Italian Libya was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy located in North Africa, in what is now modern Libya. Italian Libya was formed from the Italian colonies of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania that were taken by the Kingdom of Italy from the Ottoman Empire in 1911, during the Italo-Turkish War of 1911 to 1912; the unified colony was established in 1934 with Tripoli as the capital. The territory of the previous two colonies had been referred to sometimes as "Italian Libya" or Italian North Africa, both names kept being used after the unification, with Italian Libya now being the official name of the newly combined colony. In 1923, indigenous rebels associated with the Senussi Order organized the Libyan resistance movement against Italian settlement in Libya; the rebellion was put down by Italian forces in 1932, after the so-called "pacification campaign", which resulted in the deaths of a quarter of Cyrenaica's population. During World War II, Italian Libya became the setting for the North African Campaign.
Although the Italians were defeated there by the Allies in 1943, many of the Italian settlers still remained in Libya. Under the terms of the 1947 peace treaty, Italy relinquished all claims to Libya, administrated by the United Kingdom and France until its independence in 1951; the history of Libya as an Italian colony started in 1911 and was characterized by a major struggle with Muslim native Libyans that lasted until 1931. During this period, the Italian government controlled only the coastal areas of the colony. Between 1911 and 1912, over 1,000 Somalis from Mogadishu, the capital of Italian Somaliland, served as combat units along with Eritrean and Italian soldiers in the Italo-Turkish War. Most of the troops stationed never returned home until they were transferred back to Italian Somaliland in preparation for the invasion of Ethiopia in 1935. After the Italian Empire's conquest of Ottoman Tripolitania, in the 1911–12 Italo-Turkish War, much of the early colonial period had Italy waging a war of subjugation against Libya's population.
Ottoman Turkey surrendered its control of Libya in the 1912 Treaty of Lausanne, but fierce resistance to the Italians continued from the Senussi political-religious order, a nationalistic group of Sunni Muslims. This group, first under the leadership of Omar Al Mukhtar and centered in the Jebel Akhdar Mountains of Cyrenaica, led the Libyan resistance movement against Italian settlement in Libya. Italian forces under the Generals Pietro Badoglio and Rodolfo Graziani waged punitive pacification campaigns using chemical weapons, mass executions of soldiers and civilians and concentration camps. One-quarter of Cyrenaica's population of 225,000 people died during the conflict. After nearly two decades of suppression campaigns the Italian colonial forces claimed victory. In the 1930s, the policy of Italian Fascism toward Libya began to change, both Italian Cyrenaica and Tripolitania, along with Fezzan, were merged into Italian Libya in 1934; the colony expanded after concessions from the British colony of Sudan and a territorial agreement with Egypt.
The Kufra district was nominally attached to British-occupied Egypt until 1925, but in fact, remained a headquarters for the Senussi resistance until conquered by the Italians in 1931. The Kingdom of Italy at the 1919 Paris "Conference of Peace" received nothing from German colonies, but as a compensation Great Britain gave it the Oltre Giuba and France agreed to give some Saharan territories to Italian Libya. After prolonged discussions through the 1920s, in 1935 under the Mussolini-Laval agreement Italy received the Aouzou strip, added to Libya. However, this agreement was not ratified by France. In 1931, the towns of El Tag and Al Jawf were taken over by Italy. British Egypt had ceded Kufra and Jarabub to Italian Libya on December 6, 1925, but it was not until the early 1930s that Italy was in full control of the place. In 1931, during the campaign of Cyrenaica, General Rodolfo Graziani conquered Kufra District, considered a strategic region, leading about 3,000 soldiers from infantry and artillery, supported by about twenty bombers.
Ma'tan as-Sarra was turned over to Italy in 1934 as part of the Sarra Triangle to colonial Italy by the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, who considered the area worthless and so an act of cheap appeasement to Benito Mussolini's attempts at empire. During this time, the Italian colonial forces built a World War I–style fort in El Tag in the mid-1930s. In 1939 some Libyans were granted special Italian citizenship by Royal Decree No. 70 on 9 January 1939. This citizenship was necessary for any Libyan with ambitions to rise in the military or civil organizations; the recipients were referred to as Moslem Italians. Libya had become the fourth shore of Italy”; the incorporation of Libya into the Italian Empire gave the Italian Army a greater ability to exploit native Libyans for military service. Native Libyans served in Italian formations from the beginning of the Italian occupation of Libya. On 1 March 1940, 2nd Libyan Divisions were formed; these Libyan Infantry divisions were organized along the lines of the binary Italian infantry division.
The 5th Italian Army received the 2nd Libyan Infantry division which it incorporated into the 13th corps. The Italian 10th Army received the 1st Libyan Infantry Division which it incorporated into the reserve; the Italian Libyan infantry divisions were colonial formations. These formations had Italian officers commanding them with Libyan soldiers; these native Libyan formations were made up of people
Helen Westley was an American character actress. She was born Henrietta Remsen Meserole Manney in Brooklyn, New York on March 28, 1875, she went onto become Helen Westley, she appeared in the original Broadway productions of two plays which, after her death, turned into classic Rodgers and Hammerstein musicals: Green Grow The Lilacs, which became Oklahoma!, Liliom, which became Carousel. Westley played Aunt Eller in the former, Mrs. Muskat in the latter, she appeared in the original Broadway production of Eugene O'Neill's Strange Interlude. Westley played roles, both dramatic, in many films, they included Death Takes a Holiday, All This and Heaven Too, four films opposite child star Shirley Temple, the 1934 surprise hit Anne of Green Gables, the 1935 film version of Roberta, the 1936 film version of Show Boat, in which she replaced Edna May Oliver, when Ms. Oliver declined to repeat her stage role as Parthy Ann Hawks, she appeared in Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm in 1938 with Shirley Temple and Randolph Scott as Aunt Miranda.
In 1936, she played in Banjo on My Knee with Walter Brennan and Buddy Ebsen. Westley married John Westley, an actor on Broadway, on October 31, 1900; the couple separated in 1912. The marriage ended in divorce; the couple had one daughter, named Ethel. After Westley retired from acting in 1942, she moved into her daughters home in Middlebush, New Jersey, where they both lived together until her death on December 12, 1942, from an undisclosed illness. Upon her death, she was cremated at the Rose Hill Cemetery in Linden, New Jersey, on December 17 of that same year, her daughter had her ashes buried at Cypress Hills Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York, in Section 9, Lot 26. Helen Westley on IMDb Helen Westley at the Internet Broadway Database Helen Westley portrait NYP Library portrait of Helen Westley dress portrait
Abdoulaye Dieng is a Senegalese footballer who plays. Born and raised in Thiès, Abdoulaye began his footballing career in 2005 with ASC Thiès where he played till 2007, he began his professional footballing career in 2007 with his parent club, ASC Thiès based in his hometown, Thiès. In 2008, he moved to the capital of Senegal, Dakar where he signed a three-year contract with Senegal Premier League club, Guédiawaye FC. In 2011, he moved to Pikine where he signed a one-year contract with another Senegal Premier League club, AS Pikine thus ending his long spell in Senegal, he first moved out of Senegal in 2012 to the Middle East and more to the United Arab Emirates where he signed a short-term contract with UAE First Division League club, Al-Rams. He made his UAE First Division League debut on 25 January 2013 in a 5-1 loss against Emirates Club and scored his first goal on 18 April 2013 in a 4-1 win over Al-Jazira Al-Hamra, he scored 1 goal in 13 appearances in the 2012-13 UAE First Division League.
In 2013, he moved to Sharjah where he signed a twp-year contract with another UAE First Division League club, Al-Dhaid. He made his debut for the club on 7 September 2013 in a 2-1 loss against Al-Ittihad Kalba SC in the 2013–14 UAE President's Cup and scored his first goal on 28 September 2013 in a 2-1 win over the same club, he scored another goal in the competition on 9 December 2013 in the Quarter-finals in a 2-2 draw against Al-Shaab CSC, won 8-7 on penalties by Al-Dhaid hence helping his side qualify for the Quarter-finals where they lost 3-2 to Emirati giants, Al-Nasr SC. He made his first appearance in the 2013-14 UAE First Division League on 16 November 2013 in a 3-1 loss against Dibba Al-Hisn Sports Club and scored his first goal in the competition on 21 March 2014 in a 2-1 win over Al-Arabi, he scored 2 goals in 24 appearances in the 2013-14 UAE First Division League and scored 2 goals in 5 appearances in the 2013–14 UAE President's Cup. He made his first appearance in the 2014-15 UAE First Division League on 13 December 2014 in a 2-0 win over Masafi Club.
He made 7 appearances in the 2014-15 UAE First Division League. In January 2016, he again moved out of Senegal and this time to another Middle Eastern country, Oman where on 26 January, he signed a short-term contract with Oman Professional League side, Saham Club, he made his Oman Professional League debut on 30 January 2016 in a 0-0 draw against fierce rivals, Sohar SC. He made his Sultan Qaboos Cup debut on 16 February 2016 in a 2-1 loss against Muscat Club in the Quarter-finals and scored his first goal in the competition on 27 February 2016 in a 3-0 win over the same side in the second leg of the Quarter-finals helping Saham become the first side to qualify for the Semi-finals of the 2015–16 Sultan Qaboos Cup. Scoring 1 goal in 5 appearances, he helped his side win the 2015–16 Sultan Qaboos Cup, Oman's most prestigious trophy for the second time in the club's history, he helped his side win the 2016 Oman Super Cup on 8 September 2016 in a 1-0 win over defending OPL champions, Fanja SC.
After impressing with his dominant display and leadership ability during his stint with Saham, he was approached by various clubs in the region with Sultan Qaboos Cup champions Al-Suwaiq Club heading the race and signing him on 29 May 2017. He made his official debut for the club on 9 September 2017 in a 2-1 loss against Dhofar S. C. S. C. in the 2017 Oman Super Cup. SahamSultan Qaboos Cup: 2015-16 Oman Super Cup: 2016Al-SuwaiqOman Super Cup: 2017 Abdoulaye Dieng - fanet.ae Abdoulaye Dieng - YouTube Abdoulaye Dieng - YouTube