Mole is a traditional sauce used in Mexican cuisine, as well as for dishes based on these sauces. Outside Mexico, it refers to mole poblano. In contemporary Mexico, the term is used for a number of sauces, some quite dissimilar, including black, red/colorado, green, almendrado, de olla, huaxmole and pipián. A mole sauce contains a fruit, chili pepper and such spices as black pepper, cinnamon and chocolate. Two states in Mexico claim to be the origin of mole: Puebla and Oaxaca The best-known moles are native to these two states, but other regions in Mexico make various types of mole sauces. Moles come with chili peppers as the common factor. However, the classic mole version is the variety called mole poblano, a dark red or brown sauce served over meat; the dish has become a culinary symbol of Mexico’s mestizaje, or mixed indigenous and European heritage, both for the types of ingredients it contains and because of the legends surrounding its origin. A common legend of its creation takes place at the Convent of Santa Clara in Puebla early in the colonial period.
Upon hearing that the archbishop was going to visit, the convent nuns panicked because they were poor and had nothing to prepare. The nuns prayed and brought together the little bits of what they did have, including chili peppers, day-old bread, a little chocolate, they cooked it and put the sauce on top. When one of the nuns was asked the name of the dish, she replied, "I made a mole." Mole was the ancient word for mix. A similar version of the story says that monk Fray Pascual invented the dish, again to serve the archbishop of Puebla. In this version, spices were blown over into pots in which chicken were cooking. Other versions of the story substitute the viceroy of New Spain, such as Juan de Palafox y Mendoza in place of the archbishop. Modern mole is a mixture of ingredients from North America and Africa, making it one of the first intercontinental dishes created in the Americas, its base, however, is indigenous. Nahuatl speakers had a preparation they called meaning "sauce", or chīlmōlli for chili sauce.
In the book General History of the Things of New Spain, Bernardino de Sahagún says that mollis were used in a number of dishes, including those for fish and vegetables. Theories about the origins of mole have supposed that it was something imposed upon the natives or that it was the product of the baroque artistry of Puebla, but there is not enough evidence for definitive answers. Coincidence or not, the word "mōlli" seems to resemble the Portuguese word molho, which means "sauce". While chili pepper sauces existed in pre-Hispanic Mexico, the complicated moles of today did not, they did not contain chocolate, used as a beverage, in all of the writings of Sahagún, there is no mention at all of it being used to flavor food. Most what occurred was a gradual modification of the original molli sauce, adding more and different ingredients depending on the location; this diversified the resulting sauces into various types. Ingredients that have been added into moles include nuts, cilantro, seedless grapes, garlic, onions and chocolate.
However, most versions do not contain chocolate. What remained the same was the use of chili peppers ancho, pasilla and chipotle, the consistency of the sauce; the true story of how mole developed may never be known, as the first recipes did not appear until after the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. The Nahuatl etymology of the name indicates a Mesoamerican origin. All mole preparations begin with one or more types of chili pepper; the classic moles of Central Mexico and Oaxaca, such as mole poblano and mole negro, include two or more of the following types of chili pepper: ancho, pasilla and chipotle. Other ingredients can include black pepper, guaje, cloves, tomatoes, garlic, sesame seeds, dried fruit, herbs like Piper Auritum or hoja santa known as hierba santa, many other ingredients. Mole poblano has an average of 20 ingredients. Chocolate, if used, is added at the end of cooking. According to Rick Bayless, the ingredients of mole can be grouped into five distinct classes: chiles, sweet and thickeners.
The ingredients are ground into a fine powder or paste. This roasting and grinding process is laborious and takes at least a day to accomplish by hand. Traditionally, this work was shared by several generations of women in the family, but after the arrival of electric mills, it became more common to take the ingredients to be ground. Many families have their own varieties of mole passed down for generations, with their preparation reserved for special events in large batches; the resulting powder or paste is mixed with water, or more broth, simmered until it is pungent and thick. It is most prepared in a cazuela or a thick heavy clay cauldron and stirred constantly to prevent burning; the thickness of the sauce has prompted some, such as Mexican-food authority Patricia Quintana, to claim it is too substantial to be called a sauce. However, like a sauce, it is always served over something and n
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
An isthmus is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated. A tombolo is an isthmus that consists of a spit or bar, a strait is the sea counterpart of an isthmus. Canals are built across isthmuses, where they may be a advantageous shortcut for marine transport. For example, the Panama Canal crosses the Isthmus of Panama, connecting the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Another example is the Welland Canal in the Niagara Peninsula, it connects Lake Ontario to Lake Erie. The city of Auckland in the North Island of New Zealand is situated on an isthmus. Isthmus and land bridge are related terms with isthmus having a broader meaning. A land bridge is an isthmus connecting the Earth's major landmasses; the term land bridge is used in biogeology to describe land connections that used to exist between continents at various times and were important for migration of people, various species of animals and plants, e.g. Bering Land Bridge.
An isthmus is a land connection between two bigger landmasses, while a peninsula is rather a land protrusion, connected to a bigger landmass on one side only and surrounded by water on all other sides. Technically, an isthmus can have canals running from coast to coast, thus resemble two peninsulas. Major isthmuses include the Isthmus of Panama and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the Americas, the Isthmus of Kra in South-East Asia, the Isthmus of Suez between Africa and Asia, the Karelian Isthmus in Europe. Of historic importance was the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece. Land bridge List of isthmuses List of straits
Iguana is a genus of herbivorous lizards that are native to tropical areas of Mexico, Central America, South America, the Caribbean. The genus was first described in 1768 by Austrian naturalist Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti in his book Specimen Medicum, Exhibens Synopsin Reptilium Emendatam cum Experimentis circa Venena. Two species are included in the genus Iguana: the green iguana, widespread throughout its range and a popular pet, the Lesser Antillean iguana, native to the Lesser Antilles and endangered due to habitat destruction and hybridization with introduced green iguanas; the word "iguana" is derived from the original Taino name for iwana. In addition to the two species in the genus Iguana, several other related genera in the same family have common names of the species including the word "iguana". Iguanas can range from 1.5 to 1.8 metres including their tail. The two species of lizard within the genus Iguana possess a dewlap, a row of spines running down their backs to their tails. Behind their necks are small scales which resemble spokes, known as tuberculate scales.
These scales are not always visible from close distances. They have a large round scale on their cheeks known as a sub-tympanic shield. Iguanas have keen vision and can see shapes, shadows and movement at long distances, their visual acuity enables them to locate food. They employ visual signals to communicate with other members of the same species; the tympanum, the iguana's eardrum, is located above the sub-tympanic shield behind each eye. Iguanas are hard to spot, as they tend to blend into their surroundings and their coloration enables them to hide from larger predators. Like most reptiles, an iguana has a three-chambered heart with two atria, one ventricle, two aortae with a systemic circulation. Male iguanas, like other male examples of Squamata, have two hemipenes. Several species of lizard, including the iguana have a pale scale towards the back of their head marking the parietal eye; this organ is photosensitive to changes in illumination and sends signals to the pineal gland signaling the change between day and night.
A photopigment found in the Lamprey, known as parapinopsin is photosensitive to UV light and aids in the signaling between day and night. Iguanas have developed a herbivorous lifestyle, foraging on vegetation and foliage. In order to acquire and digest plant matter, herbivorous lizards must have a higher bite force relative to their size in comparison to carnivorous or omnivorous reptiles; the skull of the iguana has undergone modifications resulting in a strong bite force and efficient processing of vegetation, according to one study. In order to accomplish this biomechanically, herbivorous lizards have taller and wider skulls, shorter snouts, larger bodies relative to carnivorous and omnivorous reptiles. Increasing the robusticity of the skull allows for increased muscle presence and increases the ability of the skull to withstand stronger forces. Furthermore, the teeth of the iguana are acrodontal, meaning that their teeth sit on top of the surface of the jaw bone and project upwards; the teeth themselves serrated - designed to grasp and shear food.
Frost, D. E. and R. E. Etheridge A Phylogenetic Analysis and Taxonomy of Iguanian Lizards. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Misc. Publ. 81 Frost, D. R. R. Etheridge, D. Janies and T. A. Titus Total evidence, sequence alignment, evolution of Polychrotid lizards, a reclassification of the Iguania. American Museum Novitates 3343: 38 pp
Guatemala the Republic of Guatemala, is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west and the Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to the east, El Salvador to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south. With an estimated population of around 16.6 million, it is the most populated country in Central America. Guatemala is a representative democracy; the territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, which extended across Mesoamerica. Most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. Guatemala attained independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, which dissolved by 1841. From the mid to late 19th century, Guatemala experienced civil strife. Beginning in the early 20th century, it was ruled by a series of dictators backed by the United Fruit Company and the United States government. In 1944, authoritarian leader Jorge Ubico was overthrown by a pro-democratic military coup, initiating a decade-long revolution that led to sweeping social and economic reforms.
A U. S.-backed military coup in 1954 installed a dictatorship. From 1960 to 1996, Guatemala endured a bloody civil war fought between the US-backed government and leftist rebels, including genocidal massacres of the Maya population perpetrated by the military. Since a United Nations-negotiated peace accord, Guatemala has witnessed both economic growth and successful democratic elections, though it continues to struggle with high rates of poverty, drug trade, instability; as of 2014, Guatemala ranks 31st of 33 Latin American and Caribbean countries in terms of the Human Development Index. Guatemala's abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems includes a large number of endemic species and contributes to Mesoamerica's designation as a biodiversity hotspot; the name "Guatemala" comes from the Nahuatl word Cuauhtēmallān, or "place of many trees", a derivative of the K'iche' Mayan word for "many trees" or more for the Cuate/Cuatli tree Eysenhardtia. This was the name the Tlaxcaltecan soldiers who accompanied Pedro de Alvarado during the Spanish Conquest gave to this territory.
The first evidence of human habitation in Guatemala dates back to 12,000 BC. Evidence, such as obsidian arrowheads found in various parts of the country, suggests a human presence as early as 18,000 BC. There is archaeological proof. Pollen samples from Petén and the Pacific coast indicate that maize cultivation had developed by 3500 BC. Sites dating back to 6500 BC have been found in the Quiché region in the Highlands, Sipacate and Escuintla on the central Pacific coast. Archaeologists divide the pre-Columbian history of Mesoamerica into the Preclassic period, the Classic period, the Postclassic period; until the Preclassic was regarded as a formative period, with small villages of farmers who lived in huts, few permanent buildings. However, this notion has been challenged by recent discoveries of monumental architecture from that period, such as an altar in La Blanca, San Marcos, from 1000 BC; the Classic period of Mesoamerican civilization corresponds to the height of the Maya civilization, is represented by countless sites throughout Guatemala, although the largest concentration is in Petén.
This period is characterized by urbanisation, the emergence of independent city-states, contact with other Mesoamerican cultures. This lasted until 900 AD, when the Classic Maya civilization collapsed; the Maya abandoned many of the cities of the central lowlands or were killed off by a drought-induced famine. The cause of the collapse is debated, but the drought theory is gaining currency, supported by evidence such as lakebeds, ancient pollen, others. A series of prolonged droughts, among other reasons such as overpopulation, in what is otherwise a seasonal desert is thought to have decimated the Maya, who relied on regular rainfall; the Post-Classic period is represented by regional kingdoms, such as the Itza, Kowoj and Kejache in Petén, the Mam, Ki'che', Chajoma, Tz'utujil, Poqomchi', Q'eqchi' and Ch'orti' in the highlands. Their cities preserved many aspects of Maya culture; the Maya civilization shares many features with other Mesoamerican civilizations due to the high degree of interaction and cultural diffusion that characterized the region.
Advances such as writing and the calendar did not originate with the Maya. Maya influence can be detected from Honduras, Northern El Salvador to as far north as central Mexico, more than 1,000 km from the Maya area. Many outside influences are found in Maya art and architecture, which are thought to be the result of trade and cultural exchange rather than direct external conquest. After they arrived in the New World, the Spanish started several expeditions to Guatemala, beginning in 1519. Before long, Spanish contact resulted in an epidemic. Hernán Cortés, who had led the Spanish conquest of Mexico, granted a permit to Captains Gonzalo de Alvarado and his brother, Pedro de Alvarado, to conquer this land. Alvarado at first allied himself with the Kaqchikel nation to fight against their traditional rivals the K'iche' nation
Chiapas the Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas, is one of the 31 states that along with the federal district of Mexico City make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 124 municipalities as of September 2017 and its capital city is Tuxtla Gutiérrez. Other important population centers in Chiapas include Ocosingo, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Comitán and Arriaga, it is the southernmost state in Mexico. It is located in Southeastern Mexico, it borders the states of Oaxaca to the west, Veracruz to the northwest and Tabasco to the north, by the Petén, Quiché, Huehuetenango and San Marcos departments of Guatemala to the east and southeast. Chiapas has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the south. In general, Chiapas has a tropical climate. In the north, in the area bordering Tabasco, near Teapa, rainfall can average more than 3,000 mm per year. In the past, natural vegetation in this region was lowland, tall perennial rainforest, but this vegetation has been completely cleared to allow agriculture and ranching.
Rainfall decreases moving towards the Pacific Ocean, but it is still abundant enough to allow the farming of bananas and many other tropical crops near Tapachula. On the several parallel "sierras" or mountain ranges running along the center of Chiapas, climate can be quite temperate and foggy, allowing the development of cloud forests like those of the Reserva de la Biosfera el Triunfo, home to a handful of resplendent quetzals and horned guans. Chiapas is home to the ancient Mayan ruins of Palenque, Yaxchilán, Bonampak and Toniná, it is home to one of the largest indigenous populations in the country with twelve federally recognized ethnicities. Much of the state's history is centered on the subjugation of these peoples with occasional rebellions; the last of these rebellions was the 1994 Zapatista uprising, which succeeded in obtaining new rights for indigenous people. The official name of the state is Chiapas, it is believed to have come from the ancient city of Chiapan, which in Náhuatl means "the place where the chia sage grows."
After the Spanish arrived, they established two cities called Chiapas de los Indios and Chiapas de los Españoles, with the name of Provincia de Chiapas for the area around the cities. The first coat of arms of the region dates from 1535 as that of the Ciudad Real. Chiapas painter Javier Vargas Ballinas designed the modern coat of arms. Hunter gatherers began to occupy the central valley of the state around 7000 BCE, but little is known about them; the oldest archaeological remains in the seat are located at the Santa Elena Ranch in Ocozocoautla whose finds include tools and weapons made of stone and bone. It includes burials. In the pre Classic period from 1800 BCE to 300 CE, agricultural villages appeared all over the state although hunter gather groups would persist for long after the era. Recent excavations in the Soconusco region of the state indicate that the oldest civilization to appear in what is now modern Chiapas is that of the Mokaya, which were cultivating corn and living in houses as early as 1500 BCE, making them one of the oldest in Mesoamerica.
There is speculation that these were the forefathers of the Olmec, migrating across the Grijalva Valley and onto the coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico to the north, Olmec territory. One of these people's ancient cities is now the archeological site of Chiapa de Corzo, in, found the oldest calendar known on a piece of ceramic with a date of 36 BCE; this is. The descendants of Mokaya are the Mixe-Zoque. During the pre Classic era, it is known that most of Chiapas was not Olmec, but had close relations with them the Olmecs of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Olmec-influenced sculpture can be found in Chiapas and products from the state including amber and ilmenite were exported to Olmec lands; the Olmecs came to what is now the northwest of the state looking for amber with one of the main pieces of evidence for this called the Simojovel Ax. Mayan civilization began in the pre-Classic period as well, but did not come into prominence until the Classic period. Development of this culture was agricultural villages during the pre-Classic period with city building during the Classic as social stratification became more complex.
The Mayans built cities on west into Guatemala. In Chiapas, Mayan sites are concentrated along the state's borders with Tabasco and Guatemala, near Mayan sites in those entities. Most of this area belongs to the Lacandon Jungle. Mayan civilization in the Lacandon area is marked by rising exploitation of rain forest resources, rigid social stratification, fervent local identity, waging war against neighboring peoples. At its height, it had large cities, a writing system, development of scientific knowledge, such as mathematics and astronomy. Cities were centered on large political and ceremonial structures elaborately decorated with murals and inscriptions. Among these cities are Palenque, Yaxchilan, Toniná and Tenón; the Mayan civilization had extensive trade networks and large markets trading in goods such as animal skins, amber and quetzal feathers. It is not known what ended the civilization but theories range from over population size, natural disasters and loss of natural resources through over exploitation or climate change.
Nearly all Mayan cities collapsed around the same time, 900 CE. From until 1500 CE, social organization of the region fragmented into much smaller units and social structure became much less complex. There was some influence from the ris