbide y Marzán.

The cemetery is still in use today. The cemetery contains 7 war graves from World War I of officers and seamen of the British merchant and Royal Navy. Aspasia Manos was interred at the cemetery of Isola di San Michele, her remains were transferred to the Royal Cemetery Plot in the park of Tatoi Palace. Other attractions include the Cappella Emiliana chapel. List of islands of Italy

Sandakan camp

The Sandakan camp known as Sandakan POW Camp, was a prisoner-of-war camp established during World War II by the Japanese in Sandakan in the Malaysian state of Sabah. This site has gained notoriety as the Sandakan Death Marches started from here. Now, part of the former site houses the Sandakan Memorial Park. After a large-scale military success during the Second World War, the Japanese had captured large numbers of Allied soldiers as a prisoners of war and distributed them to various lock-up facilities. In July 1942, the Japanese POW camps in Sandakan received about 1,500 Australians, most of them been captured from Singapore and brought here for the purpose of building a military airfield for the Japanese. In 1943, another 770 British and 500 Australian soldiers were sent to the camp. At the height of 1943, about 2,500 prisoners of war were located in the camp. In October 1944, when the Japanese became defensive towards the end of the war, the airfield in Sandakan came under constant heavy bombing by the Allied forces.

By January 1945, the damage was so great, the Japanese no longer able to repair the runway, that on 10 January 1945 work on the airstrip was stopped. In the same month, a group of about 455 prisoners were sent on forced marches by the Japanese. In May 1945, the Japanese decided to close the POW camp. Takakuwa Takuo took over command of the camp on 17 May. On 29 May, he ordered the 536 prisoners to march to Ranau and set the camp area on fire. All records about the site were destroyed by fire. Other prisoners were marched into the jungle where they perished or were shot by the Japanese guards. On 10 June 1945 – 30 prisoners had died in the meantime – a final group march of 75 prisoners towards Ranau was set in motion; the remaining prisoners who were stranded on the burned area either died of malnutrition and disease or were killed by the Japanese guards. By 15 August 1945, none of them remained alive.6 Men returned to Australia from Sandakan as written in Russell Morris' song "Sandakan. One of those men was his father.

The other was Billy Young. The camp was located about 1.5 kilometres southwest of the present-day Sandakan Airport. According to records, the site was once an experimental farm for the North Borneo Chartered Company, where fruit and cattle were kept; when the Japanese occupied Borneo, the site was divided into three main areas. The camp produced its own electricity coupled to an alternator; the power house was part of the agricultural research station. The wood fired steam vessel propelled the alternator which produced a voltage of 110 V for the illumination of the camp and the fencing; the power house played an important role for the operation of the clandestine transmitter of the camp underground organisation. From 1942 up to its discovery in July 1943, the voltage was raised secretly in the evening hours to provide sufficient voltage for the transmission equipment. "The Great Tree" – a huge specimen of a Mengarisbaumes – was the dominant structure of the POW camp. Not far away from the Australian part of the camp was a provisions depot and a kitchen for the Japanese, operated by the Japanese quartermaster.

Still today, a baseplate as well as a concrete water reservoir of this facility is left. During the Japanese occupation, the leader, responsible for the managing of the camp was Susumi Hoshijima, who held the rank of lieutenant; as a military engineer, he was entrusted with the task of establishing a military airfield. Towards the end of the war he was promoted to Captain. Athletically built, with a body height of 1.8 m, he was an impressive appearance. He revealed his despotic, unscrupulous character to the newly arrived POWs in April 1943 with the words: In May 1945, the Japanese military leadership gave the order to abandon the POW camp. On 17 May, Captain Takakuwa Hoshijima together commanded the prisoners of war. Both Hoshijima and Takakuwa would be brought to the Labuan War Crimes Trials, where they were found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging on 6 April in Rabaul, Papua New Guinea; the camp was secured by barbed wire to prevent the prisoners from escaping. In front of the guards office, there is a large wooden cage with a size about 1.8 x 1.5 x 1.2 metres, quite similar to a dog cage.

Cage for punishing minor offences by the Japanese soldiers was provided. In June 1943 and October 1944, new cages were built, each are larger than the previous one; the second cage was about 2.7 x 2.1 x 1.5 metres. The majority of the prisoners who were placed in the cage were caught stealing food from the camp kitchen; the camp rules for the punishment were based on the same rules that were provided to the Japanese soldiers in other occupied places. The maximum duration of the placement in the cage are limited to 30 days; the use of a toilet was only allowed twice a day. Ill-treatment by shock and water torture were frequent and the victim was left in the cage with no food, wearing only a loincloth or shorts, the prisoners were defenceless against the mosquitoes, their constant attacks on the victims weakened body make sleeping at night impossible. All remains of the prisoners of war that were found during the investigations after the war were transferred to a military cemetery in Labuan; the identified victi

José Sebastián Laboa Gallego

José Sebastián Laboa Gallego was a Spanish prelate of the Catholic Church who worked in the diplomatic service of the Holy See. Early in his career he held posts in the Roman Curia. José Sebastián Laboa Gallego was born in Pasajes de San Juan, Spain, on 20 January 1923, he was ordained a priest on 16 April 1949. He earned a degree in theology at the Comillas Pontifical University of Madrid and a doctorate in canon law at the Pontifical Gregorian University, he worked in the Roman Curia where his assignments included stints as secretary to Cardinal Gaetano Cicognani and as the person responsible for Latin America at the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. On 18 December 1982, Pope John Paul II named him a titular archbishop and Apostolic Nuncio to Panama, he received his episcopal consecration from Pope John Paul on 6 January 1983. On 21 August 1990, Pope John Paul appointed him Apostolic Nuncio to Paraguay. On 18 March 1995, Pope John Paul named him Apostolic Nuncio to Malta and on 28 October Apostolic Delegate to Libya.

He retired when replaced in these posts on 13 June 1998. Laboa died on 24 October 2002 in San Sebastián. Catholic Hierarchy: Archbishop José Sebastián Laboa Gallego