2003 FIFA Women's World Cup
The 2003 FIFA Women's World Cup, the fourth edition of the FIFA Women's World Cup, was held in the United States and won by Germany. They won their first women's world title and became the first country to win both men's and women's World Cup; the men's team had won the World Cup three times at the time. The tournament was scheduled for China from 23 September to 11 October. On 3 May 2003, FIFA announced that they would move the tournament to an alternate host country because of the 2003 SARS outbreak in China. At the same time the FIFA announced that the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup would be awarded to China in its place. On 26 May 2003, FIFA announced; because the United States had hosted the 1999 World Cup, it was thought the United States could best organize the tournament in the little time remaining before the October scheduled start. In addition, women's soccer boosters in the United States hoped that interest generated by the tournament would save the U. S. women's the Women's United Soccer Association, from folding.
In compensation for losing the tournament, China retained its automatic qualification as host, was named as host for the 2007 event. Due to the rescheduling of the tournament on short notice, FIFA and the United States Soccer Federation were forced to creatively schedule matches. Nine doubleheaders were scheduled in group play, they had to abandon the modern practice of scheduling the final matches of the group stage to kick off simultaneously. In Groups A and D, the final matches were scheduled as the two ends of a doubleheader; the final matches in Groups B and C were scheduled as doubleheaders, but split between two cities, with a Group B match in each city followed by a Group C match. The four quarterfinals were scheduled as two doubleheaders, both semifinals were a doubleheader; the size and scope of the cup were reduced due to the limited time given to organize the tournament. Giants Stadium in the New York area backed out of hosting after being unable to resolve scheduling issues with the New York Giants.
The matches were scheduled in doubleheaders and moved from the East Coast to the West Coast as it progressed. 16 teams participated in the final tournament. The teams were: For a list of all squads that played in the final tournament, see 2003 FIFA Women's World Cup squads
2019 FIFA Women's World Cup
The 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup will be the eighth edition of the FIFA Women's World Cup, the quadrennial international football championship contested by the women's national teams of the member associations of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association between 7 June and 7 July 2019. In March 2015, France won the right to host the event. Matches are planned for nine cities across France; the United States enters the competition as defending champions. It will be the first Women's World Cup to use the video assistant referee system. On 6 March 2014, FIFA announced. Member associations interested in hosting the tournament had to submit a declaration of interest by 15 April 2014, provide the complete set of bidding documents by 31 October 2014; as a principle, FIFA preferred the 2019 Women's World Cup and the 2018 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup to be hosted by the same member association, but reserved the right to award the hosting of the events separately. Five countries indicated interest in hosting the events: England, Korea Republic, New Zealand and South Africa.
However, the number of bidding nations was narrowed down to two in October 2014, when the French Football Federation and Korea Football Association submitted their official bid documents to FIFA. Both The Football Association and New Zealand Football registered expressions of interest by the April 2014 deadline, but in June 2014 it was announced that each would no longer proceed; the South African Football Association registered an expression of interest by the April 2014 deadline, however decided to withdraw prior to the final October deadline. Both Japan Football Association and the Swedish Football Association had expressed interest in bidding for the 2019 tournament, however Japan chose to focus on the 2019 Rugby World Cup and the 2020 Summer Olympics, whilst Sweden decided to focus on European U-17 competitions instead; the following countries made official bids for hosting the tournament by submitting their documents by 31 October 2014: France South KoreaOn 19 March 2015, France won the bid to host the Women's World Cup and the U-20 Women's World Cup.
The decision came after a vote by the FIFA Executive Committee. Upon the selection, France became the fourth country to host both men's and women's World Cup, having hosted the men's twice in 1938 and 1998; the slot allocation was approved by the FIFA Council on 13–14 October 2016. The slots for each confederation are unchanged from those of the previous tournament except the slot for the hosts has been moved from CONCACAF to UEFA. AFC: 5 slots CAF: 3 slots CONCACAF: 3 slots CONMEBOL: 2 slots OFC: 1 slot UEFA: 8 slots Host Nation: 1 slot CONCACAF–CONMEBOL play-off: 1 slotQualifying matches started on 3 April 2017, ended on 1 December 2018. A total of 24 teams qualified for the final tournament; each team's FIFA Rankings in March 2019 are shown in parenthesis. Chile, Jamaica and South Africa will make their Women's World Cup debuts, while Italy will take part in the event for the first time since 1999 and Argentina will take part in the event for the first time since 2007. Brazil, Japan, Norway and the United States qualified for their eighth World Cup, continuing their streak of qualifying for every World Cup held so far.
Twelve cities were candidates. The final 9 stadiums were chosen on 14 June 2017. Three of the stadiums were used at the UEFA Euro 2016: Parc Olympique in Lyon, Allianz Riviera in Nice, Parc des Princes in Paris; the last of these hosted matches in the 1998 men's World Cup, stands on the former site of a stadium that hosted matches in the 1938 men's World Cup. Another stadium, used in 1998 is Stade de la Mosson in Montpellier; the other stadiums seat under 30,000 spectators. The semi-finals and final will be played at Parc Olympique Lyonnais in the Lyon suburb of Décines, with 58,000 capacity, while the opening match will be played at Parc des Princes in Paris. On 3 December 2018, FIFA announced the list of 27 referees and 48 assistant referees for the tournament. On 15 March 2019, the FIFA Council approved the use of the video assistant referee system for the first time in a FIFA Women's World Cup tournament; the technology was deployed at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia. The draw for the final tournament was held on 8 December 2018, 18:00 CET, at the La Seine Musicale on the island of Île Seguin, Boulogne-Billancourt.
The 24 teams were drawn into six groups of four teams. The 24 teams were allocated to four pots based on the FIFA Women's World Rankings released on 7 December 2018, with hosts France automatically placed in Pot 1 and position A1 in the draw. Teams from Pot 1 were drawn first and assigned to Position 1; this was followed by Pot 2, Pot 3, Pot 4, with each of these teams drawn to one of the positions 2–4 within their group. No group could contain more than one team from each confederation apart from UEFA, which have nine teams, where each group had to contain either one or two UEFA teams; each team have to provide to FIFA a preliminary squad of between 23 and 50 players by 26 April 2019, which shall not be published. From the preliminary squad, the team have to name a final squad of 23 players by a yet-to-be announced deadline. Players in the final squad can be replaced by a player from the preliminary squad due to serious injury or illness up to 24 hours prior to kicko
Viareggio is a city and comune in northern Tuscany, Italy, on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. With a population of over 62,000, it is the second largest city within the province of Lucca, after Lucca, it is known as a seaside resort as well as being the home of the famous carnival of Viareggio, its papier-mâché floats, parade along the promenade known as "Passeggiata a mare", in the weeks of Carnival. The symbol of the carnival of Viareggio and its official mask is Burlamacco and invented by Uberto Bonetti in 1930; the city traces its roots back to the first half of the 16th century when it became the only gate to the sea for the Republic of Lucca. The oldest building in Viareggio, known as Torre Matilde, dates back to this time and was built by the Lucchesi in 1541 as a defensive fortification to fight the constant menace of corsair incursions. Viareggio is an active industrial and manufacturing centre. Viareggio hosts the Premio letterario Viareggio Répaci for literature, established in 1929.
Amongst the other events organized around the year, it is worth mentioning the Festival Gaber, held every August since 2004 to celebrate the memory of Giorgio Gaber, is attended by several high-profile Italian musicians. The entire area of Viareggio extends over the coastal flooding plain of Versilia. Located on the Ligurian Sea, it has 10 kilometres of sandy beaches, of which 6 kilometres are managed by private beach resorts and the remaining 4 kilometres are public; the municipal area comprises the Lake of Massaciuccoli and several canals, the most important ones of which are known as Burlamacca, Fossa dell'Abate, Fosso Le Quindici. The climate is characterised by high levels of humidity and a yearly rainfall off 900 to 1,000 millimetres as a result of the proximity of the Apuanian Alps to the coast; the main winds blow from the south-east, the Libeccio and the Ponente which batter the coast for two to three days in a row and cause severe storms. During winter months, high temperatures can vary between 14–15 °C and 4–5 °C, while night time temperatures can reach below 0 °C.
In the summer, temperatures peak around 31–33 °C. The high summer humidity and low cloud cover can mean that the heat index temperature is 20 °C or more higher than the air temperature. Climatic classification: zone D, 1416 GR/G Atmospheric diffusivity: low, Ibimet CNR 2002 During the 3rd century BC, the mountains of Versilia were invaded by the Ligurian tribes who, coming from the north, stretched their area of influence as far south as the river Arno. In 180 BC the Romans started colonising the Versilia; the most accepted theory recognises the city's name as deriving from the Latin Via Regis, the name of the Medieval road linking the fortification built on the beach to Lucca. According to other historians, the name derives from Vicus Regius; this theory is based on the fact that in imperial times, there was a small inhabited centre in the area known as "Gli Ortacci" which belonged to the empire, hence regius. Several hillside towns started developing in the Middle Ages; the area hosting the city of Viareggio was still marshland and not inhabited.
Around 1000 A. D. the first hostilities between Lucca and Pisa arose, aimed at gaining control over the coast of the Versila, which since the High Middle Ages had been nothing more than a forest owned by feudal lords in constant rivalry with each other. The first mention of Viareggio dates back to 1169. A little over two years in a military building named Turris de Via Regia was erected, taking its name from the road that linked it to Lucca. In the following years the area around Viareggio, was involved in the hostilities between Pisa and Lucca, in their attempt to gain control over the coastal area; the conflict was spurred by the desire of the Lucchesi to gain access to the sea, to the Pisane fear of the economic competition of its rival city. It is during these years that the feudal Lords of Versilia were forced to abdicate in favour of Castruccio Castracani. In the following years the area upon which Viareggio would be built was marked by a number of minor battles and pillages. In addition, the area was affected by the pestilence which, recounted by Giovanni Boccaccio in his masterpiece the Decameron, spread throughout the whole of Italy.
In these years Florence expanded its control over Tuscany. Lucca, managed to maintain its independence in exchange for hefty financial penalties. On September 10, 1513, Pope Leo X removed the port of Motrone from the control of Lucca; this directly affected the future of Viareggio which, from that moment, became the focus of Lucca's efforts to turn the town into its centre for commercial activities, and, in addition to the square-plan tower erected in with the aim to protect the port, several settlements started appearing. The 17t
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
1995 FIFA Women's World Cup
The 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup, the second edition of the FIFA Women's World Cup, was held in Sweden and won by Norway. The tournament featured 12 women's national teams from six continental confederations; the 12 teams were drawn into three groups of four and each group played a round-robin tournament. At the end of the group stage, the top two teams and two best third-ranked teams advanced to the knockout stage, beginning with the quarter-finals and culminating with the final at Råsunda Stadium on 18 June 1995. Sweden became the first country to host both men's and women's World Cup, having hosted the men's in 1958; as in the previous edition of the FIFA Women's World cup, held in 1991, 12 teams participated in the final tournament. The teams were: For a list of the squads that disputed the final tournament, see 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup squads
1999 FIFA Women's World Cup
The 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup, the third edition of the FIFA Women's World Cup, was held in the United States and won by the host team. The final between the U. S. and China, held on 10 July at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, was the most-attended women's sports event in history with an official attendance of 90,185. U. S. President Bill Clinton was among those in attendance; the final was scoreless after extra time and won by the U. S. in a penalty shootout. This remains the only Women's World Cup tournament. An official music video of the number Let's Get Loud by Jennifer Lopez was filmed live at the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup. On 31 May 1996, the FIFA Executive Committee awarded as the tournament to the United States, they became the second country to host both men's and women's World Cup, having hosted the men's less than two years before the selection. 16 teams participated in the final tournament. The teams were: For a list of all squads that played in the final tournament, see 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup squads.
The group draw took place at the Spartan Stadium in San Jose, California on 14 February 1999.: Host. A No extra time was played; the following awards were given for the tournament: Sissi of Brazil and Sun Wen of China won the Golden Shoe award for scoring seven goals. In total, 123 goals were scored with three of them credited as own goals. 7 goals Sissi Sun Wen4 goals Ann Kristin Aarønes3 goals 2 goals 1 goal Own goals Hiromi Isozaki Ifeanyi Chiejine Brandi Chastain Table source FIFA Women's World Cup USA 1999, FIFA.com FIFA Technical Report and All Matches Brazilian Football Team, jogosdaselecaobrasileira.wordpress.com