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Italian invasion of Egypt

The Italian invasion of Egypt was an offensive in the Second World War, against British and Free French forces in Egypt. The invasion by the Italian 10th Army ended border skirmishing on the frontier and began the Western Desert Campaign proper; the goal of the Italian forces in Libya was to seize the Suez Canal by advancing along the Egyptian coast. After numerous delays, the scope of the offensive was reduced to an advance as far as Sidi Barrani, with attacks on British forces in the area; the 10th Army advanced about 65 mi into Egypt but made contact only with British screening forces of the 7th Support Group not the main force around Mersa Matruh. On 16 September 1940, the 10th Army halted and took up defensive positions around the port of Sidi Barrani, intending to build fortified camps, while waiting for engineers to build the Via della Vittoria along the coast, an extension of the Libyan Via Balbia; the Italians began to accumulate supplies for an advance on Mersa Matruh, about 80 mi further east and the base of the 7th Armoured Division and the 4th Indian Division.

On 8 December, before the 10th Army was ready to resume its advance on Mersa Matruh, the British began Operation Compass, a five-day raid against the fortified Italian camps outside Sidi Barrani. The raid succeeded and the few units of the 10th Army in Egypt that were not destroyed were forced into a hurried retreat; the British pursued the remnants of the 10th Army along the coast to Sollum, Tobruk, Mechili, Beda Fomm and El Agheila on the Gulf of Sirte. The British lost 1,900 men killed and wounded during Compass and took 133,298 Italian and Libyan prisoners, 420 tanks, over 845 guns and many aircraft. Cyrenaica, the eastern province of Libya, had been an Italian colony since the Italo-Turkish War, although resistance continued until 1932. With Tunisia, a part of French North Africa to the west and Egypt to the east, the Italians had to defend both frontiers and established a North Africa Supreme Headquarters, under the command of the Governor-General of Italian Libya, Marshal of the Air Force, Italo Balbo.

Supreme Headquarters had the 5th Army in the west and the 10th Army in the east, which in mid-1940 had nine metropolitan divisions of about 13,000 men each, three Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale divisions and two Italian Libyan Colonial divisions with 8,000 men each. Reservists had been recalled in 1939, along with the usual call-up of conscripts; the British had based military forces in Egypt since 1882 but these were reduced by the terms of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. The small British and Commonwealth force garrisoned the Suez Canal and the Red Sea route, vital to British communications with its Far Eastern and Indian Ocean territories. In mid-1939, Lieutenant-General Archibald Wavell was appointed General Officer Commanding-in-Chief of the new Middle East Command, over the Mediterranean and Middle East theatres; until the Franco-Axis armistice, French divisions in Tunisia faced the Italians on the western Libyan border forcing the garrison to divide and face both ways.

In Libya, the Italian Royal Army had about 215,000 men and in Egypt the British had about 36,000 troops, with another 27,500 men training in Palestine. British forces included the Mobile Division commanded by Major-General Percy Hobart, one of two British armoured training formations, which in mid-1939 was renamed the Armoured Division and on 16 February 1940, it became the 7th Armoured Division; the Egyptian–Libyan border was defended by the Egyptian Frontier Force and in June 1940, the headquarters of the 6th Infantry Division took over command in the Western Desert, with instructions to drive back the Italians from their frontier posts and dominate the hinterland, if war began. The 7th Armoured Division, less the 7th Armoured Brigade, assembled at Mersa Matruh and sent the 7th Support Group forward towards the frontier as a covering force; the RAF moved most of its bombers closer to the frontier and Malta was reinforced to threaten the Italian supply route to Libya. The HQ of the 6th Infantry Division, which lacked complete and trained units, was renamed the Western Desert Force on 17 June.

In Tunisia, the French had eight divisions, capable only of limited operations and in Syria were three poorly armed and trained divisions, with about 40,000 troops and border guards, were on occupation duties against the civilian population. Italian land and air forces in Libya outnumbered the British in Egypt but suffered from poor morale and were handicapped by some inferior equipment. In Italian East Africa were another 130,000 Italian and East African troops with 400 guns, 200 light tanks and 20,000 lorries; the Western Desert is about 386 km long, from Mersa Matruh in Egypt, west to Gazala on the Libyan coast, along Via Balbia, the only paved road. The Sand Sea, 150 mi inland, marks the southern limit of the desert at its widest at Giarabub and Siwa. From the coast, extending into the hinterland lies a raised, flat plain of stony desert about 500 ft above sea level, that runs 124–186 mi in depth until the Sand Sea; the region is inhabited by a small number of Bedouin nomads and local wildlife consists of scorpions and flies.

Bedouin tracks the easier traversed ground. (When the Italian invasion of Egypt be

1839 in rail transport

This article lists events related to rail transport that occurred in 1839. January 1 – The New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company opens its route between Trenton and New Brunswick, New Jersey. March 4 – William F. Harnden, founder of Harnden and Company, becomes the first person to send an express shipment by rail when he ships an express package from Boston, Massachusetts, to Providence, Rhode Island, on the Boston and Providence Rail Road. March 5 – Bristol and Exeter Railway adopts 7 ft for its track gauge. March 12 – Maine, New Hampshire and Massachusetts Railroad is incorporated in Maine. April 3 – Andover and Haverhill Railroad reorganizes and changes its name for a second time to Boston and Portland Railroad, reflecting plans to extend its line to Portland, Maine. June 4 – The London and Southampton Railway is renamed the London and South Western Railway. August 12 Ulster Railway opened on 6 ft 2 in gauge; the Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway in England opens. September 20 – Official opening of the first railway line in the Netherlands, locomotive De Arend, broad gauge.

September 24 – The first railway line in the Netherlands, 19 km between Amsterdam and Haarlem, opens for the public. September 26 – The Taunus Railway opens its route between the Free City of Frankfurt and Höchst, Duchy of Nassau. October 3 – The first railway line in Italy, 7 km between Naples and Portici, opens. October 19 – George Bradshaw publishes the world's first collective railway timetable book in Manchester, England. October – Eleazer Lord succeeds James G. King for a second term as president of the Erie Railroad. June 24 – Gustavus Franklin Swift, American founder of Swift and Company which pioneered the use of refrigerator cars in late 19th century America. July 17 – Ephraim Shay, American inventor of the Shay locomotive. July 22 – David Moffat, Colorado railroad financier. August 20 – Gaston du Bousquet, French steam locomotive designer. December 8 – Alexander J. Cassatt, president of the Pennsylvania Railroad 1899–1906. Rivanna Chapter, National Railway Historical Society, This Month in Railroad History: March.

Retrieved March 30, 2005. White, John H. Jr.. "America's Most Noteworthy Railroaders". Railroad History. 154: 9–15. ISSN 0090-7847. JSTOR 43523785. OCLC 1785797

Flagstaff hill incident

The Flagstaff Hill incident was an international incident between the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. It took place on the night of 5/6 May 1976 near Cornamucklagh, a townland just inside the Cooley Peninsula in the north of County Louth in the Republic of Ireland, when the Irish Army and Garda Síochána arrested eight British Special Air Service soldiers who had illegally crossed the Irish border; the worsening security situation in south County Armagh after the killing of three British soldiers at an observation post in November 1975 and the massacre of ten Protestant workers in January 1976, prompted British PM Harold Wilson to publicly acknowledge the presence of D squadron of the Special Air Service, deployed to Bessbrook Mill. The ambush of the observation post exposed the fact that conventional military tactics hadn't worked for the British Government in South Armagh, since the British Army report of this incident identified a number of basic mistakes regarding camouflage, routine patterns and the observation post's arrangement.

On 28 October 1971, a confrontation took place between British and Irish troops at a cross-border bridge between the Republic and Northern Ireland, at the village of Munnelly, between counties Fermanagh and Monaghan. A British patrol was laying explosive charges to destroy the bridge, as part of an effort to destroy bridges and roads being used by the Provisional IRA to import arms and supplies from the Republic of Ireland into Northern Ireland. A Garda Síochána officer stated that the bridge was at least half in the Republic, the British Army officer on the scene disputed this; the Irish Army deployed a unit of soldiers and its commander, armed with a submachine gun, demanded that the British Army surrender their explosives. Following a 90-minute standoff, the British Army withdrew; the first high-profile action carried out by the SAS in 1976 was in March when it abducted Sean McKenna, an IRA member wanted for attempted murder and a string of other offences. McKenna was abducted at 2:30 am while sleeping at home in Edentober, on the Republic's side of the border, in a cross-border raid by the SAS.

Once across the border, he was arrested by another detachment of the British Army. In April, the SAS killed IRA member Peter Cleary in controversial circumstances near Forkhill, just 50 metres inside Northern Ireland. Although the porous nature of the border had led to 189 inadvertent border crossings by the British security forces in the previous two years, these latest incursions heightened the sensitivity to the issue by the Garda Síochána. Another concern for the Irish Government was the activity of loyalist paramilitary elements in the area, one of which had kidnapped and killed a civilian named Seamus Ludlow near Dundalk four days earlier. After the kidnapping and murder of Seamus Ludlow near Dundalk, the Republic's security forces stepped up their presence along the border. A checkpoint was set up by the Gardaí and the Irish Army on Flagstaff Road in the townland of Cornamucklagh, some 700 metres inside County Louth in the Republic. At 10:40 pm, the Gardaí stopped a Triumph 2000 car coming from the north with two men inside.

The driver obeyed the signal to stop, but when questioned by the policemen about their destination, they avoided a straight answer. They were asked to step out of the vehicle after one Garda noticed that the passenger had what seemed to be a gun hidden under a map; the unidentified men were unwilling to leave the car until Irish Army soldiers came out of the bushes and pointed Heckler & Koch HK33 rifles at them in support of the Gardaí. The two men, who wore plain clothes, were Fijian-born trooper Ilisoni Ligari and trooper John Lawson, both soldiers in the SAS. After searching the car, the policemen found a Browning pistol; the Gardaí arrested them, with the help of the Army, took them to nearby Omeath Garda station. Lawson claimed that they were off-duty soldiers who became stranded while test-driving the car, Ligari refused to talk about "the mission we were on", it transpired that Lawson and Ligari were in the area to collect or relieve Staff Sergeant Malcolm Rees and Corporal Ronald Nicholson.

According to author Peter Taylor and Nicholson were deployed on the Republic's side of the border. When the soldiers manning the surveillance post failed to meet Ligari and Lawson, they radioed their base at Bessbrook Mill. An IRA ambush was suspected. Four plain-clothes SAS soldiers—troopers Nial McClean, Vincent Thompson, Nigel Burchell and Carsten Rhodes—were sent to search for their missing comrades in two cars, picking up the two men from the observation post in the process; the team was carrying another three Sterling submachine-guns, a Remington pump-action shotgun and 222 rounds of ammunition. The first vehicle — a Hillman Avenger carrying Thompson, McClean and Nicholson - drove up to the Garda checkpoint at 2:05 am. Rees and Nicholson were still wearing British Army uniforms; the second car—a Vauxhall Victor with Burchell and Rhodes—was stopped shortly after. Sergeant Rees tried to explain the situation to the Gardaí: "Let us go back. If the roles were reversed we would let you go back.

We are all doing the one bloody job", but he ordered his men to surrender their weapons after Irish Army soldiers surrounded both cars and aimed rifles at them. The Garda unit, commanded by Sergeant Pat McLoughlin, radioed his superiors for instructions on how to deal with the men now in custody; the shotgun drew the attention of the Gardaí since the same type of weapon was used in three recent murders i

Mikhail Murashko

Mikhail Albertovich Murashko is a doctor and a politician, serving as the Minister of Health of the Russian Federation since 21 January 2020. Born in Sverdlovsk, he graduated from a city school with an in-depth study of physics and chemistry. From 1986 to 1988 he served in the [[Internal Forces of of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs. C 1986 по 1988 год проходил службу в Вооруженных силах МВД СССР. In 1992, he graduated from the Ural State Medical Institute, after which until 1996 he worked as an intern doctor and obstetrician-gynecologist at the Republican Hospital of the Komi Republic in Syktyvkar. In 1996, he was successively appointed deputy chief doctor for consultative and diagnostic work, chief doctor of the Komi Republican Perinatal Center, he defended his thesis on the topic “Features of the course and outcomes of childbirth in women with certain types of urogenital infection”. From 1996 to 1999, he served as the chief physician of the Republican Medical Association. From 2000 to 2006 he worked as the chief physician of the Republican Perinatal Center.

In 2006, he moved to the civil service. In parallel with this, in 2011 and 2012 he headed the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Republican Branch of the Kirov State Medical University of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia, located in Syktyvkar. In 2012, he was appointed Deputy Head of the Federal Service for Supervision of Healthcare. Since 2013, he was temporarily acting head of the department, on July 14, 2015 he headed Roszdravnadzor. Under his leadership, Roszdravnadzor created a modern service for state control of the quality of medicines, one of the advanced systems for monitoring the circulation of medical devices and monitoring the quality and safety of medical care for the population; the Federal Service for Supervision of Healthcare has reached a high international level, its employees are heads of expert structures of international organizations at the World Health Organization and the Council of Europe. On 21st of January he was appointed by presidential decree signed by President Vladimir Putin to the Minister of Health of the Russian Federation in Mikhail Mishustin's Cabinet

A538 road

The A538 is a road in England linking Macclesfield, Cheshire to Altrincham in Greater Manchester, through Prestbury and Hale and providing access to Manchester Airport and the M56 motorway. The road is a Primary route between the A34 Junction in Wilmslow and Manchester Airport / M56 motorway; the A538 starts in Macclesfield at the traffic light controlled junction on Hibel Road. Here the road in known as Beech Lane and continues north through Tytherington, becoming Manchester Road. A short distance after leaving Tytherington, the A538 turns left into Heybridge Lane; the road proceeds into Prestbury at a 30mph speed limit, crossing over the Stoke-on-Trent to Manchester Piccadilly railway line. Into Prestbury village. In Prestbury village, the road veers right at a roundabout and climbs towards Wilmslow, reverting to a 30mph speed limit; this is now Wilmslow Road, becoming Prestbury Road close to Mottram Hall. On the outskirts of Wilmslow, there is a roundabout with the A5102 a half mile straight road to the A34.

The A538 joins the A34 here by turning right at a roundabout, running down to a roundabout where it turns left. It goes under the Wilmslow railway viaduct holding the Crewe to Manchester Piccadilly railway line, turns right at a roundabout where the B5166 joins, runs past Wilmslow town centre to a set of traffic lights where it turns left and becomes Manchester Road. Between the roundabout and the traffic lights it is part of what was the A34 before the A34 Wilmslow bypass was built in the mid-1990s. From the traffic lights, the road heads out toward Manchester Airport, being Water Lane shortly after, Altrincham Road. After leaving Wilmslow, the road is speed restricted to 40mph or 50mph through to the junction with the M56 motorway; the road goes down a steep hill to the Oversleyford Bridge over the river Bollin, up afterwards, through two tunnels under Manchester Airport's runways. After the tunnels, the road runs to a complex traffic light controlled roundabout junction with the M56 motorway Westbound and Runger Lane (which serves as an access road to Manchester Airport.

After this roundabout, the road loses its Primary Status. The road from here on has a 30mph speed restriction as the rest of the route is through built-up areas; the A538 goes through Hale Hale until a mini roundabout where it is turns right. It goes through three set of traffic lights and passes the combined bus / rail station, veers left and runs though to a traffic light controlled cross roads, the junction with the A560 / B5164, where the A538 ends

Gustave Hervé

Gustave Hervé was a French politician. At first, he was a fervent antimilitarist socialist and pacifist, but he turned to zealous ultranationalism, declaring his patriotisme in 1912 when released from 26 months of imprisonment for anti-militarist publishing activities. Hervé in 1919 created the Parti socialiste national, which promoted "class co-operation" and solidarity; this "national socialism" of Hervé was soon transformed into a form of "French fascism," and when Benito Mussolini took power in Italy in the March on Rome, Hervé heralded him as "my courageous Italian comrade." The PSN would never attract many supporters, so Hervé attempted to resurrect the party in 1925 as the Parti de la République autoritaire. In 1927, the name reverted to the Parti socialiste national; when Marcel Bucard became involved with the magazine La Victoire, it was renamed once again to La Milice socialiste in 1932. In 1936, Hervé rallied behind French war hero Marshal Philippe Pétain, but distanced himself from him in 1940.

He died in 1944, was harassed during the war years by Vichy France officials for his criticism published in La Victoire. The Italian-born soprano, protégée of Arturo Toscanini, Herva Nelli was named after Gustave Hervé. In 1901 Gustave Hervé had attained notoriety with an apparent image of the tricolor planted in a dungpile. Soon he forged; when France's socialist parties united in 1905, Hervé led the most extreme faction. Soon Hervéists created a weekly newspaper, La Guerre sociale, which attempted to unite the extreme French left. Before World War I Hervé was one of the most strident voices within both French socialism and the Second International, advocating violent, revolutionary means to prevent war. Six years of sensational and provocative campaigns and organizations failed to implement his ideas. Despite his dedication, the quixotic Hervé grew frustrated due to continuing leftist divisions, his disillusionment was connected to a rather naive reading of the anachronistic revolutionary tradition.

Hervé was quite sincere. By 1914, he rallied to'la patrie en danger' and in 1916 changed the name of his paper to La Victoire. In 1919, Hervé and several prominent socialists created a national socialist party. Startling as his reversal may appear at first glance, Hervé's activist Insurrectional Socialism included an antimaterialistic critique of society; that critique was crucial to his evolving national socialism which looked to the nation and its religious traditions to remedy social divisions and decadence. His rechristened newspaper and its associated groups offered various authoritarian panaceas to end French disorder. Despite Hervé's marginalization during the interwar era and his general reluctance to engage in violence, his Neo-Bonapartist views and admiration for Mussolini must inescapably be included within what Philippe Burrin has called "the fascist drift". Michael B. Loughlin. "Gustave Hervé's Transition from Socialism to National Socialism: Another Example of French Fascism?". Journal of Contemporary History.

36: 5–39. Doi:10.1177/002200940103600101. Michael B. Loughlin, From Revolutionary Theater to Reactionary Litanies: Gustave Hervé at the Extremes of the French Third Republic, 1100 pages Works by or about Gustave Hervé at Internet Archive Newspaper clippings about Gustave Hervé in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW